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Heritability and Correlation Studies in Pea (Pisum arvense L.) Lines



Ismail Gul, Mehdi Sumerli, B. Tuba Bicer and Yusuf Yilmaz
 
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ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine suitable pea lines for Diyarbakir conditions. The study was carried out as Randomized Block Design with three replications in the research area of Southeastern Anatolian Regional Agricultural Research Institute during 1998-99, 1999-00 and 2001-2002 growing seasons. In the study, 25 pea lines provided from ICARDA were used. According to the average of three years, plant height ranged from 43.33 to 70.33 cm, this character was exhibited moderate heritability (0.40). The mean seed weight of pea genotypes was 209.80 g, seed weight showed moderate heritability (0.69). The grain yield varied from 114.56 to 191.00 kg da-1, in respect to seed yield, spring pea 4 was high yielding line. Biological yield, plant height, harvest index had positive and important correlations with the grain yield.

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  How to cite this article:

Ismail Gul, Mehdi Sumerli, B. Tuba Bicer and Yusuf Yilmaz, 2005. Heritability and Correlation Studies in Pea (Pisum arvense L.) Lines. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 4: 154-158.

DOI: 10.3923/ajps.2005.154.158

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajps.2005.154.158

INTRODUCTION

Field pea (Pisum arvense L.) is one of the oldest cultivated crops and was grown in farming villages of the China at least as early as 8000 B.C.[1]; but origin of field pea is near the Mediterranean[2]. This plant is a common forage legume in the semiarid regions of the Anatolia and Mediterranean area (rain fall 350-550 mm). It’s performs best on fertile, well drained soils with high moisture holding capacity. Optimum growth is obtained on loams, silt loam, or well texture soils with a pH 6.0-7.5. Field pea is used for seed, hay, pasture, silage and green manure. Plant is rich in high quality protein. It is rich in phosphorus and calcium and also a good source of vitamins, especially vitamins A and D. These qualities make field pea one of the best feeds for animals and almost indispensable for efficient, economical livestock feeding[3]. The plant height varies between 50 and 200 cm in field pea genotypes[4]. Hatam and Amanullah[5] reported that plant height ranged from 115 to 190 cm, days to maturity varied from 143 to 167 days. Hussain et al.[6] reported that days to maturity ranged from 94 to 150.7 days and 1000-seeds weight was ranged from 319.0 to 191.0 g and grain yield ranged from 1.43 to 1.91 kg ha-1. Fomin and Pivovarova[7] reported that 1000-seed weight in pea a variety ranged from 165 to 288 g. Tekeli and Ates[8] reported that seed yield varied 2.518 to 2.590 t ha-1. The aim of this study was to identify variability and heritability estimates of economically important grain yield and yield components in pea.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The experiment was carried out in rainfall conditions at the Southeastern Anatolian Regional Agricultural Research Institute Fields at Diyarbakir, Turkey, during winter seasons of 1998/1999, 1999/2000 and 2001/2002. Soil of experimental area was clay loam and 2.03% organic matter and with pH 7.9. Climatic data related to research area are summarized in Table 1.

Twenty-five genotypes of pea which provided from ICARDA were used in this study. One of the genotypes, D-651, due to high yielding, was used as control line. The properties of genotypes were given in Table 2.

The design of experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications. Each of the 25 line were sown in four rows plots 4 m long, spaced 30 cm apart in the middle of December in all of study years. Fertilizer was applied basally at rate of 30 kg N and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 at sowing time.

Table 1: Rainfall values of Diyarbakir province between October and June months of experimental years.
Image for - Heritability and Correlation Studies in Pea (Pisum arvense L.) Lines
Source: Anonymous[16]

Table 2: ICARDA entry list of seed
Image for - Heritability and Correlation Studies in Pea (Pisum arvense L.) Lines
U: undesignated

Plant height, 1000 seed weight, biological yield (kg da-1), grain yield (kg da-1) and harvest index were recorded. Analysis of variance was computed by MSTATC packet program. Association among characters was also determined[9] at 5 and 1% probability levels. Variance components were estimated from expected mean squares Heritability of these characters was estimated as a ratio genotypic variance to phenotypic variance[10].

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A combined analysis of variance, estimated of variances components and heritability of some characters on 25 pea genotypes over three years given in Table 3.

Differences among genotypes for days to maturity were significant. The earliest genotype was DP FPD-8 (159.7 days) and latest genotype was DMR-26 (163.44 days) (Table 4). Present findings are in agreement with of Hatam and Amanullah[5] who reported that this character varied from 143 to 167 days. Present findings opposite Hussain et al.[6] reported that this character ranged from 94 to 150.7 days; this findings may resulted from different environment conditions, that is, genotypes may affected by climatic conditions. Genotype x year interaction was significant; days to maturity varied from year to year. This character showed low heritability (0.23).

Plant height ranged from 43.33 to 70.33 cm with a mean 59.73 cm. Spring pea 4 had maximum plant height followed by Syria local/Aleppo (68.56 cm) and DMR-27 (68.11 cm) (Table 4). Hatam and Amanullah[5] reported that this character ranged from 115 to 190 cm. The genotype x year interaction was significant; this result revealed that environmental effect with respect to this character was significant. Genotype DMR-27 had maximum plant height in 1998/1999 growing season, while genotypes of Syria local/Aleppo and Mariana, in 1999/2000 and 2001/2002 growing seasons, respectively were found taller than other genotypes. Bicer and Sakar[11] reported that this character ranged from 36.7 to 82.6 cm. Tekeli and Ates[8] reported that plant height varied from 107.46 to 124.37 cm. The difference in plant height may be attributed to genetic and climatic factors. Plant height was exhibited moderate heritability (0.40). It was found that the effect of phenotypic was higher than that of genotypic for this character. Opposite present findings; Kumar and Dubey[12] reported that plant height had high heritability at grass pea.

The mean seed weight of pea genotypes was 209.80 g. Differences among genotypes were significant; this character varied 153.04 to 244.89 g (Table 5). Present results are in agreement with of Fomin and Pivovarova[7] who reported that 1000-seed weight in pea a variety ranged from 165 to 288 g. The present results are not agreement with of Hussain et al.[6] who reported that 1000-seeds weight was ranged from 319.0 to 191.0 g. Genotype x year interaction was significant; the maximum seed weight was record in spring pea 4 in both 1998/1999 and 1999/2000, while genotype of 88P101-10-1 had maximum seed weight in 2001/2002.

Table 3: Analysis of variance, variance components estimated and heritability of some characters at 25 pea genotypes over three years
Image for - Heritability and Correlation Studies in Pea (Pisum arvense L.) Lines
*,** significant at 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels, respectively

Table 4: Mean values for days to maturity and plant height in pea lines in diyarbakir, Turkey
Image for - Heritability and Correlation Studies in Pea (Pisum arvense L.) Lines
Means followed by different letter(s) differ significantly at p<0.05 level

Table 5: Mean values for 1000 seed weight and biological yield in pea lines in diyarbakir, Turkey
Image for - Heritability and Correlation Studies in Pea (Pisum arvense L.) Lines
Means followed by different letter(s) differ significantly at p<0.05 level

Table 6: Mean values for grain yield and harvest index in pea lines in diyarbakir, Turkey
Image for - Heritability and Correlation Studies in Pea (Pisum arvense L.) Lines
**Means followed by different letter(s) differ significantly at p<0.05 level

Table 7: Association among characters
Image for - Heritability and Correlation Studies in Pea (Pisum arvense L.) Lines

Significant genotype x year interaction and genotypes suggested that particularly genotypes differentially behaved at three years with respect to this character. This character showed moderate heritability (0.69); this finding indicated that both effect of phenotypic and genotypic was significant on this character. Opposite the present findings Milczak et al.[13] reported that seed weight of lathyrus had high heritability (0.94). Kumar and Dubey[12] noted that seed weight of lathyrus was showed moderate heritability (0.64).

Differences among genotypes for biological yield were significant and the highest biological yield per decar (502.22 kg) was observed in genotype spring pea 4 (Table 5). Genotype x year interaction was significant. Genotypes of spring pea 4, Syria local/Aleppo and P12/95 were produced higher biological yield than other genotypes in 1998/1999, 1999/2000 and 2001/2002 growing seasons, respectively. The result indicated that the genotypes differentially behaved at three years with respect to this character. The highest values record in 2001/2002 growing season. Heritability of this character was moderate (0.43).

Differences among genotypes with respect to grain yield were significant. Grain yield ranged from 114.0 to 191.0 kg. The maximum grain yield was record in spring pea 4 (Table 6). Zubov et al.[14] recorded seed yield of 3.9 t ha-1; this result different from our findings and we can say grain yield varied from genotype to genotype. Hussain et al.[6] reported that this character ranged from 1.43 to 1.91 kg ha-1. Tekeli and Ates[8] reported that seed yield varied from 2.518 to 2.590 t ha-1 in Turkey. Seed yield potential in peas varies from cultivar to cultivar as reported by Kamur et al. [15] and Zubov et al.[14]. Genotype x year interaction was significant; this result indicated that grain yield affected not only by environment but yield performance of genotypes is important. This character showed moderate heritability (0.52).

Harvest index varied from 33.0 to 41.33% with mean of 37.46% (Table 6). Genotype x year interaction was significant. This character was highly affected by environment. Genotypes exhibited different responses to against years. Harvest index was showed low heritability (0.36).

Association among characters: Table 7 shows that grain yield had a significant positive correlation with biological yield, plant height and harvest index. Harvest index was positively associated with biological yield, grain yield and 1000 seed weight. Days to maturity had significant negative correlation with all investigated characters. If the aim is high yield, biological yield, plant height and harvest index are important in direct selection.

REFERENCES

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  3. Hussain, S.I., K.M. Khokhar, T. Mahmood, Hidayatullah and M.H. Laghari, 2002. Comparative studies on seed production capabilities of some pea cultivars under Islamabad conditions. Asian J. Plant Sci., 1: 655-656.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  4. Tekeli, A.S. and E. Ates, 2003. Yield and its components in field pea (Pisum arvense L.) lines. J. Central Eur. Agric., 4: 313-318.
    Direct Link  |  


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  6. Comstock, R.E. and R.H. Moll, 1963. Genotype-environment interactions. In statistical genetics and plant breeding. NAS-NSR. Publ., 982: 164-196.


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  8. Milczak, M., M. Pedzinski, H. Mnichowska, K. Urbas, W. Rybinski, 2001. Creative breeding of grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) in Poland. Lathyrus Lathyrism Newslett., 2: 85-88.


  9. Zubov, A.E., S.R. Knyaz, L.A. Kosyreva and E.I. Karandaev, 1990. New pea variety novokuibyshevskii. Selektsiya-I-Semenovodstvo-Moskva, , pp: 47-48.


  10. Kamur, R., K.R. Gupta, V.P. Singh and R. Kamur, 1989. Aparna a new high-yielding, leaf-less variety of field pea. Indian-Farming, 39: 9-10.


  11. Anonymous, 2001. Self-Pollinated Crops-Case Study 1. Department of Soil and Plant Sciences, Colorado State University, Ft., Collins, CO., pp: 23-24


  12. Tekeli, A.S., 1988. Forage Legumes. Trakya University, Agricultural Faculty Press, Tekirdag, Turkey, pp: 23-24


  13. Fomin, V.S. and O.M. Pivovarova, 1990. New Pea Variety Orfei. Selektsiya-I-Semenouodstvo-Moskva, Moskva, pp: 1: 30


  14. Bicer, B.T. and D. Sakar, 1997. The effect of different sowing dates and irrigation on yield and yield components of pea cultivars in Diyarbakir Turkey conditions. Proceedings of the 2nd Field Crops Congress, September 22-25, 1997, Samsun, pp: 590-592


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