Preparation of Bakery Products by Incorporating Pea Flour as a Functional Ingredient
An experiment was conducted to study the functional behavior of pea flour for improvement of nutritional quality of bakery products. Wheat is the staple food of Indians and pea crop is seasonal. This study was conducted to improve the nutritional quality of wheat based bakery products by incorporating pea flour as it is a rich source of protein and fiber. Flour from mechanically and field dried peas of two cultivars was incorporated into bread and cookies at 5 and 10% level. Bread and cookie making characteristics were studied. Prepared bread and cookies were evaluated for sensory characteristics. There was observed an increase in water absorption and decrease in the stickiness of the dough. Bread weight increased and volume decreased with the incorporation. There was observed a decrease in the cookie spread ratio. Sensory score for bread and cookies containing 5% pea flour were comparable to the control. So pea flour could be incorporated in bread and cookies up to 5% to improve the nutritional quality without affecting the sensory quality.
The demand of bakery products is increasing at the rate of 10.07% per annum.
India is a developing country with large segment of population depending on
wheat as staple foods and 25% of wheat is used in the preparation of baked foods.
Due to changing life style the people have started demanding ready to cook or
ready to serve convenience foods. More and more women are seeking employment
to supplement the family income and they find less time for cooking and therefore
demand ready to serve foods. Baked products are considered as excellent vehicle
for fortification, value addition and feeding at mass scale. Baked products
are the most important sources of dietary fiber in the total food consumption
(Hans et al., 1986). Pea meal is a good source
of protein, fibre, starch and iron. It also contains a number of anti-nutritional
factors such as phytic acid and trypsin inhibitors (Periago
et al., 1998). The role of dietary fiber in controlling chronic disorders
like diverticulitis, bowel cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, constipation
etc has been well documented (Painter and Burkitt, 1975).
Protein deficiency is a major dietary problem facing the world today, particularly
the underdeveloped and developing countries. The present study was designed
to incorporate pea flour as protein and fiber source in the preparation of bread
and cookies. Anu and Kawatra (2007) prepared biscuits,
sweet biscuits (A) and sweet and salty biscuits (B) using flours of refined
wheat, blanched pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) and green gram (Phaseolus
aureus) in the ratio of 50: 40: 10 (Type I) and 30:60:10 (type II) and control
containing 100% refined wheat flour. Both types of biscuits were liked very
much by the panelists. Slightly higher antinutrient (polyphenol and phytic acid)
contents were found in type-II sweet biscuits (A) and sweet and salty biscuits
(B) as compared to type-I and control sweet biscuits (A) and sweet and salty
biscuits (B). Blanched pearl millet flour in combination with refined wheat
flour and green gram flour can be successfully incorporated for the development
of nutritious biscuits. Sindhuja et al. (2005)
carried out studies on composite flour cookies by incorporating amaranth seed
(Amaranthus gangeticus) flour, on the basis of colour, taste, flavour,
surface appearance of the cookies, 25% incorporation of amaranth flour was found
to be optimum. Gupta and Singh (2005) used wheat flour
and quality protein maize based biscuits prepared with and without processed
defatted maize germ cake supplementation and compared with wheat flour based
biscuits as standard. Dhull et al. (2006) studied
the effect of replacing wheat flour with dried pea and red gram flours on the
nutritional and sensory quality of biscuits. The protein content increased from
5.1 to 8.2 and 9.0% with replacement of 3.0% of wheat flour with dried pea and
red gram flours, respectively. Singh et al. (2000)
prepared soy fortified biscuits with standardized levels of ingredients and
emulsifiers (SSL/GMS) and analysed for chemical composition, in vitro digestibility
and protein efficiency ratio. Addition of 20% defatted soy flour in the recipe
increased the protein, ash, crude fibre, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sugar and
available lysine contents of biscuits. Marques et al.
(2000) blended different types of flour and meal, which could significantly
improve protein quality over that of individual flours. In this study, various
flour/meal mixtures were prepared by blending wheat flour, soy meal and defatted
sesame seed meal in proportions of 70:20:10, 60:20:20, 50:30:20 and 0:50:50.
It was concluded that their low cost flour/meal blends could provide good quality
vegetable protein sources in the preparation of foods and could serve to alleviate
chronic protein malnutrition in underdeveloped and developing countries. Raidl
and Klein (1983) studied effects of substituting 5, 10 and 15% field pea
or defatted soy flour for wheat flour in a chemically leavened quick bread on
physical characteristics of batters and bread and sensory characteristics of
bread. Significant differences were observed for batter spread, consistency,
loaf volume, darkness and yellowness value of bread crumbs. Results indicated
that defatted soy flour could be successfully substituted for wheat flour in
quick breads at levels upto 15%, whereas at the same substitution levels, field
pea flour had adverse effects on both physical and sensory characteristics.
Jan et al. (2000) studied replacement of 5 and 10% of wheat flour
in chapati formulation with flours (meal) prepared from soybeans, peanuts, sunflower
seeds and rapeseeds with regard to nutritional values and sensory properties
of the chapaties. Khan et al. (1975) compared
baking properties of bread containing three experimental peanut protein concentrates.
The volumes of loaves produced from flour with concentrations of peanut protein
higher than 10% were significantly lower than those of loaves made from flour
containing other protein supplements. The present study was designed to incorporate
pea flour as protein and fiber source in the preparation of bread and cookies.
The objectives of this study were:
||To study the physicochemical and functional characteristics
of pea flour
||To study the effect of incorporation of pea flour on bread making properties
and acceptance of bread by sensory panel
||To study the effect of incorporation of pea flour on cookie making properties
and acceptance of cookies by sensory panel
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Pea flour was prepared from mechanically dried and field dried peas of cultivars
Pb-87 and Pb-88. The chemical composition and functional characteristics of
these pea flours are given in Table 1. This study was conducted
during 2005. Commercial wheat flour for evaluation was obtained from Luxmi Electric
Flour Mill, P.O. Box No. 7, Miller Ganj, Ludhiana. Bakers yeast, i.e., Prestige
yeast (Saccharomyces crevisae) manufactured by SAF Yeast Co. Bombay was
obtained from a local store and kept in refrigerator for baking test. Bakery
shortening (manufactured by Amrit Vanaspati Ltd., Chandigarh Road Rajpura-140401)
which had a melting point of 37°C was obtained from local market. Crystal
cane sugar and ground sugar were purchased from the local store for use in bread
and cookies. Sodium chloride (BDH) was used in the study. Sodium bicarbonate
was used as leavening agent in cookies preparation, manufactured by SD Fine
Chem. Ltd. Boisor-401506, India.
Straight dough AACC method (Anonymous, 1990) was followed:
To the above formula the flour was substituted by 5 and 10% pea flour of both
The dough was prepared and baking schedule as under was followed.
The loaves were packed in polypropylene bags and analysed for volume, weight
and moisture content. Sensory panel evaluation for appearance, crust colour,
crumb colour, aroma, taste and overall acceptability was done next by a panel
of eight judges.
||Physicochemical and functional characteristics of pea flour
For baking cookies AACC method (Anonymous, 1990) was
followed using following ingredients:
To the above formula the flour was substituted by 5 and 10% pea flour of both varieties.
Dough was prepared, sheeted (5 mm) and cut into circular cookies (diameter 5.5 cm) and baked for 10 min at 400°F.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Effect of Incorporation of Pea Flour on Bread Making Quality
Studies were carried out to incorporate pea flour at 5.0 and 10.0% level
in bread. It was found that quality of bread was good at 5.0% level as compared
to 10.0% level. The effect of incorporation of pea flour on external and internal
bread quality is given in Table 2 and 3.
Water absorption was observed more at 10% level of pea flour. The reason for
this increase may be due to increase in protein and fibre content by incorporation
of pea flour. Mixing time at both levels varied non significantly at both levels.
Dough handling was observed smooth at higher levels. Loaf volume and specific
volume was decreased with increase in levels of pea flour in both varieties.
Prentice and Appolonia (1977) had earlier reported the
decrease in the specific volume with increasing level of pea meal incorporation.
Shogren et al. (1981) had reported that the decrease
in loaf volume and specific volume with increase in levels of fibre could be
due to the dilution of gluten proteins.
||Effect of incorporation of pea flour on the bread making properties
||Effect of incorporation of pea flour on the sensory quality
||Effect of incorporation of pea flour on cookie making properties
Raidl and Klein (1983) concluded that defatted soy
flour could be successfully substituted for wheat flour in quick breads at levels
upto 15%, whereas at the same substitution levels, field pea flour had adverse
effects on both physical and sensory characteristics. In the present study it
was found that pea flour could be substituted at 5.0% level for preparation
Data regarding the sensory evaluation for appearance, crust color, crumb color, aroma, taste and overall acceptability of breads are presented in Table 3.
Sensory score showed that breads were acceptable at 5.0% level of incorporation of pea flour. Panelists awarded less scores for breads prepared at 10% level of pea flour to appearance, crust color and crumb color where as scores for aroma and taste varied non significantly. Overall acceptability of breads was observed better at 5.0% level of pea flour as compared to 10.0% level in both varieties.
Effect of Incorporation of Pea Flour on Cookie Making Quality
Cookies were prepared after incorporation of pea flour of different cultivars
i.e., Pb-87 and Pb-88, both mechanically dried and field dried at 0, 5.0 and
10.0% level in flour. Data regarding quality and organoleptic evaluation is
given in Table 4. Results showed that pea flour incorporation
decreased the spread ratio in all cultivars in comparison to control. With increase
in level of pea flour spread ratio of cookies decreased. This might have been
due to the increase in protein content of flour. Cookies were organoleptically
evaluated for top grain, texture, flavour and overall acceptability. Panelists
awarded more scores for texture of cookies at 5.0% whereas flavour scores were
observed more at 10% level of pea flour. Overall acceptability of cookies were
liked more at 5.0% level of pea flour cookies.
Pea flour was incorporated in wheat flour up to 10%. There was increase in water absorption and decrease in bread volume and spread ratio of cookies. Sensory score for bread and cookies containing 5% pea flour were comparable to the control. So pea flour could be incorporated in bread and cookies up to 5% to improve the nutritional quality without affecting the sensory quality.
Authors are thankful to Head, Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana for providing necessary facilities.
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