Anthocyanin, Total Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity of Common Bean
A.S.M. Golam Masum Akond,
The anthocyanin, total polyphenol and antioxidant activity of 29 common bean from diverse origins and seed coat color, was assessed. Among the bean genotypes, fourteen were developed by CIAT in various interests; thirteen were from the USA, representing several market classes and one each from Brazil and India. The seeds of included genotypes have shown distinction in shape, color and seed weight. The variations of seed color are white, cream, purple, red and black, with variations being striped, rhomboid spotted and circular mottled. Bean genotypes exhibited distinguishing differences in anthocyanin, total polyphenol and antioxidant activities. Anthocyanin content varied significantly among genotypes and market classes, ranging from 0.05 to 0.47 mg g-1. The bean genotypes with total polyphenol content ranging from 5.87 to 14.14 mg of gallic acid equiv/g and the sample also exhibited significant variation in antioxidant activity (17.09 to 36.96%). Considering the profile of bioactive compounds the genotypes T-39, XAN 176, BAT 93 and MIB 154 are promising. Generally bean genotypes with high anthocyanin and polyphenol content exhibit high antioxidant activity. The information of this study can be used for selecting superior bean genotypes for targeted food and feed purposes and also for a breeding program.
Received: April 09, 2010;
Accepted: July 13, 2010;
Published: September 28, 2010
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are important crop in the USA include
market class Pinto, Navy, Kidney, Black Beans and many others. Each market class
is defined by a specific seed size, color, pattern and traits controlled by
many genes (McClean et al., 2002). International
Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) has bred a series of Andean bean genotypes
with improved micronutrient content and reduced anti-nutritional factors and
are useful for production zones in the tropics and subtropics (Blair
et al., 2010). These are also distinguished by biochemical (Gepts
and Bliss, 1986; McClean et al., 2004) and
morphological (Gepts and Debouck, 1991) traits. Consumption
of beans has been linked to reduced risk of diabetes and obesity (Geil
and Anderson, 1994; Venkateswaran et al., 2002),
coronary heart disease (Anderson et al., 1984;
Bazzano et al., 2001), colon cancer (Hughes et
al., 1997; Hangen and Bennink, 2002) and gastrointestinal
disorders (Bourdon et al., 2001). Epidemiological
Studies (Correa, 1981; Kolonel et
al., 2000) confirm the highly significant inverse correlation between
bean intake and age adjusted mortality for colon, breast and prostate cancers.
Legume consumption (excluding soy foods) may have a protective effect against
prostate cancer in humans according to a recent multiethnic case control study
(Kolonel et al., 2000). This protective effect
could reflect the possibility of a ubiquitous bioactive constituent akin to
polyphenols, since it was not related to dietary fiber (Jain
et al., 1999). Polyphenols in bean include tannins, anthocyanins
and flavonols (Aparicio-Fernandez et al., 2005;
Beninger and Hosfield, 2003). Presence of anthocyanins
has only been reported in black and blue-violet colored beans (Aparicio-Fernandez
et al., 2005; Romani et al., 2004).
Polyphenols are known to exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic and antigenotoxic
activities and particular components such as flavonoids in Vigna sinensis
and anthocyanins from black beans also prevent genetic damage induced by
chemical mutagens in animal models (Wong et al., 2003;
Azevedo et al., 2003), thereby providing evidence
of anticancer activity.
Several findings on the biochemicals of bean have been reported. Some recent
biochemical studies center on the profiles of seed coat anthocyanin glycosides
(Choung et al., 2003) and polyphenols (Espinosa-Alonso
et al., 2006). The work of Williams et al.
(1995) focused on the flavonoid profiles in the leaves of 17 Phaseolus
species (cultivated and wild) and in the flowers of nine species. Efforts
have not yet been made to study the anthocyanin, total polyphenol and antioxidant
profile of commonly grown USA and CIAT developed bean genotypes. This investigation
describes determinants of naturally occurring variability in anthocyanin, polyphenols
and antioxidant activity of 29 bean genotypes. Such information is critical
in developing practical strategies to improve bean quality and enhance market
opportunities for bean products in the functional food and nutraceutical industry.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant material: Twenty-nine common bean genotypes were selected for
the present study of which fourteen were from CIAT; thirteen were from USA and
one each from Brazil and India. All common bean genotypes, along with their
pedigree (if known), country of origin and market classes are listed in Table
1. Pot experiments were carried out at the greenhouse of the Mayville State
University, ND, USA during the summer of 2008 in order to investigate the profile
of anthocyanin, polyphenol and antioxidant activity.
Determination of total anthocyanin content: Total Anthocyanin was determined
following the method described by Neff and Chory (1998)
with minor modification. Three hundred microliter of Methanol with 1% HCl solution
was added to 400 mg ground bean sample and mixed thoroughly; the extraction
was then allowed to occur overnight in a dark refrigerator. Next day 200 mL
Milli-Q H20 was added, followed by adding 500 μL of chloroform
to each tube using a fume hood. Then the tubes were spun in a centrifuge set
at the highest rpm for 2-5 min. The supernatant/aqueous (top) solution from
the tube was transferred into a new 1.5 mL microfuge tube. The volume was brought
up to 800 mL by adding 400 mL of a 60% Methanol 1% HCl solution. The absorbance
of each tube was recorded using a spectrophotometer at 530 nm against a reagent
blank with 480 μL Methanol 1% HCl and 320 mL Milli-Q H20 for
a total solution of 800 μL. The optical density of the extracted solution
was measured at 530 and 657 nm. Anthocyanin content was estimated by using the
equation A530- (0.25).A657, which compensates for the
contribution of Chlorophyll to the absorbance at 530 nm (Rabino
and Mancinelli, 1986).
Determination of total polyphenol contents: Total phenolic content was
determined using the method described by Khandaker et
al. (2008) with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent according to the method of Slinkard
and Singleton (1977) using gallic acid as a standard phenolic compound.
Two milliliter of a 1:10 diluted sample (1 mg extract in 10 mL 70% ethanol)
was placed in a test tube and mixed with 10 mL of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (2
N, Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) previously diluted 1:10 with deionized
|| Common bean genotypes, gene pool group, origin, seed color
Between 1 min and 8 min, 8 mL of a sodium carbonate solution, prepared by
dissolving 75 g in 1 L of deionized water (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO,
USA), was added to the test tube and mixed thoroughly with a Vortex mixer (Genie
2, Fisher Scientific, Bohemia, NY, USA) for about 5 sec. Then the test tubes
with the mixtures were allowed to stand for 1 h in the dark. Absorbances of
the resulting solutions were read at 760 nm using a spectrophotometer (Model
8451A, Diode Array Spectrophotometer, Hewlett Packard, CA, USA). Quantification
of total phenolics was based on a gallic acid standard curve generated by preparing
0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 mg L-1 of gallic acid (Sigma Chemical Co., St.
Louis, MO, USA) in deionized water. Total phenolics were expressed as mg gallic
acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of bean seed using the following formula: Gallic
acid equivalent (mg g-1 GAE) = ("x" Coefficient from the GA standard
curve x Absorbance at 760 nm + Slope of the GA standard curve).x 10 (Dilution
Antioxidant activity assay: Antioxidant activity was measured by the
diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical degradation method (Burits
and Bucar, 2000) described by Khandaker et al.
(2008). Briefly, 10 μL of leaf extract solution (three replicates)
was introduced into test tubes and 4 mL distilled water and 1 mL of 250 μM
DPPH solution was added. The tubes were mixed and allowed to stand for 30 min
in the dark. Absorbance was read against a blank at 517 nm using a spectrophotometer.
Antioxidant activity was calculated as the percent of inhibition relative to
the control using the following equation: Antioxidant activity (%) = (Ablank-Asample/Ablank)
x 100, where Ablank is the absorbance of the control reaction (control consisted
of 10 μL, methanol instead of a sample extract) and Asample is the absorbance
of the test compound.
Statistical analysis: Each determination was carried out on three separate
replications, analyzed in triplicate and then the figures were averaged. Data
was assessed by the Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) following Tukey's multiple
range tests and significance was accepted at p<0.05 (Tukey,
1953). The PC software Excel Statistics (Version 5.0, Esumi
Co. Ltd., Japan) was used for the calculations.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Bean seeds of selected genotypes have shown distinction in shape, color and seed weight. The variations of seed color are white, cream, purple, red and black. Patterns of seed color vary between striped, rhomboid spotted and circular mottled. The weight of 100 beans ranges between 15.88-78.85 g (p<0.05) with a mean of 29.97 g (Table 2). The highest seed weight was recorded for Andean genotype NUA45 (78.85 g) and the lowest seed weight was recorded for Mesoamerican genotype MIB152 (19.27 g), both of these genotypes were developed by CIAT breeding program.
Significant differences were found in anthocyanin content among 29 bean genotypes
and market classes (Table 2). The black colored Mesoamerican
genotype T-39 contained the highest anthocyanin content (0.47 mg g-1),
followed by the black colored CIAT genotype XAN (0.45 mg g-1). Cream
mottled Pinto bean Orthello (0.05 mg g-1) has the lowest content
followed by cream colored Brazilian genotype JaloEEP 558 (0.06 mg g-1),
Great Northern white bean BelNEB (0.06 mg g-1) and cream colored
CIAT genotype BAT 93 (0.06 mg g-1). Purple mottled four NUA series
genotypes developed by CIAT contained medium range (0.20-0.33 mg g-1)
of anthocyanin. Seven bean genotypes, T-39 (4.60 mg kg-1), XAN (4.56
mg kg-1), MIB154 (4.59 mg kg-1), G 122 (4.18 mg kg-1),
BAT 93 (3.65 mg kg-1), DOR 364 (3.32 mg kg-1) and MIB
217 (3.16 mg kg-1) had higher seed anthocyanin than those of others.
The anthocyanin content decreased in the following order based on average values
of market classes in the USA grown bean genotype: Black > Small red >
Snap > Navy > Pinto > Great Northern. Bean genotypes with dark colored
(black, red, or purple) flesh have higher anthocyanin content than the white
or yellow genotypes. Low concentrations of anthocyanins were found in the seeds
of the white/yellow flesh genotypes because anthocyanins are a group of well-known
water-soluble pigments, which contribute significantly to the red-blue coloration
of plant materials. The included genotypes contained at the higher end of the
anthocyanin spectrum compared to the studied red and black bean spectrum reported
by other scientists (Horbowicz et al., 2008;
Wu et al., 2006). Although, we did not determine
the specific anthocyanin group in the 29 bean genotypes, several researchers
found different anthocyanin groups in colored beans. For example, found in black
beans, delphinidin-3-O-β-D-glucoside, petunidin-O-β-D-glucoside and
malvidin-3-O-β-D-glucoside accounted for 56, 26 and 18%, respectively,
of the anthocyanins and were responsible for the black seed color (Tsuda
et al., 1994). The delphinidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-glucoside,
malvidin-3, 5-diglucoside, malvidin-3-galactoside and malvidin-3-glucoside contents
of 2.2, 0.8, 0.5, 0.03 and 0.4 mg g-1 of black beans were reported
by Xu et al. (2007).
|| Anthocyanin, Total Polyphenol (TP) and antioxidant activity
in common bean genotypes
|aMeans in a column with different letters are significantly
different (p<0.05) (n = 3). Concentrations of anthocyanin, total polyphenols
are expressed as mg (+) cyanidin-3-glucoside, gallic acid, equivalents g-1
sample for anthocyanin and total polyphenol, respectively. Antioxidant activity
is expressed as a percentage
Pelargonidin 3-glucoside was the major anthocyanin in red kidney beans (Choung
et al., 2003) and is responsible for the red pigmentation of this
type of kidney bean. Compared to the few data on anthocyanin in cereals and
pseudocereals available in the literature, our anthocyanin values were higher
than jasmine rice, Amaranthus hybridus, soybean (Gorinstein
et al., 2007) and black sorghum (Awika et
al., 2004). Quoted total anthocyanin values however cannot be compared
directly with the results of other research group because of the inherent variability
of botanical issues, sampling preparation and extraction procedures. Also content
of anthocyanin may differ among different plant parts in same cultivars as the
total anthocyanin content varies considerably; affected by genes, light, temperature
and agronomic factors (Horbowicz et al., 2008).
Variation in total polyphenol content ranging from 5.87 (JaloEEP) to 14.14
(G122) mg g-1 GAE of sample was significant (p<0.05) among genotypes
and market classes (Table 2). Seven bean genotypes, G 122
(14.14 mg kg-1), BAT 93 (13.68 mg kg-1), T-39 (12.60 mg
kg-1), NUA 35 (12.52 mg kg-1), MIB 154 (12.47 mg kg-1),
XAN (11.73 mg kg-1) and Vista (11.35 mg kg-1) had higher
seed total polyphenol than those of others. Among the CIAT developed, genotype
BAT 93 contained the highest (13.68 mg g-1 GAE), which is second
highest among all. The CIAT developed MIB bean series contained a good amount
of polyphenols except MIB 465 (7.15 mg g-1 GAE). The polyphenol content
decreased in the following order based on average values of bean market classes
in the USA grown bean genotype: Black > Small Red > Great Northern >
Pinto > Navy > Snap, the same order was not observed previously in a study
of 39 Canadian dry bean cultivars grown at four locations in Manitoba in 2003
(Balasubramanian et al., 2004). In general White
Beans, Navy and Great Northern, contained significantly less polyphenol than
colored beans in accordance with previous studies (Laparra
et al., 2008). Recently Xu and Chang (2009)
reported the phenolic acids in Pinto and Black beans varied depending on bean
type and Pinto beans contained higher total phenolic acids than Black beans
which were not consistent with our results. Aside from bean, other food commodities,
such as sweet potatoes and sorghum, show a similar relationship between seed
color and polyphenols. Brown and black sorghum had the highest levels of freely
extractable polyphenols (Awika, 2003). Because of the
differences in the methods of extraction and determination and in the ways of
expressing results between various authors, it is difficult to compare our data
with those from literature. For example, Cardador-Martínez
et al. (2002) has found the total phenolic content of bean cv. Flor
de Mayo to be 2.09 mg of catechin equivalents per gram of seeds. The same set
of authors in another publication have reported the concentrations of phenolic
compounds in six bean cultivars in the range 3.28-16.61 mg of catechin equivalents
per gram of seeds (Oomah et al., 2005). The levels
established by Vinson et al. (1998) using the
Folin-Ciocalteu method has been 35.9 μmol and 31.9 μmol of catechin
per gram of seeds for Kidney bean and Pinto bean, respectively. Wu
et al. (2006) employing the latter method has determined from 2.23
to 12.47 mg of phenolics (GAE) per gram of seeds in various bean cultivars.
Yet another author, (Marzo et al. 2002), who
has determined the total phenolic content of bean cv. Pinto by a method based
on the Folin-Denis reagent, has obtained the value of 0.44 mg of phenolics per
gram of seeds. The phenolic contents of twelve Italian cultivars of bean investigated
by Heimler et al. (2005) have ranged between 1.17
and 4.40 mg GAE per gram of seeds. As mentioned before, besides the determination
method itself, also the way of phenolic compound extraction from the study material
is of great importance. However, the results of the present studies are close
to those reported by Wu et al. (2006).
The antioxidant activity of bean genotypes, measured by the DPPH procedure,
showed significant variations among genotypes (Table 2). The
antioxidant activity of common bean genotypes varied in a wide range, cream
colored CIAT genotype BAT 93 had the highest (36.96%) and black colored CIAT
genotype MIB 465 had the lowest (17.09%) levels. Among the CIAT developed genotype,
BAT 93 showed the highest antioxidant activity (36.93%) which is also the highest
among all. Seven bean genotypes, BAT 93 (36.96%), MIB 154 (33.5%), T-39 (32.79%),
MIB465 (17.09%), NUA 59 (23.08%), Ryder (29.05%) and Mayflower (28.94%) had
higher seed antioxidant activity than those of others. The antioxidant activity
decreased in the following order based on average values of bean market classes
in the USA grown bean genotype: Small Red > Pinto > Navy > Great Northern
> Black > Snap. Likely total polyphenol, the CIAT developed MIB bean series
showed a high level of antioxidant activity except MIB 465 (17.09%). Tsuda
et al. (1994) assessed the antioxidants of white, red and black bean
seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and found that the seed coat and germ of
the white varieties had no antioxidant activity. In contrast, the red and black
seed coats had good antioxidant activity. This observation was later confirmed
by Chou et al. (2003) who reported that a 50%
ethanol extract of red beans had very good antioxidant activity and Wu
et al. (2004) who found that red beans had very good in vivo
antioxidant activity. Oomah et al. (2005) reported
that dark red Kidney beans had the highest antioxidant activity while Navy beans
had the lowest. However, the antioxidant activity of the Kidney beans was low
compared to other beans. Beans such as Black, Cranberry and Pinto had good antioxidant
and antiradical activity (Oomah et al., 2005).
These observations suggest that the colored beans have greater antioxidant and
antiradical properties than less colored beans. These values are different for
Navy, Pinto, Black and Red beans previously reported (Wu
et al., 2006) due to different extraction method, but generally higher
than recent values (Wu et al., 2004).
In the present study (Fig. 1a-c) anthocyanin
shows a significant positive correlation with the total polyphenol (r = 0.71;
p<0.05) and antioxidant activity (r = 0.68; p<0.05). The anthocyanin rich
vegetables, like black carrot and beetroots, showed high phenolic content and
correspondingly high antioxidant activity. The results thus confirm that anthocyanin
rich beans possess strong antioxidant activity (Wang et
al., 1997; Velioglu et al., 1998). A strong
correlation between total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity was observed
(r = 0.86; p<0.05) and this finding suggests that total polyphenol content
is a good predictor of in vitro antioxidant activity. Numerous studies have
demonstrated the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds.
||Correlation among Anthocyanin, Total Polyphenol (TP) and Antioxidant
Activity in 29 Common Bean Genotypes. Correlation between (a) anthocyanin
and total polyphenol. (b) anthocyanin and antioxidant activity and (c) total
polyphenol and antioxidant activity
Oomah et al. (2005) reported that total phenolic
content was the best indicator of the antioxidant activity of bean phenolics.
They calculated that 40-71% of the antiradical activity could be explained by
total phenolics and that flavonols were responsible for 20-39% of the antioxidant
activity depending on the bean type. Phenolics enhance antioxidant activity
due to their redox properties, which allow them to act as reducing agents, hydrogen
donors and singlet oxygen quenchers (Rice-Evans et al.,
1995). Thus, the antioxidant activity of a bean is due primarily to its
phenolic content, which can be used as an indicator for assessing the antioxidant
activity of the bean. Bean genotypes exhibited distinguishing differences in
anthocyanin, total polyphenol and antioxidant activities. Generally bean genotypes
with high anthocyanin and polyphenol content exhibit high antioxidant activity.
Therefore, content and bioavailability of these health beneficiary components
should not be overlooked in the selection of cultivars for phytochemical improvements
and consumption for human foods. Considering the profile of bioactive compounds
the genotypes T-39, XAN, BAT 93 and MIB 154 are promising. The information of
this study can be used for selecting superior bean genotypes for targeted food
and feed purposes and also for breeding programs. Such information can be used
to closely scrutinize the strategy of breeding programs for selecting superior
dry bean cultivars for targeted food and feed purposes.
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