Four dominant fungi viz., Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium rubrum and Fusarium moniliformae were selected after isolation from mungbean seeds genotype HUM-12 and HUM-4. The seeds were infested with above dominant fungi. Moisture content of (fresh and infested both) were determined during different period of storage. Moisture content of mungbean seed was decreased due to infestation of selected dominant seed mycoflora. The results showed that Aspergillus niger infested mungbean seeds showed minimum moisture content followed by Penicillium rubrum. Highest Moisture content was recorded in freshly harvested mungbean seed genotype HUM-12 followed by HUM-4.
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Pulses are rich source of vegetative protein and play and important role in nutritional security of majority of vegetarian population in India. The country is the largest producer and consumer of pulses occupying 33% of the worlds area and 22% of the production. Pulse production in the country has fluctuated widely between 13 and 15 million tonnes (mt) with no significant growth trend between 1991 and 2010. The latest estimate indicates that the present production of pulses has reached 14.7 million tons (mt) with productivity of 637 kg ha-1 although the projected pulse requirement by the year 2030 (32 mt) is estimated to be more than double the current production level (Anonymous, 2011). Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) is a short duration; herbaceous, annual, self-pollinated legume pulse crop under the family. It also has the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in soil which enriches the soil quality (Nadeem et al., 2004). It is an excellent source of proteins considered as a poor mens protein (Mian, 1976). It contains 26% protein, 51% carbohydrate, 10% moisture, 4% minerals and 3% vitamins (Khan, 1981). Areas for cereals and other pulses have decreased, that for mungbean has doubled in the last two decades with an annual rate of 2.5%. The area under pulses in India is around 24.38 million ha with a production of 14.52 million tonnes. Nearly 8% of this area is occupied by mungbean which is the third important pulse crop of India in terms of area cultivated and production next to gram and pigeon pea (Sathyamoorthi et al., 2008).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Determination of moisture content of fresh and stored mungbean seeds: Seeds were infested with four dominant fungi viz., Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrum and Fusarium moniliformae as well as fresh seeds were used to test moisture content of Mungbean seeds. About 5 to 6 g mungbean seeds were accurately weighed in a Petri dish and kept in hot-air oven maintained at 110°C for 4 h. After cooling in a dessicator, the loss in weight was recorded in each case. This procedure was repeated till constant weight was obtained (Shah and Seth, 2010). The moisture content of seeds was determined with the help of the equation given below:
Present result showed that moisture content of mungbean seed was increased due to prolongation of storage period. Effect of selected dominant seed borne mycoflora on moisture content of mungbean seeds is presented in the (Table 1). The effect significantly differed from genotype to genotype. Moisture content of mungbean seed was increased due to infestation of selected dominant seed mycoflora viz., Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium moniliformae and Penicillium rubrum from 180 days to 360 days of storage. After 360 days period of storage, maximum moisture content (16.76%) was observed in seed infested with Aspergillus niger in genotype HUM-4 followed by (15.67%) in genotype HUM-12 and Penicillium rubrum infested seed showed (14.98%) in Genotype HUM-4 followed by (14.90%) in Genotype HUM-12. After 180 days period of storage maximum moisture content (14.18%) in seed infested with Aspergillus niger in Genotype (13.00%) followed by (11.00%) in Genotype HUM-12. Lowest moisture content (7.50%) was recorded in fresh mungbean seed Genotype HUM-12 followed by (8.35%) in Genotype HUM-4. Result revealed that due to prolongation of storage period moisture content was found to be increased and Aspergillus niger infected seed showed maximum moisture content followed by Penicillium rubrum infested seeds.
|Table 1:||Moisture content of fresh and infested mungbean|
|T1: Seeds infested with Alternaria alternata, T2: Seeds infested with Penicillium rubrum, T3: Seeds infested with Aspergillus niger, T4: Seeds infested with Fusarium moniliformae|
For fungal infection, moisture content play important role in deterioration of seed (Amusa et al., 2002), temperature (Abaka-Gyenin and Norman, 2000; Burrell, 1974; Kuku, 1979). High moisture content seed enhance the microbial population in stored seed and increase the rate of seed damage (Abdulsalaam and Shenge, 2011). Similar result were reported by many other workers (Christen and Kaufmann, 1965; Gupta et al., 1973; Rahman et al., 1985; Cook and Veseth, 1991). Clements (1988) reported that in earthen container, moisture content was found to be highest and seed germination was low. This is due to effect of length of storage period and storage conditions. It indicates that the storage fungi are also responsible for deterioration and discoloration of seeds in storage. Christen and Kaufmann (1965) clearly demonstrated that storage fungi show maximum population in stored seed at the different period of storage resulting reduce the population of field fungi and germination of seed. Similar results were also observed by Mian and Fakir (1998) in case of rice seed. On an average the mean moisture contents of the seed samples stored in plastic container in ambient environment reached 13.7 to 14.0% on both accession after six months and 14.5 and 18.5% after nine months irrespective of the storage container (Asiedu et al., 1999). Who reported that stored seed in hot and humid condition tend to absorb moisture from the surrounding resulting increase in moisture content, the rate of deterioration also increases (Roberts, 1972).
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