This research was carried out in Central Anatolian Region (Haymana, Turkey) throughout 2 years (2002 and 2003). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different soil tillage methods, weed control and phosphorus fertilizer doses on yield and yield componenets of chickpea. The experimental design was split split plot with three replications. In the research, two different soil tillage methods (moldboard plow and rotary tiller), two weed control methods ( hand weeding and herbicide application) and three phosphorus doses (30, 60 and 90 kg P2O5 ha) were used. According to the results, different soil tillage methods and phosphorus fertilization did not have any effect on yield components. In addition to it, increasing levels of phosphorus had decreased the grains phosphorus content. Weed control methods had effect on dry weed biomass and grain yield. If weed control, by hand is not possible, herbicide application may advice as an alternative solution.
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Chickpea is grown at different ecological area of the world. It can be grown salty, limy and poor areas. In Turkey, total growing area of this crop is 650,000 ha with a total production of 590,000 tons (Anonymous, 2002).
One of the limiting factor of high yield in chickpea is the weeds like other legumes. Chickpea is grown in arid and semiarid area where soil humudity is limited and plants have to compote with weeds for it. According to Bhan and Kukula (1987), grain yields may decrease up to 40-90% related to weed density. Weed control can be made by different method but hand weeding is the most effective way. Because of hand weeding is not possible wide area, cultural methods and herbicidal control can be use as alternatives. Soil tillage is an important cultural method. Usually lime level has exceed 25% in dry areas of Central Anatolia (Eyüpoğlu, 1997). Therefore, phosphorus fertilization is important for this area because chickpea is grown at marginal areas. Phosphorus fertilization is not a widely use practice in Turkey.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different soil tillage methods (tradational tillage (TT)-minimum tillage (MT), weed control (hand weeding and herbicid application) and phosphorus fertilizer doses (30, 60 and 90 kg P2O5 ha) on some quality features, yield and yield components of chickpea.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This research was conducted for two years period in the experimental field of Research and Application Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ankara (Haymana) in 2002 and 2003. Characteristics of the soil at experimental site are presented in Table 1. Climatic data related to the research location are shown in Table 2.
The variety Gökçe was used as research material. Gökçe was sown on March 18 in first year and April 16 in second year due to climatic conditions.
Soil tillage methods: Traditional Tillage (TT): moldboard plow (15-20 cm depth). Minimum Tillage (MT): Rotary tiller (8-10 cm depth).
|Table 1:||Soil characteristic of the experimental site|
Weed control methods:
Hand weeding: Repeated two times (in 1/3 of subplots).
Herbicidal weed control: The treatment consisted 1250 cc aclonifen ha-1 post emergence during 2-3 leaves stage of weeds the herbicide was applied in 300 L water ha-1 (in 1/3 of subplot).
Phosphorus fertilization: 30, 60 and 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 (as Triple Super Phosphate) were applied at sowing time with sowing machine.
The experimental design was split split plot with three replications. Experiment was conducted as tillage systems main plots, weed control methods sub-plots and phosphorus fertilizations sub-subplots. Each sub- subplots was 12.5 m-2 in size. Chickpea seeds were sown by sowing machine with 30 cm row spacing in 5 cm depth. Nitrogen fertilization was sowing time (20 kg ha-1).
Weed biomass and biological yields (g m-2) were determined at each sub-subplot in the 0.25 m-2 area. Afterwards each sub-subplot was harvested, blended and grain yield (g m-2) was estimated. Grain protein content (%) was determined by microkjeldahl method (Kjeldahl 1883, Bremner 1960). The grain and the plant phosphorus content were determined by vanadomolibdo phosphoric acid method (Kitson and Mellon, 1944).
The data were statistically analysed to determine the significance of the treatments with MINITAB. Duncan test was used on all the measured parameters.
Significant differences were observed for weed control methods and weed control method x soil tillage system interaction for dry weed biomass (p<0.01), meanwhile weed control methods were significant for grain yield in the first year. Phosphorus fertilization methods were also shown differences for grain phosphorus content (Table 3). In the second year, differences were observed for weed control methods for dry weed biomass and weed control method x soil tillage systems interaction for grain phosphorus content (Table 4).
Weed control methods were shown significant differences for dry weed biomass first and second year.
Avarege value are belong to characteristics that. In the first year, dry weed biomass was effacted by weed control method x soil tillage systems interaction. Weedy check value was higher than herbicidal weed control value in the TT area but dry weed biomass value was same with weedy check and herbicidal weed control MT area. Dry weed biomass value at TT was higher than at MT in weedy check plots but TT value was lower than MT value in herbicidal weed control plots. Dry weed biomass values were zero in the hand weeding areas (Table 3). In the second year, dry weed biomass value was 159.70 g m-2 in weedy check plots and 39.20 g m-2 in herbicidal weed control plots. Dry weed biomass values were also zero in the hand weeding areas (Table 4).
In the first year highest grain yield was obtained in hand weeding plots. This value is followed by herbicidal weed control and the lowest value is observed in the weedy check plots. Hand weeding treatment values were in different groups.
The lowest value for the grain phosphorus content (0.29%) were observed in 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatment plots in the first year. The grain phosphorus content value was same as 30 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 (0.31%) (Table 3). In the second year, the grain phosphorus content was effacted by weed control method x soil tillage systems interaction. The grain phosphorus content wasnt effacted by weed control methods in MT plots.
In TT plots, the lowest and highest grain phosphorus content value was determined at herbicidal weed control plots and weedy check plots respectively. In weedy check plots, the grain phosphorus content was observed as 0.35% and 0.32% at TT and MT plots, respectively (Table 4).
Significant differences were observed for weed control methods for dry weed biomass in both years. In both years, dry weed biomass value was 0.00 in hand weeding plot. Herbicidal weed control plots value was lower than weedy check plots for dry weed biomass. According to these results herbicidal weed control may advice as a solution. Unger (1999), Begna et al. (2001) and Torresen et al. (1999), was reported similar results. Soil tillage x weed control methods interaction was significant in the first year. In the first year, dry weed biomass was observed as 210.40 and 64.20 g m-2 at weedy check plots and hand weeding plots respectively in TT plots. However in MT plots, dry weed biomass was 101.30 g m-1 at weedy check and herbicidal weed control plots. Owing to weed diversity, herbicidal weed control wasnt showed expected influence in MT plots. So in contrast to our expectation in weedy check plots, dry weed biomass was higher (210.40 g m-2) in TT plots than in MT plots (101.30 g m-2).
Differences between weed control methods were significant for grain yield in first year. The highest value was observed in hand weeding plots, herbicidal weed control plots value was followed it and the lowest value was observed in weedy check plots (Table 3). Present results are in agreement with the finding of Anaele and Bishnoi (1992). Grain yield wasnt influenced by different soil tillage methods. This results are similar to Adak (1999) and Hernanzs (2002), results.
|Table 2:||Climatic data of the research location|
|Table 3:||Effect of tillage, weed control and phosphorus fertilization on some traits of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in 2002|
|*: Significant at the 0.05 probability level, Italic letters are used that as the different soil tillage systems are comparisoned weed control methods means|
|**: Significant at the 0.01 probability level, Figures are used that as the different weed control methods are comparisoned soil tillage systems means|
Different phosphorus fertilization was positively influenced the grain yield but differences wasnt significant.
In second year, biological yield and grain yield values are higher than first year because of effective rainfall. In first year, effective rainfall was 108 mm (April + May) but in second year this value was 133.70 mm (Table 2).
Significant differences were observed among phosphorus fertilization in first year and soil tillagexweed control methods interaction in second year for the grain phosphorus content. In 30 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatment plots, the grain phosphorus content was %0.31. In 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatment plots, this value was 0.29%. Generally the grain phosphorus content was decreased in the first year by phosphorus fertilization. We expect that the grain phosphorus content is increased by phosphorus fertilization. We may explain this situation with plant density in plot. While grain yield was increasing, the grain phosphorus content was decreasing. Idris et al. (1989) reported that the grain phosphorus content was decreased by phosphorus fertilization. This results are similar to our results. Soil tillage and weed control methods interaction was significant in second year for the grain phosphorus content. The grain phosphorus content wasnt effected by weed control methods in TT plots and MT plots. The grain phosphorus content was observed as 0.35 and 0.32% in TT plots and MT plots respectively in weedy check plots.
In second year, the grain phosphorus content values were higher than first year. In the first year, soil phosphorus content was 8.4 ppm but in second year this value was increased to 31.76 ppm (Table 1). The grain phosphorus content values was higher in second year because of soil phosphorus contain. In second year, effective rainfall might be increased physiological activity so the grain phosphorus content was higher.
Results of this research indicated that dry weed biomass was influenced by weed control methods in both year. Weedy check plots values was higher than herbicidal weed control plots for dry weed biomass. Hand weeding method is the most effective method in weed control. When hand weeding isnt possible in wide areas, herbicide application can be effective alternative for control. We were observed similar results for grain yield.
|Table 4:||Effect of tillage, weed control and phosphorus fertilization on some traits of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in 2003|
*: Significant at the 0.05 probability level, İtalic letters are used that as the different soil tillage systems are comparisoned weed control methods means.
|Figures are used that as the different weed control methods are comparisoned soil tillage systems means|
Herbicidal weed control was effective on grain yield. But hand weeding was the most effective methods for grain yield. The phosphorus fertilization didnt have any significant effect on yield components. In first year, the grain phosphorus content was decreased by phosphorus fertilization. We may explain this situation with plant density. Soil tillage methods wasnt effective on yield components in first and second year.
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