Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Abstract
Fulltext PDF
References
Research Article
 
Phenolic Compounds Content and Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Wine During Fermentation and Aging



XiaoHua Xie, Lingli Zhang and Xueling Gao
 
ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Mulberry is a delicious yet delicate fruit with a high nutritional value. However, nutritional values are changed when mulberry is processed into wine. This study aims to reveal the changes in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity during fermentation and aging of wines made from mulberry fruit. Materials and Methods: Total anthocyanins (TAC), total phenolics (TPC), total tannins (TTC) and total flavonoids (TFC) as well as antioxidant activities were measured in mulberry wine during alcoholic fermentation and aging. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s range test using Prism™. Results: Overall, fermentation increased the TPC, TTC and TFC. TAC reached it maximum (911.73 mg L–1) at day 1 of fermentation and then reached it minimum (158.80 mg L–1) value aged to 90 days (p<0.05). Changes in the free radical scavenging activity and reducing power were similar to changes in the ferric reducing antioxidant power. During the wine-making process, antioxidant capacity increased during fermentation and decreased during aging. Conclusion: Mulberry wine has a higher TAC, TPC, TTC, TFC and antioxidant activity and the changes in TAC, TPC, TTC and TFC were consistent with the changes in antioxidant activity during fermentation and aging.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

XiaoHua Xie, Lingli Zhang and Xueling Gao, 2017. Phenolic Compounds Content and Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Wine During Fermentation and Aging. American Journal of Food Technology, 12: 367-373.

DOI: 10.3923/ajft.2017.367.373

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajft.2017.367.373
 
Received: July 27, 2017; Accepted: October 10, 2017; Published: October 18, 2017

INTRODUCTION

Mulberry (Morus spp.) is widely distributed across the world. Mulberry fruits have a sweet flavor and are abundant in phytochemicals such as ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and other flavonoid compounds1,2. Due to their abundant bioactive compounds, mulberries offer a number of health benefits to consumers, including antioxidant, anticancer, neuroprotective, hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerosis functionalities3-5. However, mulberries have a short harvesting season and have sensitivity to storage and transport, for instance fresh mulberries can only be kept for several days in a refrigerator. As a result, mulberry fruit is popularly made into jam, pies, wines and liquor6,7.

In addition to taste, consumers also care about the health benefits of eating fruits, especially the bioactive compounds and their bioavailability. Mulberry wine is a popular alcoholic drink consumed in Asia, due in part to the potential health benefits related to its bioactive composition6,8. Alcoholic fermentation of mulberry results in more abundant phenolic compounds and a purple-black color of the final wine9. Wine properties are affected by the technology used to produce the wine or during aging10,11. The aging process also enhances the organoleptic properties of wine, thus making it more pleasant12. These studies showed that it is essential to further evaluate the constituents of mulberry wine.

The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in total anthocyanin, total phenolic, total tannin and total flavonoid contents during alcoholic fermentation and aging of mulberry wine. Antioxidant activities were also tracked. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the types and levels of the bioactive compounds and the overall antioxidant activity in mulberry wine.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Chemicals: Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, gallic acid, lutin, gallotannic acid and ascorbic acid were obtained from Sinopharm Chemical Reagent (Shanghai, China). 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 4, 6-Tris (2-pyridyl)-1 and 3, 5-triazine (TPTZ) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Other general chemicals were of analytical grade and were obtained from local suppliers.

Mulberry samples and winemaking: Mulberry fruits (Morus spp.) were collected in May of 2016 in the Central-Eastern of China. The fruits in this study had a °Brix of 18±0.26, a titratable acidity of 7.79±0.01 g L–1 as citric acid and a pH of 3.69±0.22. Mulberries were crushed into mash and then treated at 16°C for 24 h with pectinase (0.05 g kg–1, Laffort, Sydney, Austrilia) and potassium metabisulphite (70 mg kg–1). The mashes were then adjusted to 20°Brix with food-grade pure sucrose and inoculated with S. cerevisiae (Zymaflore F15, Laffort, Sydney, Austrilia) at 0.2 g kg–1. Alcoholic fermentation was carried out at 25°C and ended when the residual sugar content was below about 4.0 g L–1. Separation of the wine pomace was performed at the end of alcoholic fermentation. Potassium metabisulphite (40 mg kg–1) was added and then the wine samples were aged at 16°C for 3 months.

Total phenolic content (TPC): The TPC was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method13. The absorbance of each sample was determined at 765 nm. The results were expressed as mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per one liter of wine (mg GAE L–1).

Total anthocyanin content (TAC): The TAC was estimated using the pH differential method14. Aliquots of each sample were diluted with pH 1.0 or 4.5 buffers to the same dilution. The absorbance was measured at 510 and 700 nm in both pH 1.0 and 4.5 buffers. The TAC was calculated using Eq. 1:

(1)

Where:
A = Difference in absorbance between pH 1.0 and 4.5
MW = Molecular weight of cyanidin-3-glucoside (449 g mol–1)
DF = Dilution factor
Ve = Extract volume
g = Molar extinction coefficient of cyanidin-3-glucoside (29,600)
M = Mass of the sample extracted

The results were expressed as mg cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) equivalents per one liter of wine (mg C3G L–1).

Total flavonoid content (TFC): The TFC was measured using a colorimetric assay adapted from Mahmood et al.15. The absorbance was measured at 510 nm. The results were expressed as mg rutin equivalents (RE) per one liter of wine (mg RE L–1).

Total tannin content (TTC): The TTC was measured by the Folin-Denis method16. The absorbance was measured at 700 nm. The equation obtained for the calibration curve of gallotannic acid (0.2-130 mg L–1) was Y = 0.0236x+0.65 (r = 0.9995). The results were expressed as mg gallotannic acid equivalent per one liter of wine.

Free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH): The DPPH free radical-scavenging capacity was estimated by adding 2.95 μL of 0.1 mM DPPH methanolic solution to 50 μL of the sample extracts. The solution was thoroughly mixed and placed in the dark for 30 min. The absorbance was measured at 517 nm. The results were expressed in mg VC equivalent antioxidative capacity per one liter of wine (mg VC L–1).

Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay: The FRAP assay was adopted from that described by Si et al.17. The FRAP reagent was prepared fresh daily in acetate buffer (adjusted to pH 3.6 by acetic acid) by mixing TPTZ solution (10 mM in 40 mM HCl) and 20 mM iron chloride solution in a proportion of 10:1:1, respectively. Each sample (90 μL) was mixed with 3.0 mL of the FRAP reagent and incubated for 10 min at 37°C. The absorbance was read at 593 nm. The results were expressed as mmol ferrous ion per one liter of wine (mmol Fe2+ L–1).

Reducing power assay (RP): The RP was determined by the methods described by Infante et al.16. The absorbance was read at 700 nm after standing for 2 min, the final result was expressed as mg RP equivalent per one liter of wine (mg RP L–1).

Statistical analysis: Data were expressed as the means±standard deviation (SD) of triplicate determinations. Mean differences at p<0.05 level were determined by one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s range test using Prism™ v6.0 software.

RESULTS

Bioactive components of mulberry wines during fermentation: The total contents of anthocyanin (TAC), phenolic (TPC), total tannin (TTC) and flavonoid (TFC) were measured in mulberry wine over 4 days of fermentation (Fig. 1). The TAC of mulberry wine peaked on day 1 (911.73 mg L–1) and remained slightly decreased from day 2-4 (Fig. 1a).

Fig. 1(a-d):
Changes in the contents of (a) Total anthocyanins content (TAC), (b) Total phenolics content (TPC), (c) Total tannins content (TTC) and (d) Total flavonoids content (TFC) during fermentation of mulberry wine
 
Different lower cases represent significant differences (p<0.05), data were expressed as the Mean± Standard Deviation (SD)

Fig. 2(a-c):
Changes in (a) Free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH), (b) Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and (c) Reducing power (RP) in mulberry wine during fermentation
 
Different lower cases represent significant differences (p<0.05), data were expressed as the Mean±Standard Deviation (SD)

Increases in TPC were observed on each day of fermentation (Fig. 1b). Changes in the TTC (Fig. 1c) and TFC (Fig. 1d) during fermentation were similar to those observed for the TPC (Fig. 1b). The maximal observed levels of TPC (2482.61 mg L–1), TTC (1279.71 mg L–1) and TFC (664.20 mg L–1) were all on day 4.

Antioxidant activities of mulberry wines during fermentation: The levels of DPPH, FRAP and RP in mulberry wine were assayed during 4 days of alcoholic fermentation (Fig. 2). Each activity increased in mulberry wine during alcoholic fermentation, from day 0-4 and reached their maximum values at day 4.

Bioactive components of mulberry wines during aging: The total contents of anthocyanin (TAC), phenolic (TPC), tannin (TTC) and flavonoids (TFC) were measured in mulberry wine over 90 days of aging (Fig. 3). The TAC, TPC, TTC and TFC decreased during aging. The TAC (Fig. 3a) ranged from 719.39-158.80 mg L–1, while the levels of TPC (Fig. 3b) decreased from 2492.61-1936.52 mg L–1.

Antioxidant activities of mulberry wines during aging: Antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP and RP) were performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of mulberry wine during aging (Fig. 4). The changes in antioxidant activities were consistent with the changes in the TAC, TPC, TTC and TFC in mulberry wines, which decreased during aging.

Fig. 3(a-d):
Changes in the (a) Total anthocyanins content (TAC), (b) Total phenolics content (TPC), (c) Total flavonoids content (TTC) and (d) Total flavonoids content (TFC) in mulberry wine during aging for 90 days
 
Different lower cases represent significant differences (p<0.05), data were expressed as the Mean±Standard Deviation (SD)

DISCUSSION

Mulberry fruits are rich in phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and other flavonoid compounds18. A previous study indicated that anthocyanins were transferred into mulberry juice via maceration prior to wine fermentation19. In this study, the levels of anthocyanins in mulberry wine increased from day 0-1 during fermentation, but decreased from day 2-4, indicating that the rate of anthocyanin degradation might be greater than the initial rate of anthocyanin dissolution during the 1st day20. The changes in TPC and TFC during alcoholic fermentation of mulberry juice were consistent with red wine of Di Egidio et al.21.

As reported by Lim et al.22 and Zhang et al.23, changes in TPC and antioxidant capacity correlate during the wine making process. In this study, the antioxidant activities (Fig. 2a-c) and phenolics content (Fig. 1b) of mulberry wine continually increased during fermentation.

Anthocyanins have a low stability and their degradation is influenced by pH, light, temperature and oxygen24. In this study, the total anthocyanin contents decreased during mulberry wine aging. Since most phenolic substances are not sensitive to light, heat or oxygen25, the phenolics content decreased more slowly during the aging period. It has been reported that phenolics are responsible for antioxidant capacity26,27. Furthermore, Ramful et al.28 reported that the phenolics content of mauritian citrus fruit pulp extracts correlated strongly with the antioxidant activities as determined by the FRAP assays.

Fig. 4(a-c):
Changes in (a) Free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH), (b) Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and (c) Reducing power (RP) of mulberry wine during aging over 90 days
 
Different lower cases represent significant differences (p<0.05), data were expressed as the Mean±Standard Deviation (SD)

CONCLUSION

Mulberry juice was fermented and aged so that the total contents of anthocyanins (TAC), phenolics (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), tannins (TTC) as well as the antioxidant activities could be analyzed during the wine-making process. Mulberry wine has high TAC, TPC, TFC and TTC contents and antioxidant activity. The changes in the antioxidant activity were consistent with the changes in the TAC, TPC, TFC and TTC during fermentation and aging. These results indicate that changes in the timing of the mulberry wine-making process may more effectively deliver the antioxidant capacities of the mulberry fruit to the consumer.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

This study showed that the changes in antioxidant activities of mulberry wines were consistent with the levels of phenolic compounds in mulberry.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This study was supported by the Natural Science Fund Project of Colleges and Universities in Anhui province (KJ2016A544), the visiting training program in China and abroad of outstanding young talents of higher education in Anhui Province (gxfx2017222) and the Anhui Province district Key Project (15czz03101).

REFERENCES
Aramwit, P., N. Bang and T. Srichana, 2010. The properties and stability of anthocyanins in mulberry fruits. Food Res. Int., 43: 1093-1097.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Bae, S.H. and H.J. Suh, 2007. Antioxidant activities of five different mulberry cultivars in Korea. LWT-Food Sci. Technol., 40: 955-962.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Bao, T., Y. Xu, V. Gowd, J. Zhao, J. Xie, W. Liang and W. Chen, 2016. Systematic study on phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of some new and common mulberry cultivars in China. J. Funct. Foods, 25: 537-547.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Castrejon, A.D.R., I. Eichholz, S. Rohn, L.W. Kroh and S. Huyskens-Keil, 2008. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) during fruit maturation and ripening. Food Chem., 109: 564-572.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Cavalcanti, R.N., T.S. Diego and A.A.M. Maria, 2011. Non-thermal stabilization mechanisms of anthocyanins in model and food systems-An overview. Food. Res. Int., 44: 499-509.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Di Egidio, V., N. Sinelli, G. Giovanelli, A. Moles and E. Casiraghi, 2010. NIR and MIR spectroscopy as rapid methods to monitor red wine fermentation. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 230: 947-955.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Ercisli, S. and E. Orhan, 2008. Some physico-chemical characteristics of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) genotypes from Northeast Anatolia region of Turkey. Scient. Hortic., 116: 41-46.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Gambuti, A., T. Siani, L. Picariello, A. Rinaldi and M.T. Lisanti et al., 2017. Oxygen exposure of tannins-rich red wines during bottle aging. Influence on phenolics and color, astringency markers and sensory attributes. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 243: 669-680.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Giovanelli, G. and S. Buratti, 2009. Comparison of polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of wild Italian blueberries and some cultivated varieties. Food Chem., 112: 903-908.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

He, B., L.L. Zhang, X.Y. Yue, J. Liang, J. Jiang, X.L. Gao and P.X. Yue, 2016. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) wine pomace. Food Chem., 204: 70-76.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Hornedo-Ortega, R., M.A. Alvarez-Fernandez, A.B. Cerezo, I. Garcia-Garcia, A.M. Troncoso and M.C. Garcia-Parrilla, 2017. Influence of fermentation process on the anthocyanin composition of wine and vinegar elaborated from strawberry. J. Food Sci., 82: 364-372.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Infante, C.M.C., V.R.B. Soares, M. Korn and F.R.P. Rocha, 2008. An improved flow-based procedure for microdetermination of total tannins in beverages with minimized reagent consumption. Microchimica Acta, 161: 279-283.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Kim, H.G., M.S. Ju, J.S. Shim, M.C. Kim and S.H. Lee et al., 2010. Mulberry fruit protects dopaminergic neurons in toxin-induced Parkinson's disease models. Br. J. Nutr., 104: 8-16.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Lan, Y., J. Wu, X. Wang, X. Sun, R.M. Hackman, Z. Li and X. Feng, 2017. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavor profile change of pomegranate wine during fermentation and aging process. Food Chem., 232: 777-787.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Liang, L., X. Wu, T. Zhao, J. Zhao and F. Li et al., 2012. In vitro bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion. Food Res. Int., 46: 76-82.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Lim, J.W., J.T. Jeong and C.S. Shin, 2012. Component analysis and sensory evaluation of Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Mique) wines. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 47: 918-926.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Mahmood, T., F. Anwar, M. Abbas and N. Saari, 2012. Effect of maturity on phenolics (phenolic acids and flavonoids) profile of strawberry cultivars and mulberry species from Pakistan. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 13: 4591-4607.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Nagel, C.W. and L.W. Wulf, 1979. Changes in the anthocyanins, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid esters during fermentation and aging of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. Am. J. Enol. Viticult., 30: 111-116.
Direct Link  |  

Ramful, D., E. Tarnus, O.I. Aruoma, E. Bourdon and T. Bahorun, 2011. Polyphenol composition, vitamin C content and antioxidant capacity of Mauritian citrus fruit pulps. Food Res. Int., 44: 2088-2099.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Si, X., Q. Chen, J. Bi, J. Yi, L. Zhou and C. Wu, 2015. Infrared radiation and microwave vacuum combined drying kinetics and quality of raspberry. J. Food Process Eng., 6: 377-390.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Singleton, V.L. and J.A. Rossi, 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Viticult., 16: 144-158.
Direct Link  |  

Tchabo, W., Y. Ma, E. Kwaw, H. Zhang and X. Li, 2017. Influence of fermentation parameters on phytochemical profile and volatile properties of mulberry (Morus nigra) wine. J. Inst. Brewing, 123: 151-158.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Tchabo, W., Y. Ma, E. Kwaw, H. Zhang, L. Xiao and H.E. Tahir, 2017. Aroma profile and sensory characteristics of a sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine subjected to non-thermal accelerating aging techniques. Food Chem., 232: 89-97.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Wang, L., X. Sun, F. Li, D. Yu, X. Liu, W. Huang and J. Zhan, 2015. Dynamic changes in phenolic compounds, colour and antioxidant activity of mulberry wine during alcoholic fermentation. J. Funct. Foods, 18: 254-265.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Wang, S., C. Chen, W. Sciarappa, C. Wang and M. Camp, 2008. Fruit quality, antioxidant capacity and flavonoid content of organically and conventionally grown blueberries. J. Agric. Food Chem., 56: 5788-5796.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Wu, T., Q. Tang, Z. Gao, Z. Yu, H. Song, X. Zheng and W. Chen, 2013. Blueberry and mulberry juice prevent obesity development in C57BL/6 mice. PLoS One, Vol. 8. 10.1371/journal.pone.0077585

Yang, X., L. Yang and H. Zheng, 2010. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit in hyperlipidaemia rats. Food Chem. Toxicol., 48: 2374-2379.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Zhang, L., N. Li and X. Gao, 2016. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wines fermented using ten blueberry varieties. Am. J. Food Technol., 11: 291-297.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2018 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved
Fulltext PDF References Abstract