Agrobotanical Attributes, Nitrogen-Fixation, Enzyme Activities and Nutraceuticals of Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus L.): A Bio-Functional Medicinal Legume
M. Masroor A. Khan
Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L.) accessions
of different origins received from USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources
Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA, USA were evaluated for agrobotanical attributes,
enzyme activities, nutraceuticals and quality in calcium deficient soil
of Aligarh, Western Uttar Pradesh, India. Fresh and dry weights per plant,
leaf-area, number and dry weight of nodules per plant, net photosynthetic
rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, total chlorophyll and
carotenoid content, activities of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase,
leaf - N, P, K and Ca contents and nodule-nitrogen and leghaemoglobin
contents, respectively were analyzed at 60, 90 and 120 day after sowing.
Photosynthesis was measured only at 90 DAS. Yield attributes including
pod number per plant, seed number per pod, 100-seed weight and seed-yield
per plant were recorded at harvest (150 DAS). Protein and carbohydrate
content as well as tyrosinase activity in hyacinth bean seeds were also
determined. Among the five accessions, EC-497619 (A4) showed
superior performance over the rest of the accessions. Accession A4
showed the highest values for growth, yield, physiological, biochemical
and quality attributes in comparison to the other accessions. Net photosynthetic
rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were found maximum in
the A4 accession. Chlorophyll and carotenoid content were also
reported higher in accession A4. Accession A4 showed
higher nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities than the other
accessions. Nodule-nitrogen and leghaemoglobin content ranged from 5.267-5.314%
and 0.110-0.130 mM, respectively. Mineral profiles, viz., nitrogen, phosphorus,
potassium and calcium content varied from 3.610-3.643, 0.338-0.356, 3.020-3.124
and 1.764-1.804%, respectively. Seed protein of all accessions varied
from 24.70-25.06%. Carbohydrate content ranged from 50.83-53.16% across
all accessions tested. Accession A4 produced the highest tyrosinase
activity in the seeds.
to cite this article:
M. Naeem, M. Masroor A. Khan and J.B. Morris, 2009. Agrobotanical Attributes, Nitrogen-Fixation, Enzyme Activities and Nutraceuticals of Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus L.): A Bio-Functional Medicinal Legume. American Journal of Plant Physiology, 4: 58-69.
The vegetarian populations in India consume large amounts of legumes, particularly,
vegetable beans in their diet. The beans are naturally rich in carbohydrates,
proteins, fat and fibers as well as minerals including calcium, phosphorus and
iron. Furthermore, several legumes have tremendous potential as nutraceuticals
because of their healing properties (Morris, 1999, 2003).
Hyacinth bean belongs to the family Fabaceae and is grown in the tropical and
sub-tropical India. Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L.) has great potential
as medicinal legume. Among the legumes, hyacinth bean constitutes an important
source of therapeutic agents used in the modern as well as traditional systems
of medicine (Morris, 1996, 1999,
2003). It carries tremendous healing potential. In fact,
it is considered a multipurpose crop since it is used for food, forage, soil
improvement, soil protection and weed control (Shivashankar
and Kulkarni, 1989; Karachi, 1998; Morris,
1997, 2003; Pengelly and Maass,
2001; Maass, 2006). The young pods and tender beans
are used as vegetables in India and tropical and warm temperate Asia. It is
also been known for its use as a green manure and produces edible young pods,
dried seeds, leaves and flowers (Morris, 1997, 2003).
The seeds are used as a laxative, diuretic, anthelmintic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac,
anaphrodisiac, digestive, carminative, febrifuge and stomachic (Chopra
et al., 1986; Kirtikar and Basu, 1995). Hyacinth
beans contain fiber which is known to prevent cancer, diabetes, heart disease,
obesity and is used as a laxative (Beckstrom-Sternberg and
Duke, 1994). Hyacinth bean contains the potential breast cancer fighting
a flavonoid known as kievitone (Hoffman, 1995). The flavonoid,
genistein found in hyacinth bean may play a role in the prevention of cancer
(Kobayashi et al., 2002) and as a chemotherapeutic
and/or chemopreventive agent for head and neck cancer (Alhasan
et al., 2001). Tryrosinase (polyphenol oxidase) is present in plant
tissue and is important in fruit and vegetable processing as well as storage
of processed foods. Prevention of browning of foods, enzymatic or nonenzymatic,
has long been a concern of food scientists (Matheis, 1987;
Sanchez-Ferrer et al., 1995; Paul
and Gowda, 2000). Hyacinth bean contains tyrosinase, which has potential
for the treatment of hypertension in humans (Beckstrom-Sternberg
and Duke, 1994). However, it is not being used to its full potential.
Keeping in mind the importance of this medicinal legume as a multipurpose
crop, the aim of the present study is to investigate the performance of
five hyacinth bean accessions of different origin, for various agrobotanical
attributes, physiological, biochemical and quality attributes under the
agro-climatic conditions of Aligarh, Western Uttar Pradesh in calcium
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant Material and Growth Conditions
Healthy seeds of hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L.) accessions,
namely EC-497617 (Australia), EC-497616 (China), EC-497615 (Egypt), EC-497619
(Iran) and EC-497618 (Kenya) were received from the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic
Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA, USA and denoted as A1,
A2, A3, A4 and A5, respectively.
Healthy seeds of uniform size were selected and their viability was tested
using 1% tetrazolium salt. The seeds were surface sterilized with 95%
ethyl alcohol for five minutes and then washed thoroughly with distilled
Healthy and viable Rhizobium culture (Rhizobium sp.), compatible
for hyacinth bean, was obtained from Culture Laboratory, Government Agriculture
Farm, Quarsi, Aligarh. The Rhizobium culture was prepared according to
Subba Rao (1972). Two hundred grams of colorless Gum
Arabic (coating material) and 50 g of sugar were dissolved in 500 mL warm water.
After cooling, 100 g of Rhizobium culture was mixed with the solution.
The required amount of seeds were mixed vigorously with the inoculum until they
were evenly coated by the inoculum mixture. The inoculated seeds were placed
in a clean tray and dried in shade prior to sowing. Then seeds were sown directly
at a depth of 2 cm in soil into earthen pots containing a homogenous mixture
of soil and farmyard manure (5:1). Initially five plants were maintained in
each pot, but later were reduced to one healthy plant. The soil was maintained
at proper moisture to ensure better seed germination. Physico-chemical characteristics
of the soil were: texture-sandy loam, pH (1:2), 7.2, E.C. (1:2), 0.46 m mhos
cm–1, available N, P and K 98.39, 6.78 and 142.9 mg kg–1
soil, respectively and calcium carbonate 0.12%. The soil samples were analyzed
at the Government Soil Testing Laboratory, Quarsi Farm, Aligarh. Prior to seed
sowing, a uniform basal dose of fertilizers (10 mg P and 120 mg Ca kg–1
soil) was applied. The source of phosphorus and calcium were potassium dihdrogen
orthophosphate and calcium chloride. However, being a leguminous crop, hyacinth
bean was not supplied with nitrogen. The requirement of nitrogen is fulfilled
by the crop by virtue of biological nitrogen fixation since Rhizobium
was applied to the seeds. An out door pot experiment was conducted during 2002-2003
using a simple randomized complete block design in the net-house at the Botany
Department, AMU, Aligarh (27° 52' N latitude, 78° 51' E longitude
and 187.45 m altitude). The crop was sown on 20th September, 2002 and harvested
on 20th February, 2003. Each accession was replicated three times. The pots
were watered thoroughly and plants were grown in natural condition.
Measurement of Growth and Yield Attributes
At 60 (vegetative stage), 90 (flowering stage) and 120 (pod-filling stage)
days after sowing, three plants of each accession were uprooted carefully and
washed with running tap water to remove foreign particles. Fresh plant weight
was recorded. Leaf area was measured by outlining leaves of sampled plants on
graph paper and dry weight of these leaves was recorded. Leaf-area per plant
was determined using leaf dry weight per plant and dry weight of those leaves
for which the area was estimated (Watson, 1958). The
root nodules of each plant were washed under tap water and counted. The plants
were then dried at 80°C for 24 h and the dry weights of nodules and plants
At harvest (150 DAS), six plants from each accession were uprooted randomly
and were used for computing yield attributes including pod number per
plant, seed number per pod, 100-seed weight and seed-yield per plant.
Pods were threshed and cleaned. The seeds cleaned and counted. Seeds were
sun dried for recording a more accurate 100-seed weight. Seed-yield was
The fresh leaves of each accession were used for analysis of various
physiological and biochemical attributes except leaf-N, P, K and Ca contents.
Net Photosynthetic Rate, Stomatal Conductance and Transpiration Rate
Net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate
were measured on cloud-less clear days at 1100 h from fully expanded hyacinth
bean leaves using a IRGA (Infra Red Gas Analyzer, LICOR 6200 Portable
Photosynthesis System, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA). Before recording the measurement,
the IRGA was calibrated and zero was adjusted approximately every 30 min
during the measurement period. The atmospheric conditions during measurement
were Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) 1016±6 l μmol/m2/sec,
relative humidity 60±3%, atmospheric temperature 22±1°C
and atmospheric CO2 360 μmol mol–1. The
ratio of atmospheric CO2 to intercellular CO2 concentration
was constant. Leaves of each accession were enclosed in a 1 L gas exchange
chamber for 60 sec. All attributes were measured three times for each
accession. Photosynthesis was measured only at 90 days after sowing.
Total Chlorophyll and Carotenoid Content
Total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in fresh leaves were estimated
using the method of Lichtenthaler and Buschmann (2001).
The fresh tissues from interveinal leaf area were ground in a mortar and pestle
containing 80% acetone. The Optical Density (OD) of the solution was read at
662 and 645 nm (chlorophyll a and b) and 470 nm (carotenoids) using a spectrophotometer
(Spectronic 20D, Milton Roy, USA). Photosynthetic pigments were expressed as
mg g–1 FW.
Nitrate Reductase Activity (NRA)
The enzyme activity was estimated by the intact tissue method developed
by Jaworski (1971). Two hundred milligrams of fresh chopped
hyacinth bean leaves were weighed and transferred to a plastic vial. Each vial
contained 2.5 mL phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) and 0.5 mL potassium nitrate solution
followed by the addition of 5% isopropanol. After incubation, 1% sulphanilamide
and 0.02% N-(1-Naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (NED-HCL) was added.
The OD of colour was read at 540 nm using a spectrophotometer. Nitrate reductase
activity was expressed as nM NO2– g–1 FW h–1.
Carbonic Anhydrase Activity
The Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) activity in fresh leaves was analyzed using
the method described by Dwivedi and Randhawa (1974).
Two hundred milligram of fresh leaf pieces were weighed and transferred to petri
plates. The leaf pieces were dipped in 10 mL of 0.2 M cystein hydrochloride
for 20 min at 4°C. Four mL of 0.2 M sodium bicarbonate solution and 0.2
mL of 0.022% bromothymol blue was added to the homogenate. The reaction mixture
was titrated against 0.05 N HCl using methyl red as indicator. Carbonic anhydrase
activity was expressed as μM CO2 kg–1 leaf
Leaf samples of each accession were digested according to the method used
by Lindner (1944) for the estimation of leaf -N, P, K
and Ca contents.
Leaf-nitrogen content was estimated using the method of Lindner
(1944) as well. A 10 mL aliquot (peroxide-digested material) was taken in
a 50 mL volumetric flask. To this, 2 mL of 2.5 N sodium hydroxide and 1 mL of
10% sodium silicate solutions were added to neutralize the excess of acid and
to prevent turbidity, respectively. In a 10 mL graduated test tube, 5 mL aliquot
of this solution was taken and 0.5 mL Nesslers reagent was
added. The contents of the test tubes were allowed to stand for 5 min for maximum
colour development. The OD of the solution was read at 525 nm, using a spectrophotometer.
The reading of each sample was compared with the standard calibration curve
of ammonium sulphate to estimate the percent nitrogen content.
The method of Fiske and Subba Row (1925) was used
to estimate the leaf-phosphorus content in the digested material. The same aliquot
was used to determine the leaf-P content. A 5 mL aliquot was taken in a 10 mL
graduated test tube where 1 mL molybdic acid (2.5%) was added carefully, followed
by addition of 0.4 mL 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulphonic acid. When the colour of
tube turned blue, the volume was made up to 10 mL with the addition of double
distilled water. The solution was shaken for 5 min. The OD of the solution was
read at 620 nm using a spectrophotometer.
Leaf-Potassium and Calcium Content
Potassium and calcium contents were analyzed using flame-photometrics.
In the flame-photometer, the solution (peroxide-digested material) is
discharged through an atomizer in the form of a fine mist into a chamber,
where it is drawn into a flame. Combustion of the elements produces light
of a particular wavelength (λmax for K = 767 nm (violet)).
The light produced was conducted through the appropriate filters to impinge
upon a photoelectric cell that activates a galvanometer. Both leaf potassium
and calcium content in the same aliquot were estimated and recorded with
the help of emission spectra using specific filters in a flame-photometer.
Leaf-N, P, K and Ca content were expressed in percent on the dry weight
Nodule-Nitrogen and Leghaemoglobin Content
Nodule-nitrogen content was also estimated by the method of Lindner
(1944). Leghaemoglobin (Lb) content in fresh nodules was determined as described
by Sadasivam and Manickam (2008). The solutions
OD was recorded at 556 and 539 nm. The Lb content was calculated using the following
where, OD 556 and 539 represent absorbance (OD). Values recorded at 556,
539 nm, respectively and D is the initial dilution.
The seed protein content was estimated using the method of Lowry
et al. (1951). Hyacinth bean seed was ground to a powder using a
mortar and pestle. The seed powder was transferred to a mortar where 5% cold
trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was present. Extracted protein was measured at 660
nm using a spectrophotometer. The reading was compared with a calibration curve
obtained by using known dilution of standard egg albumin solution and the percent
seed protein content was calculated on a dry weight basis.
Total Carbohydrate Content
Total carbohydrate content in seeds was analyzed as described by Sadasivam
and Manickam (2008). One hundred milligrams of hyacinth bean powder was
poured into a tube containing boiling sulphuric acid and centrifuged at 4000
rpm. Four milliliter of anthrone reagent was added and the resulted dark green
colour was recorded at 630 nm. The reading was compared with the calibration
curve obtained using a known dilution of a standard of glucose and the percent
carbohydrate content was calculated on a dry weight basis.
Determination of Tyrosinase (Polyphenol Oxidase) Activity
The tyrosinase enzyme was extracted according to Paul
and Gowda (2000) and assayed spectrophotometrically, using the procedure
of Cosetang and Lee (1987). The enzyme assay mixture
contained 0.9 mL of 0.05 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.5), 0.1 mL of substrate
(L-3, 4-dihydroxy phenylalanine) (L-DOPA) and 10-100 μg of the enzyme.
The optical density of coloured solution developed due to formation of the compound
dopachrome was read at 480 nm. One unit of the enzyme activity corresponded
to an amount of enzyme that caused an increase in the absorbance of 0.001 min–1
at 25°C. The reference cuvette contained all the ingredients except the
enzyme in a final volume of 1 mL. The activity of tyrosinase was expressed as
U mg–1 protein.
The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Mean values were analyzed at the
0.05 level of probability according to Gomez and Gomez (1984).
Growth and Yield Attributes
The mean data and Least Significant Differences (LSD) (p≤0.05)
of agrobotanical attributes from five hyacinth bean accessions are presented
in Table 1 and 2. Accession A4
followed by A1 had the greatest fresh and dry weights per plant
at 60, 90 and 120 DAS. Accession A5 had the lowest fresh and
dry weights at 60, 90 and 120 DAS. Both accession A4 and A1
produced the greatest leaf-area among all accessions at 60, 90 and
||Growth attributes of five accessions of hyacinth bean
(Lablab purpureus L.) studied at 60, 90 and 120 DAS
|Mean values of 3 replicates. Mean values within a column
followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (p≤0.05)
||Yield attributes of five accessions of hyacinth bean
(Lablab purpureus L.) studied at 150 DAS
|NS: Not Significant: Mean values of 3 replicates. Mean
values within a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly
Accession A5 produced the least amount of leaf-area at all
growth stages (Table 1). Nodule number and dry weight
were highest in accession A4 at 60, 90 and 120 DAS, while accession
A5 produced the lowest number of nodules and nodule dry weight
at similar stages (Table 1).
Table 1 indicates that accession A4 produced
the highest number of pods per plant (45.2), 100-seed weight (4.5 g) and
seed-yield (45.60 g) per plant, while accession A5 produced
lowest yield (34.64 g). However, all accessions produced similar values
for seed number per pod and did not significantly differ from each other
Physiological and Biochemical Attributes
The net photosynthetic rate was maximized in accession A4 followed
by accession A1. Accession A5 had the lowest rate
at 90 DAS (Fig. 1). It was observed that stomatal conductance
and transpiration rate maximized in accession A4, while
accession A1 was similar with that of A4. Accession
A5 had the lowest transpiration rate and stomatal conductance
(Fig. 1). Both accessions, A4 and A1
produced the highest chlorophyll content and were superior to the other
accessions at 60, 90 and 120 DAS (Fig. 1). Both accessions
A5 and A2, had similar chlorophyll content at 60,
90 and 120 DAS (p≤0.05). Maximum carotenoids were generated in the
leaves of accessions A4 and A1 at 60 DAS followed
by A3, A2 and A5 at all three DAS (Fig.
1). Maximum total chlorophyll (1.889 mg g–1) and
carotenoid (0.568 mg g–1) content were found in all accessions
at 90 DAS. Accession A4 had the maximum nitrate reductase activity
and was similar to accessions A1 and A3. Accession
A5 produced the lowest NR activity (Fig. 1).
It was observed that A4 produced the highest carbonic anhydrase
activity and accession A5 produced the lowest at all three
growth stages of the hyacinth bean plant (Fig. 1). Nodule-nitrogen
content was maximum in accession A4 (5.314, 4.439 and 3.435%
at 60, 90 and 120 DAS).
||Changes in net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance
and transpiration rate (90 DAS), total chlorophyll and carotenoid
content, nitrate reductase activity, carbonic anhydrase activity,
nodule-nitrogen content and leghaemoglobin content of hyacinth bean
(Lablab purpureus L.) accessions studied at 60, 90 and 120
DAS. Error bars (τ) show LSD at 5% level
However, accessions A1 (5.310, 4.434 and 3.430%) and A4
(5.314, 4.439 and 3.435%) were not significantly different and were
almost equal in nodule-nitrogen content at 60, 90 and 120 DAS (Fig.
1). Accession A5 produced the lowest nodule nitrogen content
at all three stages. In the present study, maximum nodule-nitrogen content
was found at 60 DAS in all the accessions (Fig. 1).
Accessions A4 and A1 produced the highest concentration
of leghaemoglobin content at 60 and 90 DAS while accession A5 produced
the least (Fig. 1). Nitrogen is the most abundant macro
element and was highest in accession A4 followed by accession
A1 at 60, 90 and 120 DAS. Accession A5 produced
the lowest amount of nitrogen at all growth stages (Fig.
2). Potassium content among hyacinth bean accessions occupied the
second position followed by calcium and phosphorus concentrations at 60,
90 and 120 DAS.
||Changes in leaf-nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and
calcium contents (60, 90 and 120 DAS), seed-protein content, carbohydrate
content and tyrosinase activity of hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus
L.) accessions analyzed at 150 DAS. Error bars (τ) show LSD at
Accession A4 proved superior followed by A1 for
P, K and Ca contents at all the growth stages (Fig. 2).
All the accessions were not significantly differ from each other for phosphorus
content at 120 DAS (Fig. 2). A4 and A1
had the maximum content of protein (25.06 and 25.03%, respectively) and
A5 and A2 (24.70 and 24.80%, respectively), followed
by A3 (24.86%) had less protein content, which had almost equal
value (Fig. 2). On the other hand, A4 surpassed
the others for carbohydrate content and had the maximum value (53.16%),
whereas, A5 reported the minimum (50.62%). As far as tyrosinase
activity is concerned, accession A4 produced the maximum activity
for tyrosinase and A5 gave the minimum value (Fig.
The present study indicates that differences among hyacinth bean accessions
in these agro-botanical attributes exist. Accession A4 proved superior
over all other accessions and significant differences (p≤0.05) for most attributes
were observed. Variation in biomass production among hyacinth bean accessions
due to accessions phenology, environment and season has been reported in various
accessions (Holland and Mullen, 1995; Bernas,
1996; Murphy and Colucci, 1999; Pengelly
and Maass, 2001; Ewansiha et al., 2007). According
to agro-climatic conditions of India, intraspecific variations have been found
on various physiological and morphological traits in other medicinal plants
(Kulkarni et al., 1984; Singh
et al., 1992). Furthermore, it has been reported that varietal differences
among the accessions are greater than differences between related species or
genera (Millikan, 1961). Significant differences in pod
number, 100-seed weight and seed-yield among accessions was probably due to
differences in their genetic makeup and the environmental conditions under which
the hyacinth bean plants were grown. The higher values for nitrate reductase
and carbonic anhydrase activities, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance,
nodule-nitrogen content together with appropriate amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus,
potassium and calcium were also responsible for better hyacinth bean growth,
number and dry weight of nodules. Hence, higher values of fresh and dry weights,
number of pods and 100-seed weight of all accessions were recorded. Seed-yield
is a cumulative performance of pod number, seed number per pod and 100-seed
weight, respectively. Enhancement in yield attributes would ultimately culminate
into seed-yield production of each accession. Similar studies regarding accession
variation for different attributes in other plants were reported by Virk
et al. (1989), Singh et al. (1992),
Mishra et al. (2001), Choudhary
and Gupta (2002), Khan et al. (2003), Naeem
et al. (2006), Idrees et al. (2007) and
In this study, the number and dry weight of nodules increased up to 90 DAS
in all accessions (Table 1), however, the values decreased
sharply thereafter. This is due to the fact that the initial competition for
photosynthates was confined to roots, nodules and aerial vegetative organs.
However, at 90 DAS, flowering and fruit setting provided strong sinks for the
utilization of photosynthates. This created a shortage of photosynthates supply
to the nodules leading to nodule degeneration as suggested by Samiullah
and Khan (2003). The contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid were the optimum
at 90 DAS in accession A4. The chlorophyll content declined at later
growth stages (Fig. 1). Reduction in total chlorophyll and
carotenoid content might be due to the accelerated leaf-senescence as a result
of ageing. Nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase were highest in accession
A4 at 60 DAS; however these activities decreased with increasing
hyacinth bean age. Interestingly these activities were slower from the vegetative
to flowering stage and more rapid from the flowering to fruiting stage in all
accessions studied (Fig. 1).
As far as nitrogen-fixation in hyacinth bean accessions is concerned, accession
A4 generated the maximum number and weight of nodules, which requires
phosphorus nutrition during the nodulation period. Actually, legumes require
high amount of phosphorus for their growth, nodule formation and N2-fixation.
Leguminous crops have a high phosphorus utilization rate because of their greater
requirement during nodulation (Carling et al., 1978)
and N2-fixation (Israel, 1987; Sonoboir
and Sarawgi, 2000). The observed enhancement in number and dry weight of
nodules due to phosphorus availability in the soil could be due to an additional
fixation of molecular nitrogen leading to an improvement in nitrogen metabolism
for hyacinth bean. The present study showed that nodule-nitrogen and leghaemoglobin
contents declined with the age of the crop. Bacteria in the nodules depend upon
the plants for their energy source. Therefore, prior to flowering, nodules can
compete as a carbohydrate sink. However, once the plant enters the reproductive
phase, seeds act as a stronger sink for carbohydrates than nodules, consequently
the latter show a decreased dry nodule weight and lower nitrogen-fixing capacity.
Differences in mineral elements among other leguminous crops have been reported
by Deka and Sarkar (1990), El Siddig
et al. (2002) and Vadivel and Janardhanan (2002).
Considering leaf-N, P, K and Ca contents at 90 and 120 DAS in hyacinth bean
accessions, a decrease in the concentration of all these nutrients was noted,
with the increase in the age of the hyacinth bean (Fig. 2).
Such a decrease in N, P, K and Ca contents of leaf may be due to a continuous
utilization of these nutrients by the developing pods (sink) and their translocation
from vegetative parts (source). Hyacinth bean seeds have higher values for carbohydrates
when compared to groundnut (26.1%) and soybean (20.9%) (Narsinga
Rao et al., 1989). This study shows that hyacinth bean has healthy
mineral nutrients, seed-protein and carbohydrates for use as a high value grain,
nutrient and green manure crop.
Hyacinth beans contain numerous and important therapeutic compounds for
potential use in modern as well as traditional systems of medicine. This
study proves that hyacinth bean seed is an important source of proteins,
carbohydrates and minerals such as phosphorus, potassium and calcium.
On the basis of present study conducted under the agro-climatic conditions
of Aligarh, Western Uttar Pradesh, it is to be concluded that hyacinth
bean (accession A4) grew well in calcium deficient soil and
can be cultivated in our country. Whereas, accession A5 showed
poorest performance under such conditions. Hyacinth bean has the potential
to provide a quality and nutritious vegetable to the people of India.
The authors are grateful to Dr. Brad Morris, USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic
Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA 30223-1797, USA for generous
supply of seeds of hyacinth bean accessions.
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