Yield of Silage Maize as Affected by Compaction Treatments at the Planting Time
O. Faruk Taser
In this study, effects of the different
soil compaction treatments and tire-soil contact pressures on soil and
plant properties and dry matter yield of second crop silage maize were
investigated. Soil compaction was applied in the forms of the following
treatments; Compaction on Furrow Surface (CFS), Compaction on Furrow Bottom
(CFB), Compaction on Inter Rows (CIR) and non-compaction as a Control
(C). The tire-soil contact pressures were selected as 0.025, 0.051 and
0.076 MPa control treatment was 0.0085 MPa. After planting and before
harvesting; soil penetration resistance and soil bulk density were determined
as soil properties at different soil compaction treatments stated above.
Before and after harvesting period, as generative growth, plant stalk
diameter, plant height, single plant dry weight, percentage of corncob,
harvesting index and dry matter yield were determined. Soil penetration
resistance values changed in the soil depth of 0-10 cm from the 0.23 to
0.45 MPa after planting and from the 0.64 to 1.15 MPa before harvesting.
Also values changed 0.32 to 0.83 MPa in the soil depth of 10-20 cm after
planting and from 0.95 to 1.33 MPa before harvesting. C treatment gave
low mean values of soil penetration resistance in the soil depth of 0-20
cm. The lowest mean dry matter yield was obtained in CIR treatment as
8.39 Mg ha-1. The highest values obtained at C and CFS treatments
as 9.98 and 9.28 Mg ha-1, respectively. Compaction treatments
caused by press wheel increased soil bulk density and penetration resistance.
Dry matter yield of maize was affected by compaction treatments.
For solving animal feed problems and improving the animal
breeding in Turkey; special importance is given to corn, soybean and silage
maize production as a second crop. Soil compaction is one of the most
important physical factors affects the seed germination, growth and yield.
Increasing the soil compaction and decreasing the air penetration into
the soil not only cause to prevent the root growth but also increase the
microbiology activities. Yield response to soil compaction appears to
be strongly influenced by these factors; inconvenient soil structure tends
to alleviate the plant growth and yield. In order to study the level of
different tire-soil contact pressures on silage maize yield this study
was carried out. Shallow, near-surface soil compaction is attributed to
tire-soil contact pressures, the number of field passes and soil moisture
content at the time of tire traffic (Raghavan et al., 1977; Bicki
and Siemens, 1991). Tire-soil contact pressures from 0.035 to 0.076 MPa
caused decreasing the germination in sugar beat, maize and bean. The best
seed germination was obtained on non-surface soil compaction treatments
into the convenient soil moisture (Stout et al., 1961). Not only
the physical soil properties into the planting depth and also the convenient
conditions of sub planting the planting depth might be affected on the
root growth (Tacket and Pearson, 1964). A limited amount of surface compaction
promotes better seed-soil contact and rapid germination and reduces the
rate at which soil dries. Elsewhere excessive compaction can hamper root
growth, limit nutrient uptake and cause moisture stress; all of which
result in decreased yields. Gee-Clough et al. (1990) reported that
the soil compaction treatments before and after planting caused reduction
on maize yield by 1.5 to 41%. Siemens and Peterson (1997) reported that
corn in tractor tracks had an average yield reduction of 13% when compared
to untrafficked. Erbach (1987) reported that soil compaction applications
by roller after the planting tend to increase the seed germination in
wheat. Increasing seed germination might be 19% in the insufficient rainfall
years. Also Lindemann et al. (1982) reported that the soybean yield
increased by the soil compaction in the rainy year according to non-compacted
plots. Bayhan et al. (2002) reported that wheel traffic applied
on rows and entire area after sunflower planting caused reduction in yield
as it negatively affected the vegetative growth of plant. Wheel traffic
applied on inter-rows after planting did not affect the yield negatively.
Altuntas et al. (2005) reported that compaction treatments caused
by tractor wheel traffic in tillage systems increased soil bulk density
and penetration resistance.
Objectives of this study were to investigate the effects
of different soil compaction treatments and tire-soil contact pressures
on soil and plant properties and yield in second crop silage maize.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The research was conducted on field conditions with clay-silt
soil and planed in randomised block design with three replications. Blocks
were 8 m long and 6 m wide. Compaction treatments were applied to the
plots randomly. The soils in the plots were found to statistically the
same texture. After the seedbed preparation just before the planting applications,
soil moisture contents were determined as 13% at the 0-10 cm soil depth,
15% at the 10-20 soil depth. Corn variety TTM-813 was drilled in rows
spaced 67.5 cm apart at a rate of 76 920 seeds ha-1. Standard
tractor and the pneumatic precision planter weights are 2324 and 644 kgf,
respectively. The planter with vacuum pressure, holed disk and 4 rows
was used in the experiments. Planting depth was arranged to 8 cm and working
speed was 6.02 km h-1 during the experiments. Planting and
harvesting dates were 20 July 2001 and 10 October 2001, respectively.
Soil compaction pressures were used to obtain the different tire-soil
contact pressures by compaction tires loaded with additional weights.
Tire-soil contact pressures applied to the plots were 0.025, 0.051, 0.076
and 0.0085 MPa (control). Soil compaction was applied in the forms of
the following treatments;
||Compaction on furrow surface,
||Compaction on inter rows,
||Compaction on furrow bottom,
In the CFS treatment; surfaces of rows were compacted
by compaction tires with additional weights. In the CFB treatment, some
constructional changes made at the planter. Seeds flow were blocked and
furrows were opened by the shoe coulters of the planter. Afterwards opened
furrows were compacted by additional weighted compaction tires. Then seeds
were placed into by bottom of furrow and covered by soil. In the CIR treatments;
inter rows were compacted by the additional weighted compaction tires
after the standard planting application. Planting applications in control
treatment were performed by the same planter with compaction tires without
In the research, the soil penetration resistance and
bulk density were determined after planting and before harvesting. The
firm soil samples which were taken at 0-10 and 10-20 cm soil depth were
used for determine of the soil moisture content and soil bulk density.
Soil penetration resistance was evaluated with an Eijelkamp cone penetrometer
(Asae, 1997). Bulk density was determined according to the core method.
Soil moisture content was gravimetrically determined from bulk density
samples. The cores were dried at 105 °C to determined soil dry bulk
density. In the research; stalk diameter, plant height and single plant
dry weight were determined within the 10 plants were taken randomly from
each plots. To determine the percentage of corncob and harvesting index;
two samples for each plot were taken and dried out 48 hours into the oven
at 70 °C. Then dried grains in corncob were weighted. The weighted
grains were divided by single plant weight to determine the harvesting
index. Percentage of corncob and harvesting index were determined as Graybill
et al. (1991). Silage maize dry matter yields were estimated by
harvesting in all eight rows in each plot. Wet weight maize yields were
obtained for each plot. Chopped maize sub-samples were hand collected,
dried at 65 °C to estimate dry matter yields (Carter et al.,
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Soil physical properties: Moisture contents were
determined as 12.46 and 13.39% in the soil depth of 0-10 and 10-20 cm,
respectively before the harvesting. The effects of different soil compaction
treatments and tire-soil contact pressures on soil physical properties
such as bulk density and soil penetration resistance mean values after
planting and before harvesting (Table 1).
The effects of soil compaction treatment and tire-soil
contact pressures on soil bulk density and penetration resistance at the
0-10 and 10-20 cm soil depth were found statistically significant (Table
1). The minimum and maximum penetration resistance values were obtained
in C and CFS treatments respectively in the soil depth of 0-10 cm. CFS
treatment gave higher value (0.40 MPa) than the CFB treatment because
of the compaction under the planting depth in CFB. The minimum and maximum
penetration resistance values were obtained in C and CFB treatments in
the soil depth of 10-20 cm. The lowest mean soil bulk density value obtained
in the soil depth of 0-10 cm in CFB treatment as 1.23 g cm-3
and the same treatment gave the highest mean value as 1.48 g cm-3
in the soil depth of 10-20 cm after planting because of the compaction
under the planting depth. The lowest mean soil bulk density value obtained
in the soil depth of
|| Effects of the soil compaction treatments and tire-soil
contact pressures on soil properties after planting and before harvesting
|Ct: Compaction treatments, TSCP: Tire-soil contact pressures
(MPa); Values with the same letter(s) in a row are not significantly
different at p<0.05, ns: non significant
0-10 cm in C treatment as 1.32 g cm-3 and
the CFB treatment gave the highest mean value as 1.47 g cm-3
in the soil depth of 10-20 cm before harvesting (Table 1).
The lowest mean soil penetration resistance value obtained
in the soil depth of 0-10 cm in C treatment as 0.27 MPa and the CFB treatment
gave the highest mean value as 0.70 MPa in the soil depth of 10-20 cm
after planting. The lowest mean soil penetration resistance value obtained
in the soil depth of 0-10 cm in C treatment as 0.66 MPa and the CFB treatment
gave the highest mean value as 1.28 MPa in the soil depth of 10-20 cm
at before harvesting (Table 1). The minimum and maximum
values for soil bulk density and penetration resistance were obtained
from each treatment by the 0.025 and 0.076 MPa tire-soil contact pressures.
Soil bulk density and penetration resistance increased by increasing tire-soil
contact pressures at each treatment.
Soil bulk density and soil penetration resistance values
have increased by increasing tire-soil contact pressures and soil depth
(Uppenkamp and Brinkmann, 1985). The lowest penetration resistance and
bulk density values were measured at the lowest tire-soil contact pressure.
Soil penetration resistance and bulk density values have increased on
before harvesting measurements when compare to after planting measurements.
Soil bulk density and penetration resistance values were affected by the
agricultural operations applied during the growing season. Penetration
resistance and bulk density values have also increased in compaction treatments
when compared to control as in Erbach (1987).
Bicki and Siemens (1991) reported that the highest penetrometer
resistance was generally found in compaction to entire plot at depth ranging
from 15-23 cm. Bulk density measurements confirmed that compaction was
greatest at a depth between 10 and 31 cm. Bayhan et al. (2002)
reported that before and after the sunflower drilling, soil penetration
resistance was found higher at entire field compaction treatments by wheel
traffic applications than the pre-planting intra and inter rows compaction
treatments. Ozgoz and Kasap (2007) reported that bulk density and penetration
resistance values were affected by the agricultural operations applied
during the growing season. They found that soil bulk density and penetration
resistance values were higher in after harvest than the after tillage
|| Effects of different soil compaction treatments and
tire-soil contact pressures on some plant properties at silage maize
|Ct: Compaction treatments, TSCP: Tire-soil contact pressures
(MPa); Values with the same letter(s) in a row are not significantly
different at p<0.05, ns: non significant
Plant properties and yield: The variance analysis
table values on effects of different soil compaction treatments and tire-soil
contact pressures on plant properties such as plant stalk diameter, plant
height, single plant dry weight, percentage of corncob, harvesting index
and dry matter yield mean values were shown in (Table 2).
The soil compaction treatments and (CtxTSCP) intersection
were found statistically significant on plant height, single plant weight
harvesting, index percentage of corn and dry matter yield. Also, tire-soil
contact pressures were not found statistically significant at each plant
properties and dry matter yield in Table 2. For each
plant properties the maximum mean values were obtained from C and CFS
treatments. The mean lowest stalk diameter value was determined as 17.1
mm in CFB treatment, while it was found the maximum as 18.2 mm in C treatment.
The lowest mean plant height value was determined as 2093 mm in CFB treatment,
while it was found the maximum as 2264 mm in CFS treatment. The lowest
mean single plant dry weight value was determined as 125.7 g in CIR treatment,
while it was found maximum as 149.8 g for C treatment. The lower mean
percentage of corncob value was determined as 38.8% in CFB treatment.
The lowest mean harvesting index value was determined as 14.0% in CFB
treatment, while it was found maximum as 20.6% for C treatment. The lowest
mean dry matter yield was determined as 8.39 Mg ha-1 in CIR
treatment while it was found maximum values in C and CFS as 9.98 and 9.28
Mg ha-1, respectively.
Soil compaction treatments were found statistically significant
on some plant properties such as plant height, single plant dry weight,
harvesting index and dry matter yield. Tire-soil contact pressures were
not found statistically significant at each of plant properties. Soil
compaction treatments negatively affected dry matter yield and caused
reduction on dry matter yield by 16% when compared to C treatment as in
Gee-Clough et al. (1990). The lowest mean dry matter yield was
obtained in CIR and the highest mean dry matter yield was obtained in
C and CFS treatments.
Bayhan et al. (2006) reported that soil tillage
and planting practices influenced the plant height and stem diameter in
silage maize. Yalcin and Cakir (2006) reported that second silage maize
was affected by soil tillage, planting and climatic conditions.
The effects of the different soil compaction treatments
and tire-soil contact pressures on soil and plant properties and dry matter
yield of second crop silage maize have been investigated in this study.
In conclude, compaction treatment and tyre-soil contact pressures by press
wheel increased soil bulk density and penetration resistance. Also, dry
matter yield of silage maize was affected negatively by the press wheel
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