Phellinus is one of the largest genus in Aphyllophorales with more than 350 species. Quelet established the genus Phellinus with type species of P. igniarius in 1886.
Taxonomic studies of the genus Phellinus had been extensively done throughout the world (Lloyd, 1915; Bondarzew, 1953; Overholts, 1929, 1941, 1953; Lowe, 1957; Cunningham, 1965; Fidalgo, 1968; Niemela, 1982; Ryvarden, 1972; Donk, 1974; Fiasson,1983; Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1987; Rajchenberg 1987, 1989. P. rubriporus (Phellinus torulosus) was selected by Donk (1960) as generic nomenclature type. Then the concept of Phellinus has remained rather stable.
In India Phellinus was studied by Bagchee (1950, 1961), Singh (1966), Bakshi (1955, 1976), Thind and Dhanda (1980a), Roy (1979), Ganesh and Leelavathy (1986), Natarajan and Kolanduvelu (1985) and Vaidya and Rabba (1995).
Morphological characters of reproductive stage such as attachment of basidiocarp, types of basidiocarps, consistency, pileus surface (glabrous or hairy, dull or glossy), margin, stipitate or sessile, pore surface, number of pore per mm. Xanthocronic reaction, hyphal system, setae, basidia and basidiospore, hyphal system are used in taxonomy of Phellinus. Hyphal system is always dimitic in all Phellinus species (Ryvarden and Johanseh, 1980; Overholt, 1929; Keller, 1985).
Three hundred and sixty seven Phellinus has been reported in the CBS
Forty-seven species have already been reported from India (Rabba, 1994). Seven
species are recorded for the first time from India in the present study. The
aim of present investigation was to study diseases of live standing trees in
park and roadside caused by genus Phellinus and genus Ganoderma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Samples were collected in the sexual stages on different hosts like: Acacia nilotica (L) Del., Albizzia lebbek (L.) Benth., Artocarpus integrifolia, Azadirachata indica A. Juss., etc., from various regions of Maharashtra state like Anjrne Baneshwar, Dapoli-Dabhol road, Dabhol, Dapoli, Dongerwadi, Pune, etc. The specimens were examined for external and internal morphology.
For external morphology the material was observed for colour, texture, type of attachment to host, pore morphology, dissepiments character; margin, hymenial and pileal surface of basidiocarp.
For internal morphology, thin hand sections were taken from fruiting body passing through hymenium, which was done by chopping method. Semi-pemanent slides prepared in lactoglycerine were maintained by sealing with nail polish For amyloid and non-amyloid reaction, spores were treated with Melzers reagent (chloral iodine solution), which turns blue. For Xanthocronic reaction 10% KOH solution was used (Beneke, 1958).
For culture small pieces (2-3 mm) of each sample from basidiocarp or decaying part of wood were plated on 2% malt agar medium as routinely. α-naphthol and guaiacol, p-cresol and pyrogallol and H2O2 tests were performed on growing mycelia of pure culture for laccases, tyrosinase and peroxidases respectively to detect the extra cellular enzymes.
The slides were observed under Bausch and Lomb compound microscope having a combination of 10x eyepiece and 10x, 45x and oil immersion (i.e., 100x), objectives.
Photographs were taken using digital camera. Measurements of hyphae, basidia
cystidia, setae, spores, cutis element etc. were taken using objective micrometer
or calibrated occular Dimension of microscopic characters are given in micrometer
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Twenty one species of the Phellins were identified in the present study (Table 1). Among them seven species including P. allardii, P. baumii, P. chaquensis, P. hippophaeicola, P. nilgheriensis, P. rhytiphloeus and P. setulosus are new to India and Mahrashtra as well.
An artificial key was prepared, so as to distinguish between the collected species. For the segregation and assignment of correct taxonomic identity to the samples, keys of different authors viz., Ryvarden and Johansen (1980), Gilbertson and Ryvarden (1987) and Ryvarden (1995, 2000) were used as followed:
|1 Hymenial setae present
|1 Hymenial setae absent
|2 Basidiospores becoming brown
|2 Basidiospores becoming yellow
|3 Pores/mm less than 8
|3 Pores/mm more than 8
|4 Basidiospores 4.5-6x4-5 um ovoid
|4 Basidiospores 5-7x4-6 um
|subglobose to broadly elliptical
|5 Basidiocarp imbricate
|6 Pores/mm less than 8
|6 Pores/mm more than 8
|7 Basidiospores becoming brown
|7Basidiospores becoming yellow
|8 Basidiospores oval
|9 Pores/mm less than 8
|9Pores/mm more than 8
|10 Basidiocarp tomentose
|10Basidiocarp hard woody
|11 Basidiocarp pendant
|12 Basidiocarp dimidiate
|13 Pores/mm less than 8
|13Pores/mm more than 8
|14 Basidiospores 5-6x4-5 μm
|14Basidiospores 5.0-6.2x5.0-6.0 μm
|15 Basidiocarp woody hard with
|several pilei confluent
|16 Pore surface dark yellow brown
|16Pore surface dark brown
|17 Basidiospores oval
|18 Pores/mm less than 6
|18Pores/mm more than 6
|19 Pores/mm less than 8
|19Pores/mm more than 8
|20 Basidiospores 5x6.5 μm
|20Basidiospores 4.5x4-5.5 μm
||Phellinus species, their host, collection locations
Description of the new species
Phellinus allardii (Bres.) Ahmad, Monogr. Biol. Soc. Pakistan 6: 57. 1972.
Basidiocarp: 7-12x10x6 cm, pernnial, sessile, stipitate, solitary, imbricate, pileate, broadly attached, narrow attached, ungulate, semi circulate, not easily separable from the host. Upper Surface: Rough, sulcate, rounded, brown. Margin: lobed, rounded, 12 mm thick, layered, paler than surface. Pore surface: redish brown, pore: 8 per mm, angular. Tubes: 20 mm, stratified. Context: very thin, red brown. Hyphal system: Generative hyphae: simple septate, thin to slightly thick-walled, sometimes branched, 1.5-5.35 μm diam, Skeletal hyphae: thick-walled, golden to rusty brown, 2-6.24 μm diam. Conext hyphae: 2 um. Tubler hypahae: 3.57-3.72 μm. HypalSetae: absent. Basidia: clavate 4-sterigmate, 10-12x4-5 μm. Basidiospores: oval, thick-walled, pale rusty brown when mature, smooth, 6.2x5-35 μm.
Phellinus baumii Pilát. Bull. Soc. Mycolo. France 48: 25. 1932.
Basidiocarp: 5x5x3 cm, pernnial, sessile, imbricate, pileate, broadly attached, woody, ungulate, not easily separable from the host. Upper Surface: zonate, rough, dark brown. Margin: entired, sharp, 5 mm wide, layered, paler than surface. Pore surface: brown, pore: 10 per mm, rounded. Tubes: 2 mm. Context: hard woody, umber, 4 mm thick. Trama: 2 μm thick, golden yellow to golden ferruginous. Hypale setae: 10-25x5-6 μm. Basidia: 9.3x4.2 μm. Basidiospores: 3-3.2 μm in diameter, globose, hyaline to pale yellow.
Phellinus chaquensis (Iaconis et Wright). Wright et Desch. Mycotaxon 22: 416. 1984.
Basidiocarp: 18x11.5x10.6 cm, perennial, sessile, solitary, pileate, broadly attached, woody, ungulate, not easily separable from the host. Upper Surface: rough, rounded, rimose, brown. Margin: lobed, sharp, 1 mm thick, paler than surface. Pore surface: brown, pore: 6 per mm, angular, rounded. Tubes: 2 mm, stratified. Context: hard woody, sharp. Hyphal system: Contex hyphae: 5.35 μm. Tubler hyphae: 3.9. Hyphal septae: brown, 18.99x5.14 μm. Basidiospore: oval, brown, 6x5.2 m.
Phellinus hippophaeicola Jahn. Mem. New York bot. Gard. 28: 105. 1976.
Basidiocarp: 7x5x3 cm, pernnial, sessile, imbricate, pileate, broadly attached, woody, ungulate, not easily separable from the host. Upper Surface: Tomentose, sulcate, red brown to dark grey. Margin: Obtose and rounded. Pore surface: Cinnamon, rusty brown to deep brown. pore: 6 per mm, rounded. Tubes: 3 mm, stratified. Context: hard woody, rusty brown. Hyphal System: Generative hyphae: 3.2 μm. Hypal Seatae: absent. Context hypyhae: 5.35 μm. Tubler hyphae: 5.35 μm. Basidia: 10.2x12.95 μm, subglobose. Basidiospore: 5.35 μm, globose.
Phellinus nilgheriensis (Mont.) Cunn., New Zealland Dept. Sci. Ind. Res. Bull.164: 26. 1965.
Basidiocarp: 15x9.5x4-5 cm, pernnial, sessile, imbricate, pileate, narrow attached, woody, ungulate, not easily separable from the host. Upper Surface: Sulcate, rough, rounded, umber to blckish brown. Margin: entired, rounded. Pore surface: Dark yellow brown. pore: 8 per mm, rounded. Tubes: 20 mm, stratified. Context: hard woody, brown, <1 mm thick. Hyphal System: Generative hyphae: 2.7 μm. Context hypyhae: 4.14 μm. Tubler hyphae: 4.46 μm. Hypal Seatae: absent. Basidiospore: 5.39 μm, globose, thin walled, brown.
Phellinus rhytiphloeus (Mont.) Ryv. A preliminary polypore flora of East Africa: 206.1980.
Basidiocarp: 10x7.5x2.6 cm, perennial, pileate, applanate, solitary, narrow
attached, woody hard, ungulate, not easily separable from the host. Upper Surface:
glabrous and sulcate, rounded, dark brown. Margin: Rounded pale brown. Pore
surface: Dark brown. pore: 7 per mm, angular. Tubes: 4 mm, stratified. Context:
Bright with a silky luster, umber, 3-10 mm thick. Hyphal system: Generative
hyphae: simple septate, 2.4 μm wide, Skeletal hyphae: thick-walled, golden-brown
to rusty, 5-6.5 μm wide. Context hypyhae: 5.35 μm. Tubler hyphae:
5.35 μm. Hypal Seatae: absent. Hyphal Setae: absent. Basidiospors: globose,
thick-walled, golden to rusty brown, 4.25 μm in diameter.
Phellinus setulosus (Lloyd) Imaz. Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 6: 104. 1943.
Basidiocarp: 11.2x9x8 cm, perennial, sessile, solitary, pileate, narrow attached, woody, ungulate, not easily separable from the host. Upper Surface: Glabrous, rounded, yellow brown. Margin: Flavous, obtuselobed, rounded, 2 mm thick, layered, paler than surface. Pore surface: brown, pore: 7 per mm, rounded. Tubes: 2.5-10 mm, stratified. Context: hard woody, brown, 1 mm thick. Hyphal system: Generative hyphae: simple septate, 3.3 μm wide, Skeletal hyphae: thick-walled, golden-brown to rusty, 4.5 μm wide. Context hypyhae: 3.4 μm, Tubler hyphae: 3.93 μm. Hypal Seatae: brown, 24.99x7.14 μm. Basidiospors: oval, dark brown, 7x5 μm in diameter.
There is a close affinity in the floristic members of Phellinus in Maharashtra with that of Asian and African continents. The species of Phellinus might have arrived from early Mesozoic along with present day woody plants. The species may be considered as tropical northern distribution with the members of Asian and African floristic elements (Rabba, 1994).
The species collected from the regions of Maharashtra could be conveniently classified under following major categories:
||Northern tropical having affinities with that of Himalayan
species namely P. grenadensis, P. linteus and P. pectinatus.
||Southern tropical having affinities with that of tropical Africa, Australia
and America, P. grenadensis, P. linteus, P. merrllii
and P. pectinatus.
||Arid species having affinities with either in the central peninsula of
India or Afganisthan, Baluchisthan, Pakistan etc. The list of the species
among these categories is P. admatinus, P. fastuosus, P.
merrllii and P. pectinatus.
The species of Phellinus is looked on world wide basis species which are of mainly from central Africa namely Phellinus adamantinus, P. fastuosus, P. grenadensis, P. linteus, P. merrillii and P. pectinatus.
The species like P. calcitratus has affinities with that of tropical central America.
We extend our sincere thanks to Department of Botany University of Pune for providing the necessary facilities to do the present study.