Comparative Study of Quantitative Traits and Association of Yield and its Components in Black Gram (Vigna mungo) Genotypes
M. Faisal Anwar Malik,
Shahid Iqbal Awan
Studies were conducted on eighteen genotypes of black
gram (Vigna mungo) to evaluate their comparative performance under
rainfed conditions. Highly significant differences were observed for all
the traits except leaf area which showed non-significant differences.
Leaf area, pods plant-1, plant height and biological yield
plant-1 showed high genotypic and phenotypic variances exhibiting
greater variability in these traits. The magnitude of heritability was
high for 100-seed weight (94%), pods plant-1 (91%), pod length
(91%), biological yield (87%), grain yield (85%), days to maturity (80%),
harvest index (76%), branches plant-1 (75%) and plant height
(71%) indicating additive type of gene action. Pods plant-1,
branches plant-1 and biological yield plant-1 showed
highly significant and positive correlation with grain yield showing that
these traits have good positive effect on grain yield. Selection of genotypes
on the basis of these traits can be useful. The present study enabled
to identify early to medium duration lines without losing grain weight
and yield potential.
Black gram (Vigna mungo) or Mash is a member of bean family grown
in Southern Asia and is one of the important pulse crops in Pakistan.
It is an erect, sub-erect or trailing, densely hairy annual herb. The
tap root produces a branched root system with smooth, rounded nodules.
The pods are narrow, cylindrical and up to 6 cm long. It is a rich protein
food which contains about 26% crude protein, almost three times that of
cereals. Black gram supplies a major share of protein requirement of vegetarian
population of the country. It is largely used to make dal from the whole
or split, dehusked seeds. It is very nutritious and is recommended for
diabetics, as are other pulses (Smart, 1990).
Black gram, in Pakistan, has been in cultivation from ancient times and
is one of the most highly prized pulses of Pakistan. However, an average
yield is very low as compared to other countries. During 2004-05, it was
cultivated under an area of 37500 ha with average yield of 491 kg ha-1,
while during 2005-06, the area under cultivation was 34600 ha yielding
477 kg ha-1 (Anonymous, 2005-06).
Since the crop is grown in various agro-ecological conditions and cropping
systems with diverse cultural practices, no single plant type is appropriate
for all production systems (Singh and Satyanarayana, 1994). This calls
for an extensive survey of existing germplasm collections for potential
utilization in development of appropriate plant type for the various cropping
systems in tropical Asia (Dikshit et al., 2007). In order to develop
high yielding cultivars, exploitation of gene pool is very important.
The profitable yield can be obtained through genetic improvement for high
yield potential and the examination of genetic variability for plant breeder
is very important (Malik et al., 2006a). Extent of genetic variability
and relationship of traits have been reported by various scientists like
Ghafoor et al. (2001) and Malik et al. (2006b). Khan et
al. (2004) indicated highly significant differences among genotypes
for days to 50% flowering, yield and yield related traits. Malik et
al. (2006b) examined genetic variability among different genotypes
of soybean and found significant differences for all the traits and observed
positive and significant correlation of grain yield with leaf area and
pods plant-1. High variance was recorded for plant height,
days to flowering, days to maturity, number of branches plant-1,
number of pods plant-1, pod length, seeds pod-1,
biomass yield plant-1, grain yield plant-1 and harvest
index (Ghafoor et al., 2002). Malik et al. (2006c) stated
that the estimated variances due to genotypes exceeded that due to environment
for all characters. Similarly, positive and statistically significant
relationship between seed yield plant-1 and days to flowering,
pods plant-1, seeds plant-1, harvest index and 100-seed
weight was pointed out by Celal (2004). Siddique et al. (2006)
reported that grain yield was positively correlated with days to maturity,
100-seed weight and grains pod-1.
Arshad et al. (2002) found high heritability for plant height
and showed that grain yield was positively and significantly correlated
with pods plant-1, branches plant-1 and biological
yield. Present study was conducted to evaluate some promising genotypes
of mash for earliness and high grain yield under rainfed conditions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
An experiment was performed in the research area of Barani Agricultural
Research Station, Fatehjang on eighteen genotypes of mash during Kharif
2006 in a randomized complete block design. The plot size was kept 9.0
m2 with a row length of 5 m and row to row distance of 30 cm.
The seeds were sown with the help of hand drill. Ten plants were selected
in each plot to record the data. Data were recorded for traits like leaf
area, days to 50% flowering (days from sowing to appearance of 50% flowers),
days to maturity (days from sowing to appearance of 90% maturity), pods
plant-1, branches plant-1, plant height, pod length,
seeds pod-1, 100-seed weight, grain yield plant-1,
biological yield plant-1 and harvest index. Data on days to
50% flowering and days to 90% maturity were recorded as a single value
for each row. Pods plant-1 (numbers), seeds pod-1
(numbers), seeds plant-1 (numbers), pods branch-1
(numbers), branches plant-1 (numbers), yield plant-1
(g) were recorded from 10 plants that had been randomly chosen in central
row and the means of the quantitative data sets were used for analysis.
In addition, 100 seed weight was recorded.
Leaf area was recorded using leaf area meter (L1-3000, LICOR, Lambda
Instrument Co., USA). Harvest index was calculated by dividing grain yield
with biological yield and expressed in % following Wilcox (1974). Means
computed from MS-Excel were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA)
and correlation using computer program MSTATC (Anonymous, 1988) and SPSS-12
respectively. Heritability was calculated by the formula given by Allard
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Highly significant differences were observed for all the traits except
leaf area which showed non-significant differences (Table
1). Partitioning of variance into its components revealed that the
phenotypic variances were higher than the genotypic and environmental
variances. However, the genotypic variances were higher than environmental
variances. Siddique et al. (2006) also reported similar results.
High genotypic and phenotypic variances were recorded for leaf area, pods
plant-1, plant height and biological yield plant-1.
These results are comparable to the findings of Ghafoor et al.
(2002) and Malik et al. (2006b). Low genetic variance for rest
of the traits seems to limit the scope of selection for these traits.
The magnitude of heritability (Table 2) was high for
100-seed weight (0.94), pods plant-1 (0.91), pod length (0.91),
biological yield (0.87), grain yield (0.85), days to maturity (0.80),
harvest index (0.76), branches plant-1 (0.75) and plant height
(0.71). These results are supported by the findings of Arshad et al.
(2002) and Malik et al. (2006c).
Results shown in Table 3 showed that maximum leaf area
(255.5 cm2) was recorded for genotype 3CM710 while minimum
(152.57 cm2) was observed in genotype 3CM716. Two genotypes
viz. 3CM705 and 3CM712 gave the highest days to 50% flowering (54.67 days)
while lowest (44.33) were given by genotype 3CM702. Early to medium maturity
in Mash is desirable without losing yield potential. The check variety
Mash-97 matured in the longest duration (92 days) followed by genotype
3CM712 (90 days) and the shortest duration for maturity was given by genotype
3CM707 (66.67 days). These results confirm the findings of Ghafoor et
al. (2002). Plants that produce more pods per plant along with more
seeds per pod would be desirable. In the present collection, 10 accessions
had more pods than both checks containing more seeds. Maximum pods plant-1
were observed in genotype 3CM711 (77.8) while minimum were recorded in
genotype 3CM713 (9.67). A range between 3.8 (3CM716) and 9.0 (3CM711)
was shown by branches plant-1. Highest plant height (170.11
cm) was given by genotype 3CM705 while lowest (76.78 cm) was noted in
genotype 3CM716. Dikshit et al. (2007) also found similar results.
Mean squares of 12 quantitative traits in 18 genotypes
of mash (Vigna mungo)
MS (V) = Variety mean square, MS(R) = Replication
mean square, MS(E) = Environmental mean square, LA = Leaf area,
DHE = Days to 50% flowering, DMA = Days to maturity, PP = Pods plant-1,
BP = Branches plant-1, PH = Plant height, PL = Pod length,
SP = Seeds pod-1, 100-SW = 100-seed weight, GY = Grain
yield plant-1, BY/plant = Biological yield plant-1,
HI = Harvest index **: Significant at p<0.01
||Variance components of yield and its components
σ2g = Genotypic variance,
σ2P = Phenotypic variance, h2
||Means of 12 quantitative traits studied in 18 genotypes
of mash (Vigna mungo)
|LA = Leaf area, DHE = Days to 50% flowering, DMA = Days
to maturity, PP = Pods plant-1, BP = Branches plant-1,
PH = Plant height, PL = Pod length, SP = Seeds pod-1, 100-SW
= 100-seed weight, GY = Grain yield plant-1, BY/pl = Biological
yield plant-1, HI = Harvest index
||Correlation coefficients among 12 quantitative traits
|LA= Leaf area, DHE= Days to 50% flowering, DMA= Days
to maturity, PP= Pods plant-1, BP=Branches plant-1, PH= Plant height,
PL= Pod length, SP= Seeds pod-1, 100-SW, 100-seed weight, GY= Grain
yield plant-1, BY/pl= Biological yield plant-1, HI= Harvest index
*: Significant at p<0.05, **: Significant at p<0.01
However, these findings are somewhat contradictory to those of Ghafoor
et al. (2002) who showed relatively low mean plant height (37.5
cm). The difference in results might be due to the excessive rainfall
during the growing season which resulted in prolonged vegetative period
and increased plant height. Maximum pod length was recorded in genotype
3CM709 (5.43 cm) while minimum was recorded in genotype 3CM712 (4.26 cm).
Seeds pods-1 were between 5.4 (3CM712) and 6.69 (3CM711). These
are supported by Ghafoor et al. (2001). 100-seed weight is the
major contributor to the final grain yield. High 100 seed weight was noted
in genotype 3CM707 (7.57 g) while lowest 100 seed weight was given by
genotype 3CM706 (3.63 g). Grain yield is the ultimate output of any crop.
Genotype 3CM711 out yielded other genotypes for grain yield pant-1
(24.33 g) while genotype 3CM713 least yielding (6.03 g). Verma and Katna
(1998) reported a large variability in yield tested in both monocrop and
intercrop conditions. Biological yield is a major contributor to total
output which depends upon species, growing season and various other factors.
For biological yield plant-1, genotype 3CM711 was at top (75.0
g) while genotype 3CM713 was at the bottom (15.67 g). Harvest index in
legumes is unpredictable and sensitive to environment. Harvest index ranged
from 0.21 (3CM712) and 0.56 (3CM702). Ghafoor et al. (2001) also
found that biological yield and harvest index had a mean value of 44.44
g and 23.28%, respectively.
Correlation coefficients (Table 4) revealed that highly
significant and positive correlation was observed between days to 50%
flowering and days to maturity. Days to maturity showed negative and significant
correlation with 100 seed weight. Siddique et al. (2006) also showed
positive correlation between days to 50% flowering and days to maturity
and negative correlation between days to maturity and 100-seed weight.
The number of pods per plant can be increased by increasing branches plant-1,
because a strong positive correlation (r = 0.73) existed between them.
Similarly, pods plant-1 and branches plant-1 were
also highly significantly and positively correlated with grain yield plant-1
and biological yield plant-1. Singh and Satyanarayna (1994)
and Sood and Garton (1994) also discussed similar relationships. Grain
yield plant-1 showed highly significant and positive correlation
with biological yield plant-1 showing that increased biomass
results in increased grain yield. Biological yield plant-1
and harvest index were also positively and significantly correlated with
each other. These results are well confirmed by the findings of Arshad
et al. (2002), Khan et al. (2004), Malik et al.
(2006a, c) and Celal (2004).
It was concluded that the genotypes showed greater variability for leaf
area, pods plant-1, plant height and biological yield plant-1.
Traits showing lesser influence of environment and high heritability were
100-seed weight, pods plant-1, pod length, biological yield,
grain yield, days to maturity, harvest index, branches plant-1
and plant height. Pods plant-1, branches plant-1
and biological yield plant-1 can be used as selection criteria
as they showed highly significant and positive correlation with grain
yield. Black gram has been reported as a crop highly influenced by environmental
fluctuations, but the selected genotypes performed better and were least
affected by the environment. The high yielding genotypes viz., 3CM711
and 3CM715 proved their superiority over checks as had higher pods plant-1,
grain yield plant-1 and biological yield plant-1
than checks. These can be used in crossing programme to induce earliness
and high yield.
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