Research Article
 

Effects of Different Processing Methods on the Essential Amino Acid Profile of Some Non-Conventional Plant Protein Feedstuffs



K.G. Michael, O.A. Sogbesan and L.U. Onyia
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: The nutrient quality of feed ingredient is one of the major prerequisites apart from availability for the production of good quality feeds. The basic nutrient that cannot be compromised in the choice of ingredients for feed formulation and preparation is protein. The objective of the study was to analyze the amino acid profile of Canavalia ensiformis, Detarium microcarpum, Jatropha curcas in comparison with Glycine max meals. Materials and Methods: Four plant protein meals were processed and analyzed for their amino acid profile in comparison with the conventional soybean. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA and LSD was used for the significant difference among the treatments. Results: Fermented Jatropha meal had the highest arginine value of 6.32 g/16 Ng. Raw Jatropha had the greatest values of histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, tryptophan, valine, total essential amino acid and chemical score ratio to protein score of (4.04, 5.13, 8.86, 5.85, 2.65, 5.63, 7.82, 54.8 g/16 Ng and 3128%). Toasted Canavalia meal had the highest phenylalanine value of 9.34 g/16 Ng. Toasted Detarium meal had the highest threonine value of 3.52 g/16 Ng. Toasted Glycine meal had the highest value of 46.03%. Raw Detarium meal had the highest total essential amino acid ratio to crude protein value of 257.6%. Conclusion: Based on the results from this study, any of the understudied plant proteins tend to supplement Glycine max in fish feed since they all have competitive nutrient values.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

K.G. Michael, O.A. Sogbesan and L.U. Onyia, 2022. Effects of Different Processing Methods on the Essential Amino Acid Profile of Some Non-Conventional Plant Protein Feedstuffs. American Journal of Food Technology, 17: 17-22.

DOI: 10.3923/ajft.2022.17.22

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajft.2022.17.22
 
Received: March 04, 2021; Accepted: December 16, 2021; Published: July 14, 2022



INTRODUCTION

Essential or indispensable Amino Acids (EAAs) cannot be synthesized by fish and often remain inadequate but are needed for growth and tissue development1,2. Fishmeal is known to contain a complete EAA profile that is needed to meet the protein requirement of most fish species. Since fishmeal is expensive as a feed ingredient, the use of non-conventional feedstuffs has been reported with good growth and better cost-benefit values. Several plants and animal protein sources have been tested for total or partial replacement of fishmeal in aquafeed. Soybean meal is one of the most commonly used plant proteins in fish feed due to global availability, low price, good nutritional value and relatively balanced amino acid profile3,4.

Non-Conventional Feed Resources (NCFRs) are feeds that are not usually common in the markets and are not the traditional ingredients used for commercial fish feed production1. NCFRs is credited for being noncompetitive in terms of human consumption, very cheap to purchase, by-products or waste products from agriculture, farm-made feeds and processing industries and serve as a form of waste management in enhancing good sanitation.

The nutrient quality of feed ingredient is one of the major prerequisites apart from availability (which sometimes is a function of cost and season) for the production of good quality feeds. The basic nutrient that cannot be compromised in the choice of ingredients for feed formulation and preparation is protein5. Hence it becomes imperative to research into the nutrient composition of some of the plant protein sources.

The experiment aimed to analyze the amino acid profile of Canavalia ensiformis, Detarium microcarpum, Jatropha-curcas in comparison with Glycine max meals to provide information that will help in incorporating any of these non-conventional plants into fish feed ingredients during the feed formulation by fish nutritionist and fish farmers who may want to use them as on-feed ingredients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area: The legume seeds were collected in the Girei environs of Yola, Adamawa state and the analysis was conducted in the Animal Nutrition Laboratory of Adamawa State University, Mubi in March, 2017.

Preparation of the legume seeds and processing: The fruits were cracked open mechanically to remove the seeds. The seeds were dehulled, clean of debris by handpicking and winnowed. The seeds size was reduced with pestle and mortar and subjected to various processing methods according to Doss et al.5 methods:

Raw seeds were milled and tag Raw Seed Meal (RSM)
Raw seeds were soaked in water to the ratio of 1:3 for 72 hrs, oven-dried at 50°C to constant weight then milled and tag Soaked Seed Meal (SSM)
Raw seeds were boiled for 30 min, oven-dried at 50°C to constant weight then milled and tag Boiled Seed Meal (BSM)
Raw seeds were toasted at 70°C using an electric hot plate until seeds turn brown then milled and tag Toasted Seed Meal (TSM)
Raw seeds were moistened with water, kept in a container with a cover to fermented for 72 hrs under laboratory condition, oven-dried at 50°C then milled and tag Fermented Seed Meal (FSM)

The amino acids profiles of the processed meals were carried out at the Animal Nutrition Laboratory Adamawa State University Mubi according to Sogbesan and Ugwumba1. The mean of 3 samples for each was recorded.

Essential amino acid indices: The essential amino acids indices were calculated using whole hen egg crude protein and essential amino acids composition documented in Sogbesan and Ugwumba1. The essential amino acids indices were determined as:

Image for - Effects of Different Processing Methods on the Essential Amino Acid Profile of Some Non-Conventional Plant Protein Feedstuffs

Statistical analysis: Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Comparisons among treatment means were carried out by one-way analysis of variance followed by Turkey’s multiple tests and Dunnett’s test. Standard deviation and standard error were calculated to identify the range of means and error, respectively. The Least Significant Differences (LSD) was used to determine the level of significance among treatments.

RESULTS

Table 1 shows the essential amino acids compositions of all the meals. They all have 10 essential amino acids. Fermented Jatropha meal had the highest arginine value of 6.32 g/16 Ng while toasted Glycine meal had the lowest 4.67 g/16 Ng. Isoleucine values of 5.13 g/16 Ng were the highest from raw Jatropha meal while the lowest value of 3.11g/16 Ng in boiled Canavalia meal. The highest tryptophan value of 5.63 g/16 Ng was from raw Jatropha meal while the lowest of 4.32 g/16 Ng was from toasted Detarium meal. The highest histidine value of 4.04 g/16 Ng was in raw Jatropha meal while the lowest value of 2.16 g/16 Ng was recorded from the toasted Glycine meal. The highest leucine and valine of 9.01 g/16 Ng and 7.82 g/16 Ng, respectively were recorded from the raw Jatropha meal while the lower value of leucine 8.12 g/16 Ng was from toasted Glycine meal and valine 5.04 g/16 Ng from both toasted Detarium and Glycine meals. The highest methionine and lysine were recorded from raw Jatropha meal 2.65 g/16 Ng and 5.85 g/16 Ng while the lowest methionine 1.24 g/16 Ng was from toasted Glycine, followed by toasted Detarium meal with 3.25 g/16 Ng. The highest threonine 3.52 g/16 Ng was recorded from the toasted Detarium meal while the lowest value of 2.65 g/16 Ng was from the toasted Glycine meal. The highest phenylalanine value of 10.23 g/16 Ng was recorded from fermented Canavalia meal while the lowest value of 4.64 g/16 Ng was from toasted Glycine meal. The highest total essential amino acids value of 54.8 g/16 Ng was from raw Jatropha meal while the lowest 41.07 g/16 Ng was from toasted Glycine meal. The highest chemical score for the 10 essential amino acids value of 2016% was from raw Jatropha meal while the lowest 1092% was from raw Canavalia meal. The highest percentage ratio of the chemical scores to protein scores value of 3128% was recorded from raw Jatropha meal while the lowest 1694% was from raw Canavalia meal. The highest essential amino acids ratio to crude protein (EAA: CP) 257.6% was recorded from raw Detarium meal while the lowest 88% was from soaked Canavalia meal. There was a significant difference (p<0.001) between the highest and lowest EAA: CP. The result showed that processing methods had significant (p<0.001, p<0.01) effects on all the parameters determined. The overall highest chemical score value of essential amino acids 605% tryptophan was from raw Jatropha meal while the lowest 311% was from raw Canavalia meal as presented in Fig. 1. The overall highest lysine 134% was from raw Jatropha meal while the lowest 55% was from soaked Detarium meal. The highest methionine value of 126% was recorded from raw Jatropha meal while the lowest value of 28% was from toasted Glycine meal and are significantly different (p<0.001).

Table 1: Essential amino acid (g/16Ng) compositions of the tested plant protein sources
Raw Boiled Toasted Soaked Fermented
C
D
J
C
D
J
C
D
J
G
C
D
J
C
D
J
SEM
Arginine
3.81f
4.23def
6.24a
4.0ef
4.24def
4.62cdef
5.32abcd
5.12abcde
6.00ab
4.67cdef
3.83f
4.05ef
4.21def
5.72abc
4.96bcdef
6.32a
0.43***
Histidine
1.76d
1.85d
4.04a
1.92d
1.87d
2.54abcd
2.23cd
2.67abcd
3.64abc
2.16cd
1.85 d
1.79 d
2.05d
3.09abcd
2.45bcd
3.86ab
0.53**
Isoleucine
2.94bc
2.65c
5.13a
3.11bc
2.85bc
3.01bc
2.76c
3.30bc
4.53ab
3.56abc
2.87bc
2.56c
2.86bc
3.05bc
2.97bc
4.04abc
0.58***
Leucine
6.53d
6.84cd
8.86a
7.62abcd
7.34bcd
7.96abcd
8.36ab
8.23abc
7.91abcd
8.12abc
6.78cd
6.94bcd
6.89bcd
9.01a
8.13abcd
7.93abcd
0.52**
Lysine
3.23cde
2.46e
5.85a
3.41cde
2.62de
4.54abc
3.64bcde
3.25cde
5.68a
4.36abc
3.26cde
2.38e
4.24abcd
4.73abc
3.16cde
5.17ab
0.58***
Methionine
0.81d
0.87d
2.65a
0.91d
1.13cd
1.35bcd
0.88d
1.66abcd
2.34ab
1.24bcd
0.82d
0.93d
1.71abcd
2.12abc
1.53bcd
2.12abc
0.38**
Phenylalanine
3.76bc
3.72bc
5.00b
4.02bc
3.85bc
3.75bc
9.34a
4.76bc
4.63bc
4.64bc
3.84bc
3.68c
3.52c
10.2a
4.34bc
3.87bc
0.45***
Threonine
1.91de
2.13cd
3.13ab
1.21e
2.25bcd
2.46bcd
2.11cde
3.52a
2.95abc
2.65abcd
1.96de
2.07cde
2.32bcd
3.43a
3.41a
2.66abcd
0.31***
Tryptophan
2.89h
3.53fgh
5.63a
3.01gh
3.78efg
4.72bcd
4.02def
4.32cdef
5.33ab
4.63bcde
2.97gh
3.65fgh
4.16cdef
5.01abc
4.11def
5.26ab
0.30***
Valine
3.98e
4.04e
7.82a
4.11de
4.01e
4.87de
5.32bcd
5.04cde
6.29b
5.04cde
3.98e
3.93e
4.42e
6.08bc
4.87cde
7.66a
0.43***
TEAA
31.7h
32.3gh
54.8a
33.3gh
33.9fg
39.1e
44.4c
41.9d
49.5b
41.07de
32.2gh
32g
35.8f
49.5b
39.7e
48.9b
0.73***
Crude protein (%)
30.32e
12.54h
37.68b
32.42d
14.3h
28.33f
35.23c
16.43g
30.46de
46.03a
36.60bc
13.25h
29.65ef
34.73c
16.83g
31.46de
0.68***
TEAA:CP (%)
104.6l
257.6a
145.4g
102.7l
236.1d
138i
126j
255b
162.5e
89.2m
88m
241.5c
120.7k
142.5h
235.9d
155.4f
0.73***
CS:PS (%)
1694p
1809l
3128a
1767o
1911k
2279g
2353f
2363e
2854c
1786n
1807m
2034j
2913b
2240i
2828d
2259h
0.54***
Mean on the same row with different superscripts are significantly different (p<0.01), (p<0.001), SEM: Standard error of the mean, (p<0.01), (p<0.001), C: Canavalia ensiformis , D: Detarium microcarpum , J: Jatropha curcas, G: Glycine max seeds, TEAA: Total essential amino acids, TEAA:CP: Total essential amino acids ratio to Crude protein, CS:PS: Chemical scores ratio to Protein score


Image for - Effects of Different Processing Methods on the Essential Amino Acid Profile of Some Non-Conventional Plant Protein Feedstuffs
Fig. 1: Chemical scores value of the essential amino acid of the plant protein meals

DISCUSSION

The results obtained in this study in respect of Canavalia ensiformis revealed that processing increased most of the essential amino acids content of the processed seed (Table 1), which is in total disagreement with the work of Okomoda et al.6 and Tiamiyu et al.7, who reported that all the essential amino acids reduced significantly with increasing time of hydrothermal processing. Generally, the reduction in the essential amino acids recorded is likely due to denaturation of the amino acids as boiling time increased. Cereal grain-based diets for fish have been reported to be deficient in lysine, leading to growth reduction8. The relatively high concentration of lysine in C. ensiformis seed makes it a potential supplement in cereal-based fish diets. One of the most important factors that limit large inclusions of conventional and unconventional feedstuffs in the diet of fish is the leucine/isoleucine ratio7. Feed ingredients that are higher in leucine but lower in isoleucine have been reported to result in an antagonistic response caused by acute deficiency of isoleucine reported by Cheng et al.8. The leucine and isoleucine for all hydrothermally processed C. ensiformis observed in this study were higher in value but similar in ratio to reported values in fishmeal9 and Agama meal10. Values of sulphur-containing amino acids such as methionine and cystine observed for C. ensiformis in this study are relatively lower when compared to the work of Okomoda et al.6 and Tiamiyu et al.9.

The essential amino acid content of D. microcarpum seed is generally higher than the values reported by Anhwange et al.11. Among the essential amino acid, leucine was the highest and processing increased the content (Table 1). Leucine is responsible for regulating the blood sugar concentrations, growth and repairs of muscles/tissues, hormone production, wound healing and energy production. Its deficiency causes dizziness, headaches, fatigue, depression, confusion, irritability and hypoglycemia in infants. Anhwange et al.11 observed that Phenylalanine is another essential amino acid that is used by the brain to produce nor epinephrine (a chemical that transmits signals between the nerve cells and the brain). It keeps the body alert and reduces hunger pains. It is an antidepressant and helps in improving memory and its deficiency could result in slow growth, liver damage and skin lesions. Isoleucine amino acid helps in the development and repair of muscles, development of haemoglobin and acts as an energy regulator. Its deficiency results in ailments similar to leucine deficiency. Anhwange et al.11 stated that lysine insures the adequate absorption of calcium, help the formation of collagen, in addition, it aids the production of antibodies, hormones and enzymes. Lysine deficiency may result in tiredness, inability to concentrate, irritability, bloodshot eyes, retarded growth, hair loss, anaemia and reproductive problems. These values are considered to be high when compared to the World Health Organization protein standard11. Threonine is necessary for the body because, it produces antibodies, prevent fat buildup in the liver and assist metabolism and assimilation. It is an important constituent of collagen, elastin and enamel protein. Its deficiency has been associated with skin disorders and weakness11. Valine promotes mental vigour, muscle coordination and calm emotions as reported by Antyev et al.12. Methionine is a sulphur-containing amino acid, it functions as a supplier of sulphur, which prevents disorders of hair, skin and nails. It prevents arterial fat buildup, regulates ammonia formation and creates ammonia-free urine which reduces bladder irritations, its deficiency results in a similar symptom like phenylalanine. Histidine is essential especially in children, it is used for growth, tissue repairs and histamine development12. Cystine is a sulphur-containing amino acid that acts as an antioxidant and protects the body from radiation and pollution. It also aids protein synthesis and prevents cellular changes. In addition, it deactivates free radicals and neutralizes.

The result shows that the values for lysine and methionine were good enough to enhance the performance of fish. The values obtained for indispensable and dispensable amino acids for Jatropha-curcas in the present study were lower than those reported by Antyev et al.12, Pirgozliev et al.13, Kumar et al.14, Antyev et al.12 and Makkar et al.15 for both toxic and non-toxic genotypes of Jatropha-curcas seed meal. The values agreed with the assertion of Antyev12 that with high content of amino acid, jatropha seed meal can be used as a good quality protein source in animal nutrition. However, some of the values were reduced in the processed groups which are evidence that heat damage these sensitive amino acids after heat treatment. It was observed that heating affected the amino acid profile through leaching and destruction (losses) while soaking enhanced a slight increase as reported by Anhwange et al.11 for raw legumes seeds.

CONCLUSION

From the experiment, any of the under-studied plant proteins tend to supplement Glycine max in fish feed since they all have competitive nutrient values. The quality of dietary protein is assessed from essential to nonessential amino acid ratio.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

This study discovered the protein qualities that can be beneficial for fish diets that many researchers were not able to explore.

REFERENCES

  1. Sogbesan, A.O. and A.A.A. Ugwumba, 2008. Nutritional values of some non-conventional animal protein feedstuffs used as fishmeal supplement in aquaculture practices in Nigeria. Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 8: 159-164.
    Direct Link  |  


  2. Fagbenro, O., C.O. Adedire, E.O. Ayotunde and E.O. Faminu, 2000. Haematological profile, food composition and digestive enzyme assay in the gut of the African bony-tongue fish, Heterotis (Clupisudis) niloticus (Cuvier 1829) (Osteoglossidae). Trop. Zool., 13: 1-9.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  3. Choi, W., A. Hamidoghli, J. Bae, S. Won and Y.H. Choi et al., 2020. On-farm evaluation of dietary animal and plant proteins to replace fishmeal in sub-adult olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Fish. Aquat. Sci., Vol. 23.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  4. Gatlin III, D.M., F.T. Barrows, P. Brown, K. Dabrowski and T.G. Gaylord et al., 2007. Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds: A review. Aquacult. Res., 38: 551-579.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  5. Doss, A., M. Pugalenthi, V.G. Vadivel, G. Subhashini and A.R. Subash, 2011. Effects of processing technique on the nutritional composition and antinutritients content of under-utilized food legume Canavalia ensiformis L. DC. Int. Food Res. J., 18: 965-970.
    Direct Link  |  


  6. Okomoda, V.T., L.O. Tiamiyu and S.G. Uma, 2016. Effects of hydrothermal processing on nutritional value of Canavalia ensiformis and its utilization by Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings. Aquacult. Rep., 3: 214-219.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  7. Tiamiyu, L.O., V.T. Okomoda and P.O. Akpa, 2016. Nutritional profile of toasted Canavalia ensiformis seed and its potential as partially replacement for soybean in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Braz. J. Aquat. Sci. Technol., 20: 12-17.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  8. Cheng, Z.J., R.W. Hardy and J.L. Usry, 2003. Plant protein ingredients with lysine supplementation reduce dietary protein level in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diets, and reduce ammonia nitrogen and soluble phosphorus excretion. Aquaculture, 218: 553-565.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  9. Tiamiyu, L.O., V.T. Okomoda and B. Iber, 2013. Growth response of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings fed diet substituted groundnut cake meal and cotton seed meal. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 25.
    Direct Link  |  


  10. Tiamiyu, L.O., S.G. Solomon and S.P.D. Satimehin, 2014. Growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings fed varying levels of the seed of Luffa cylindrica meal in outdoor Hapas. Octa J. Biosci., 2: 8-12.
    Direct Link  |  


  11. Anhwange, B.A., V.O. Ajibola and S.J. Oniye, 2004. Chemical studies of the seeds of Moringa oleifera (Lam) and Detarium microcarpum (Guill and Sperr). J. Biol. Sci., 4: 711-715.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  12. Antyev, M., B. Yakubu, Y.H. Aliyara and R.J. Wafar, 2017. Effects of processing methods of Jatropha curcas seed meal on growth performance and blood profile of broiler finisher chickens. Asian Res. J. Agric., 4: 1-9.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  13. Pirgozliev, V., M.R. Bedford, T. Acamovic, P. Mares and M. Allymehr, 2011. The effects of supplementary bacterial phytase on dietary energy and total tract amino acid digestibility when fed to young chickens. Br. Poult. Sci., 52: 245-254.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  


  14. Kumar, V., H.P.S. Makkar and K. Becker, 2011. Nutritional, physiological and haematological responses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed detoxified Jatropha curcas kernel meal. Aquacult. Nutr., 17: 451-467.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  15. Makkar, H.P.S., V. Kumar and K. Becker, 2012. Use of Detoxified Jatropha Kernel Meal and Protein Isolate in Diets of Farm Animals. In: Biofuel Co-products as Livestock Feed: Opportunities and Challenges, Makkar, H.P.S. (Ed.)., Chapter 21, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy, ISBN: 978-92-5-107299-8, pp: 351-378
    Direct Link  |  


©  2023 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved