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Research Article

Grain Quality Traits of a Candidate Rice Variety PB-95

A.G. Khan, G. Shabbir , M. Sadiq and G. Hassan
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Find rice candidate variety PB-95 was evaluated for its quality traits in comparison with shaheen Basmati and Super Basmati. The newly evolved cultivar PB-95 possesses extra long slender shape grain with higher degree of grain elongation, intermediate amylase content and gelatinization temperature. The candidate variety leads Super Basmati Shaheen Basmati for Kernal length, Kernal width, Kernal thickness and cooked grain length and elongation ratio with strong aroma.

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  How to cite this article:

A.G. Khan, G. Shabbir , M. Sadiq and G. Hassan , 2003. Grain Quality Traits of a Candidate Rice Variety PB-95. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 2: 483-484.

DOI: 10.3923/ajps.2003.483.484



Rice is now the staple food of 2.7 billion people, almost halts the world’s population and is grown by more than halt the world’s farmers. (Fairhurts and Doberman, 2002). Rice grain size and shape, whiteness and translucency and elongation on cooking are the traits of keen interest of the consumer. Therefore, broken and colored chalky grain reduces the economic value of rice. Fourteen physicochemical traits are considered important in scoring grain quality (Khush et al., 1979, Rani et al., 1988). Pakistan produce fine rice known as basmati which is hardly computable by any other in the world market for its strong aroma, slender and long kernal, intermediate amylase content and gelatinization temperature along with higher degree of grain elongation on cooking. All three traits are polygenically controlled and are difficult to transfer through breeding a new genotype. Rani et al. (1988) identified and used five Pakistani basmati vanities as donars for quality traits (Long slender group)in the first international fine grain aromatic rice observational nursery. The study of grain quality traits of 38 indo Pak aromatic and non-aromatic rice cultivars rated three famous Pakistani basmati varieties (Basmati et al., 2001) reported that Shaheen Basmati excelled its parents’s I. e super Basmati and Basmati 385 in all grain quality characteristics with a strong aroma comparable to Basmati 370. Studies reported in the paper were conducted at Soil Salinity Research Institute Pindi Bhattian, Hafizabad, Pakistan to assess the quality traits of newly evolved candidate rice variety PB-95 in comparison with Shaheen Basmati. The objective was to further improve the grain quality traits of fine rice genetic stock evolving a superior variety.

Materials and Methods

Grain quality studies were conducted at Soil Salinity Research Institute Pindi Bhattian, Hafizabad, Pakistan in collaboration with National Agriculture Research Center Islamabad, Pakistan. Rice varieties Super Basmati Shaheen Basmati PB-95 Basmati were grown in RCBD layout with four repeats in 3 x 5 m2 x 2 plots with 20 x 20 cm2 spacing in a normal field during July to October 1997. Mineral fertilizers [email protected] and [email protected] kg ha-1 were applied to all the plots crop protection measures and other agronomic practices were rendered as per requirement. Data were statistically analysed and LSD. Test was applied to compare the means at 5%level according to the Steel and Torrie (1984).

Observation regarding paddy length, width thickness were recorded with the help of vernier caliper on ten randomly selected three times of full healthy grain. Kernal length width and thickness of milled rice were also measured with the help of dial. caliper on ten randomly selected full rice kernals. Shapes of milled rice was determined in terms of length width ratio as slender (more than 3.0), medium (2.1 to 3.0) bold (1.1 to 20) and round less 1.1). Quality index (Q. I) of raw rice was determined by dividing its length by width multiplying by thickness(Aziz and Shafi, 1966). Quality Index over 2 indicates fine rice and less than 2 indicates coarse rice. Cleaned basmati paddy samples were dried to 10% moisture contents and milled. Milling machines used were satake Rubber Roll Husker, Burrows Mc. Gill Polisher No.3 and Burrows Rice Grader. Rice sample were cooked after strong for four months. Elongation ratio was determined by dividing length of cooked rice by that of raw rice. Stickiness during cooking was observed by visual observation and rated between 1-5 scores (1 pasty and 5 well separated). Aroma was determined on boiling as well as using chopped leaves collected at 50% flowering stage (Sakila et al., 1999) and rated between 1-5 scores (1 almost absent and 5 strong). Gelatinization temperature, a measure of cooking was determined by alkali spreading value as mention as alkali digestibility test using 1-7 scale. The amylase content (A.C) determined cooking behavior and eating quality of cooked rice was estimated and classified using Shen’s method (1990). The gel consistency test is a reliable index for texture of cooked rice varieties were analysed by Cagampang (1973) method. Above mentioned chemical traits were analysed with Co-ordination of National Agriculture Research Center Islamabad, Pakistan.

Results and Discussion

Observations regarding physicochemical characteristics of Basmati PB-95 in comparison with Shaheen Basmati and Super Basmati are given in Table 1. Basmati PB-95 is statistically higher then checks varieties in 1000 grain weight and at par for other paddy characteristics. Kernal length (KL) of Basmati PB-95 (7.48 mm) is statistically higher then that of Shaheen Basmati (6.82 mm) and Super Basmati (7.08 mm). Kernal width, Kernal thickness and Kernal length width ratio of Basmati PB-95 are at par with those of check varieties. The candidate variety PB-95 showed higher elongation ratio (ER) of 1.93 and strong aroma with 3.25 score (Rani et al., 1998) classified several Basmati rice varieties possessing kernal length 6.53 to 7.38 mm and elongation ratio (ER)1.8 to 2.5 as long slender group and donars for quality traits in international Aromatic Rice Nursery.

Table 1: Grain Quality analysis
Image for - Grain Quality Traits of a Candidate Rice Variety PB-95
The means followed common letter are not significantly different at 5% level stickiness score:1 pasty and 5 were spread.
Aroma score:1 absent and 5 strong alkali spreading value of 4-5 is classified as intermediate.

Santha et al. (1997), Sakila et al., (1999) also mentioned that long slender and high elongation ratio on coking in unique feature of Basmati rice which makes varieties readily acceptable to the growers and consumers. Therefore Basmati PB-95 falls in long slender group of aromatic rice quality index of candidate variety PB-95 (2.5) validates the results of Aziz and Shafi (1966) who stated that quality index over 2 indicates fine rice. PB-95 is statistically at par with Shaheen Basmati and Super Basmati for milled (67.65%) and head rice (61.2%) recovery which meets the standard (mor than 60% milled rice) as quite good for release of commercial variety (Santh et al., 1997, Rani et al., 1999). Similar result were reported in rice grain quality studies of three Basmati varieties by Bhatti et al. (2001).

Table 1 showed that candidate variety PB-95 possesses 22.79% amylase content which is similar to that of Shaheen Basmati and Super Basmati. The value is within the most desirable rang of 20-25% Rani et al. (1999) for fine rice. The PB-95 is classified as intermediate for gelatinization temperature (G.T) in accordance with Sakila et al. (1999) and Bhatti et al. (2001).


1:  Aziz, M.A. and M. Shafi, 1966. Quality in rice. Department of Agriculture West Pakistan, Technical Bulletin No. 13, pp: 50.

2:  Bhatti, M.K., G. Shabbir, M.A. Shakir, A.G. Khan, M.A. Javed and G. Hassan, 2001. Grain quality characteristics of new rice cultivar Shaheen basmati. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 4: 381-382.

3:  Cagampang, G.B., C.M. Perez and B.O. Juliano, 1973. A gel consistency test for eating quality of rice. J. Sci. Food Agric., 24: 1589-1594.
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4:  Khush, G.S., C.M. Paule and N.M. de Lacruz, 1979. Rice grain quality evaluation and improvement at IRRL. Proceedings of the Workshop on Chemical Aspects of Rice Grain Quality, (WCARGQ'79), IRRL, Philippines, pp: 21-31

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6:  Rani, N.S., B. Krishnaveni, P.B. Reddy, G.S.V. Prasad and P. Rao, 1998. Donars for quality traits from the international aromatic nursery. IRRL Notes, 23-18.

7:  Sakila, M., S.M. Ibrahim, C.R. Anada-Kumar, S. Backi-Yarni and D. Basmati, 1999. Grain quality characteristics of aromatic and non aromatic rice cultivars. IRRL Notes, 22: 17-18.

8:  Santha, S., I. Mahalingum, T.B. Rangana and W. Manouel, 1997. Grain quality of some basmati genotypes. IRRL Notes, 22: 20-21.

9:  Shen, Y.Z., 1990. Genetical Studies on amylase content of rice grain and modification of the determination method. Sci. Agric. Sin., pp: 23-68.

10:  Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie, 1984. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. 1st Edn., McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., Singapore, pp: 172-177

11:  Fairhurst, T.H. and A. Doberman, 2002. Rice in the Global Food Supply. 1st Edn., Potash and Phosphate Institute, Canada

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