Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

An Evaluation of Membrane Stabilizing Activity and Antimicrobial Activity of Stem Bark of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) Against Selected Microbes



Manoj Ramesh Kumbhare, Thangavel Sivakumar, Tanuj Lakhote and Pravin Govinda Morankar
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) is a bush of African savannah, commonly known as Drum stick used in folk Medicine for the treatment of rheumatic pain, analgesic activity, antipyretic activity. The aims of present study were Evaluation of Membrane Stabilizing Potential and Antimicrobial Activity stem bark of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) against Selected Microbes. In Diffusion assay (Plate method) of extracts of M. oleifera depends on the diffusion of an antibiotic from a vertical cylinder or cavity through the solidified agar layer of petri plate to an extent such that growth of added microorganism is presented entirely in circular area or “zone” around the cavity. In this method zone of inhibition is determined. HRBC membrane stabilization method used for evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The results of HRBC Stabilization in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Moringa oleifera of extracts showed good inhibitory activity in petroleum ether extract as % inhibition of Haemolysis 5, 12, 20 and 33% in 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg mL-1 concentration, respectively. Chloroform extract and methanol extracts of Moringa oleifera showed moderate to good zone of inhibition against selected microorganisms compared with standard as Gentamicin. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids, steroids and tannins have been reported hence the anti-inflammatory effect produced by these extracts may be predictable due to the flavonoids and steroids. The HRBC membrane stabilizing property of Moringa oleifera was found to be promising and also exhibited good antimicrobial activity.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Manoj Ramesh Kumbhare, Thangavel Sivakumar, Tanuj Lakhote and Pravin Govinda Morankar, 2014. An Evaluation of Membrane Stabilizing Activity and Antimicrobial Activity of Stem Bark of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) Against Selected Microbes. American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development, 4: 41-49.

DOI: 10.3923/ajdd.2014.41.49

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2014.41.49
 
Received: August 12, 2013; Accepted: November 18, 2013; Published: March 10, 2014



INTRODUCTION

In Ayurveda the applications of herbal drugs are well documented which has been practiced for 5000 years (Dahanukar et al., 2000). In spite of tremendous growth in human medicines, infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are still a principal hazard to public health. There impact is particularly large in developing countries due to comparatively unavailability of medicines and the emergence of widespread drug resistance (Zampini et al., 2009). The present increasing awareness of medicinal plants is due to growing faith in herbal medicine. No doubt allopathic medicine may cure a wide range of diseases; nevertheless, its high prices and side-effects are causing many people to return to herbal medicines which have fewer side effects (Kala, 2005). The rising failure of chemotherapeutics and antibiotic resistance exhibited by pathogenic microbial infectious agents have lead to the screening of several medicinal plants for their potential antimicrobial activity (Ritch-Krc et al., 1996; Colombo and Bosisio, 1996). The antimicrobial activities of a range of plants have been reported by several Researchers (Cowan, 1999; Dewanjee et al., 2008). For most of the developing countries, the major issue of public health is still the keen requirement for basic health care which is sadly missing even at the most elementary level. This is true in both the rapidly growing cities and in the rural areas. The World Health Organization (WHO) indicates that more than half of the world’s population does not have access to adequate health care services. This is due to the fact that deprived people neither have access to nor can afford the present health care services. Therefore, innovative alternative approaches are considered necessary to address this problem. Medicinal plants present alternative remedies with remarkable opportunities. They not only provide access and affordable medicine to deprived people; they can also generate income, employment and foreign exchange for developing countries. A lot of traditional plants and herbs known to have therapeutic effectiveness in curing many diseases and disorders (Kumar et al., 2000). Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) a very common medicinal plant also known as Drumstick. Its seeds shown analgesic activity, Antipyretic activity (CSIR, 2003). Its leaves shown Wound healing activity (CSIR, 1999). Analgesic activity (Joshi, 2000; Sutar et al., 2008), Antiulcer activity (Hukkeri et al., 2006), Hypotensive (Rao and Ojha, 2003), Diuretic activity (Selvakumar and Natarajan, 2008). Roots have shown Antifertility activity (Nadro et al., 2006). Extracts of stem bark of Moringa oleifera were reported anti-inflammatory effect by Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma formation and analgesic activity (Kumbhare and Sivakumar, 2011). Extracts of stem bark of Moringa oleifera were reported antioxidant and Cytotoxic potential (Kumbhare et al., 2012). The lysosomal enzymes released through inflammation produced a diversity of disorders. The extracellular activity of these enzymes is related to acute or chronic inflammation. Hence lysis of human red blood cell membrane is taken as a measure of anti-inflammatory activity of the drug (Rajakumar and Anandhan, 2011). A wide range of medicinal compounds such as escinol, rutin, butadion and flavonoids possess membrane stabilizing property (Chaika and Khadzhai, 1977; Jaromin et al., 2006; Manivannana and Sukumar, 2007). Erythrocytes have been used as a model method by a number of researchers for the study of interaction of drugs with membranes. Various classes of drugs show membrane stabilizing property such as anesthetics, NSAIDs. Stabilization of HRBC membrane by drugs against hypotonicity induced haemolysis demonstrates a useful in vitro model for assessing the anti-inflammatory activity of compounds (Sessa and Weissmann, 1968; Litman et al., 1976; Rajurkar et al., 2009; Kumar et al., 2011). The present study evaluated the Membrane Stabilizing Potential and Antimicrobial activity against Selected microorganisms of the various extracts stem bark of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) against Selected Microbes in standard models.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Plant material: Stem bark of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) was collected from local region of Nashik, India in October 2008. The plant material was identified and authenticated by Dr. P.G. Diwakar Botanical survey of India, Koregaon Park, Pune, India. (Ref No. BSI/WC/Tech/2009/370).

Preparation of extract: The plant materials were cleaned, dried under shade and pulverized by using grinder. The powder of plant (500 g) was in succession extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol in order of their rising polarity using Soxhlet apparatus. The yield of extracts obtained as petroleum ether as 0.89%, chloroform as 3.6% and methanol as 16.63%. From the Preliminary Phytochemical study revealed that presence of sterols, glycosides, flavonoids alkaloids, triterpenoids and tannins in the extracts.

In vitro anti-inflammatory activity Human Red Blood Cell (HRBC) membrane stabilizing activity (Omale and Okafor, 2008; Awe et al., 2009; Olajide et al., 2000; Mahimaidoss et al., 2013).

Fresh blood was collected from healthy human volunteer and mixed with equal volume of sterilized Alsever solution (containing 2% dextrose, 0.8% sodium citrate 0.05% citric acid and 0.42% sodium chloride) and stored at 4°C and used within 5 h. Saline at two different concentration were prepared (isosaline 0.85% and hyposaline 0.25%).

Preparation of RBC suspension: The blood samples were centrifuged at 300 rpm and the packed cells obtained were washed with isosaline (pH 7.2) 3 times and 10% v/v suspension was made with isosaline. Solutions of different concentrations of the petroleum ether extracts of Moringa oleifera were prepared. Assay mixture contained the active drug, 1 mL of phosphate buffer (0.15 M pH 7.4) 2 mL of hyposaline and 0.5 mL of 10% RBC suspension. In another tube instead of 2 mL of distilled water was taken and this served as the control. All the tubes were incubated at 37°C for 30 min. They were centrifuged and the haemoglobin content in the supernatant was estimated using UV spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, 1650) at 560 nm. The percentage inhibition of heamolysis or membrane stabilization was calculated by following equation:

Image for - An Evaluation of Membrane Stabilizing Activity and Antimicrobial Activity of 
  Stem Bark of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) Against Selected Microbes

Where:

OD1 = Optical density of hypotonic-buffered saline solution alone
OD2 = Optical density of test sample in hypotonic solution

Screening of in vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts of M. oleifera: The strength of antibiotic content in samples can be determined by chemical, physical or biological means. An assay is made to determine the ability of an antibiotic to kill or inhibit the growth of living microorganism. The inhibition of microbial growth under standardized conditions may be utilized for demonstrating the therapeutic efficiency of drugs (Binutu and Lajubutu, 1994; Bauer et al., 1966; Heatley, 1944).

Diffusion assay (Plate method) of extracts of M. oleifera: This method depends on the diffusion of an antibiotic from a vertical cylinder or cavity through the solidified agar layer of petri dish or plate to an extent such that growth of added microorganism is presented entirely in circular area or “zone” around the cavity. In this method zone of inhibition is determined (Doughari et al., 2008; Collins et al., 1995; Nascimento et al., 2000).

Materials
Sample preparation: Prepared plates (diameter 7 mm) (1000 μg of extract).

Microbial cultures: The test microorganisms were obtained from the Medical College Nashik. (M.S.), India. Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Psuedomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC6633), Bacillus megaterium (NCIM 2533), Bacillus cereus (03BB102), Pseudomonas Fluorescence, Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC12228), Proteus vulgaris (NCTC8313 a) and Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 15380).

Composition of nutrient media: Nutrient media contains Peptone (1%), Yeast extract (6%), Sodium chloride (0.05%), Agar (3%) and Distilled water upto 100 mL maintain pH at 7.2.

The solid ingredients were dissolved in water and the media was sterilized by autoclaving at 15 lb cm-2 pressure for 15 min. All glasswares and nutrient agar medium were sterilized. Suspension of microorganism was inoculated in nutrient agar media. Then medium was poured in sterile petridish in which plate of extracts was fixed. The plates were then kept at 4°C for 1 h. Plates were than incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The zone of inhibition was measured in mm.

Statistical analysis: Results of all the above observations have been indicated in terms of Mean±SEM. Variation between the groups was statistically determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Dunnett’s test multiple comparisons test using GraphPad InStat version 5.00, GraphPad Software, CA, USA. The level of significance was set at p<0.05.

RESULTS

In vitro anti-inflammatory activity (HRBC stabilization): Effect of human erythrocyte haemolysis of extracts of M. oleifera showed good inhibitory activity in petroleum ether extract as % inhibition of Haemolysis 5, 12, 20 and 33% in 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg mL-1 concentration, respectively (Table 1).

Antimicrobial activity: Petroleum ether extract of M. oleifera showed zone of inhibition as Pseudomonas fluorescence (6 mm), Psuedomonas aeruginosa (16 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (8 mm), Escherichia coli (12 mm), Bacillus subtilis (9 mm), Bacillus megaterium (8 mm), Bacillus cereus (7 mm), Staphylococcus epidermidis (8 mm). While Chloroform extract of M. oleifera showed zone of inhibition as Pseudomonas fluorescence (22 mm), Psuedomonas aeruginosa (24 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (21 mm), Escherichia coli (24 mm), Bacillus subtilis (18 mm), Bacillus megaterium (20 mm), Bacillus cereus (14 mm), Staphylococcus epidermidis (18 mm). Methanol extract of M. oleifera showed zone of inhibition as Pseudomonas fluorescence (8 mm), Psuedomonas aeruginosa (7 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (11 mm), Escherichia coli (8 mm), Bacillus subtilis (10 mm), Bacillus megaterium (18 mm), Bacillus cereus (4 mm) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (10 mm). Standard was used as Gentamicin (Table 2).

Table 1: Effect of human erythrocyte haemolysis extracts of Moringa oleifera
Image for - An Evaluation of Membrane Stabilizing Activity and Antimicrobial Activity of 
  Stem Bark of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) Against Selected Microbes
PEECP: Petroleum ether extract of Moringa oleifera, data were analyzed using ANOVA and expressed as Mean±SEM (n = 5) followed by Dunnett’s test and differences between means were regarded significant at *p<0.05, **p<0.01

Table 2: Zone of inhibition (mm) for extracts of Moringa oleifera
Image for - An Evaluation of Membrane Stabilizing Activity and Antimicrobial Activity of 
  Stem Bark of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) Against Selected Microbes
Values are mean inhibition zone mm±SD of three replicates

DISCUSSION

The red blood cell stability test is based on the result that a number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents inhibit heat-induced rupture of erythrocytes, most probably by stabilizing the membrane of the cell. The erythrocyte membrane may be considered a model of the lysosomal membrane. Agents that can prevent the rupture of the latter and thereby prevent damage to the tissue caused by the release of the hydrolytic enzymes contained within the lysosome may be expected to improve some symptoms of inflammation (Hess and Milonig, 1972). It is well-known that lysosomes and their contents (hydrolytic enzymes and/or cationic proteins) play an important role in inflammation and inflammatory disorders (Dingle, 1961; Shen, 1967; Weissmann et al., 1969). It has been demonstrated that certain herbal preparations were competent of stabilizing the red blood cell membrane and this may be indicative of their ability to exert anti-inflammatory activity (Sadique et al., 1989; Oyedapo and Famurewa, 1995). Chronic inflammatory diseases are still the main health problem in the world (Yesilada et al., 1997; Li et al., 2003). Inflammation is the response of living tissues to injury. It involves a complex group of enzyme activation, mediator release and extravasations of fluid, cell exodus, tissue breakdown and repair (Vane and Botting, 1995; Perianayagam et al., 2006). Inflammation has become the core of worldwide scientific research because of its implication in almost all human and animal diseases. Anti-inflammatory action of flavonoids and tannins have been reported (Bhujbal et al., 2008). Hence, anti-inflammatory effect may be due to presence of these constituents in extracts. However, its pharmacological actions and mechanisms have not been precisely documented in spite of its increasing usage recently. Present work reported the potential effects of the stem bark of Moringa oleifera, as an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial in-vitro models. In the present study HRBC membrane stabilizing property of Moringa oleifera was determined as per Omale and Okafor (2008). HRBC Stabilization of lysosomal membrane by anti-inflammatory drugs is an important in limiting the inflammatory response by preventing the release of lysosomal constituents of activated neutrophil, such as bactericidal enzymes and protease which cause further tissue inflammation and damage upon extract cellular damage (Saleem et al., 2011). HRBC membrane stabilizing property of petroleum ether extract of stem bark of M. oleifera was found to be promising as showed good inhibitory activity in petroleum ether extract as % inhibition of Haemolysis 5, 12, 20 and 33% in 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg mL-1 concentration, respectively (Table 1). It is well recognized that infectious diseases report for high percentage of health problems, especially in the developing countries. Microorganism has developed resistance to several antibiotics and this has produced vast clinical problem in the management of infectious diseases (Davies, 1994). This resistance has increased due to unsystematic use of commercial antimicrobial, antibiotics drugs commonly used in the treatment of infectious diseases. This situation enforced scientists to explore for new antimicrobial substances from diverse sources, such as medicinal plants (Karaman et al., 2003) plants are major source of pharmacologically active drugs. For this the very first and simple investigation is to assess in vitro antibacterial activity (Tona et al., 1998). The chemical constituents of plants vary depending on the species, variety and part of the plant, with conditions of growth (soil, water and temperature) and with the age of the plant (Chaudhury, 1999). In the earlier studies by various authors reported the antimicrobial activity of various parts of Moringa oleifera. Caceres et al. (1991) reported antibacterial activity of the plant. Nwosu and Okafor (1995) reported antifungal activity. Spiliotis et al. (1997) also reported antimicrobial activity of M. oleifera seeds.

Dahot (1998) investigated antimicrobial activity from three fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves against E. coli, Kl. aerogenes, Kl. pneumoniae, S. aureus and B. subtilis and antifungal against Aspergillus niger. Bukar et al. (2010) evaluated for antimicrobial activity against some selected food-borne microorganisms as a first step in the screening of the extracts for preliminary sanitizing/preservative properties on foods from the chloroform and ethanol extracts of seeds and leaf of Moringa oleifera. In the present investigation the results for zone of inhibition of for extracts of Moringa oleifera were found to be excellent against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Psuedomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis for pet ether, chloroform and methanol extract (Table 2) which evaluates the traditional folk medicines by modern methods which are currently available for evaluation of natural products.

CONCLUSION

Currently there has been an increased interest worldwide to identify antimicrobial compounds from plant sources which are pharmacologically potent and have small or no side effects for use in protective medicine. The potency of herbal drugs is significant and they have negligible side effects than the synthetic drugs. There is increasing demand by patients to use the natural products with antimicrobial activity. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites such as tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids which have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial properties. Screening of medicinal plants for antimicrobial activities and phytochemicals is important for finding potential new compounds for therapeutic use. Thus, in light of the evidence of rapid global spread of resistant clinical isolates, the need to find new antimicrobial agents is of paramount importance. However, the past record of rapid, widespread emergence of resistance to newly introduced antimicrobial agents indicates that even new families of antimicrobial agents will have a short life expectancy. For this reason, researchers are increasingly turning their attention to herbal products, looking for new leads to develop better drugs against microbe strains. The present study demonstrates that the HRBC membrane stabilizing property of Moringa oleifera was found to be promising and also exhibited good antimicrobial activity.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are thankful to the Principal and Management of SMBT College of Pharmacy, Nandi Hills, Dhamangaon, Tal-Igatpuri, Dist., Nashik-422403 (M.S.), India for providing necessary facilities and encouragement to carry out research work.

REFERENCES
1:  Jaromin, A., R. Zarnowski and A. Kozubek, 2006. Emulsions of oil from Adenanthera pavonina L. seeds and their protective effect. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett., 11: 438-448.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  Awe, E.O., J.M. Makinde, O.A. Adeloye and S.O. Banjoko, 2009. Membrane stabilizing activity of Russelia equisetiformis, Schlecht and Chan. J. Nat. Prod., 2: 3-9.
Direct Link  |  

3:  Bauer, A.W., W.M.M. Kirby, J.C. Sherris and M. Turck, 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 45: 493-496.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

4:  Bhujbal, S.S., S.S. Chitlange, A.A. Suralkar, D.B. Shinde and M.J. Patil, 2008. Anti-inflammatory activity of an isolated flavonoid fraction from Celosia argentea Linn. J. Med. Plants Res., 2: 52-54.
Direct Link  |  

5:  Binutu, O.A. and B.A. Lajubutu, 1994. Antimicrobial potentials of plant species of the Bignoniaceae family. Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci., 23: 269-273.
PubMed  |  

6:  Bukar, A., A. Uba and T.I. Oyeyi, 2010. Antimicrobial profile of Moringa oleifera lam. Extracts against some food-borne microorganisms. Bayero J. Pure Applied Sci., 3: 43-48.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Caceres, A., O. Cabrera, O. Morales, P. Mollinedo and P. Mendia, 1991. Pharmacological properties of Moringa oleifera. 1: Preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity. J. Ethnopharmacol., 33: 213-216.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Chaika, L.A. and I. Khadzhai, 1977. Membrane stabilizing effect of medicinal substances used for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Farmakol. Toksikol., 40: 306-309.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  Chaudhury, R.R., 1999. Herbal Medicine for Human Health. CBS Publishers and Distributors Ltd., New Delhi, India, pp: 130.

10:  Collins, C.H., N.L. Patricia, M. Lyme and J.M. Grange, 1995. Microbial Methods. 7th Edn., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK.

11:  Colombo, M.L. and E. Bosisio, 1996. Pharmacological activities of Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae). Pharmacol. Res., 33: 127-134.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

12:  Cowan, M.M., 1999. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 12: 564-582.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

13:  Dahanukar, S.A., R.A. Kulkarni and N.N. Rege, 2000. Pharmacology of medicinal plants and natural products. Indian J. Pharmacol., 32: 81-118.
Direct Link  |  

14:  Dahot, M.U., 1998. Antimicrobial activity of small protein of Moringa oleifera leaves. J. Islamic Acad. Sci., 11: 27-32.
Direct Link  |  

15:  Davies, J., 1994. Inactivation of antibiotics and the dissemination of resistance genes. Science, 264: 375-382.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

16:  Dewanjee, S., A. Maiti, R. Majumder and A. Majumder, 2008. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcohalic extract of Schma wallichii bark. Pharmcolologyonline, 1: 523-528.
Direct Link  |  

17:  Dingle, T.J., 1961. Studies on the mode of action of excess of vitamin A. 3. Release of a bound protease by the action of vitamin A. Biochem. J., 79: 509-512.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  Doughari, J.H., A.M. El-Mahmood and I. Tyoyina, 2008. Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Senna obtusifolia (L.). Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2: 7-13.
Direct Link  |  

19:  Nascimento, G.G.F., J. Locatelli, P.C. Freitas and G.L. Silva, 2000. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Braz. J. Microbiol., 31: 247-256.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

20:  Heatley, N.G., 1944. Method for the assay of Penicillin. Biochem. J., 38: 61-65.
Direct Link  |  

21:  Hess, S.M. and R.C. Milonig, 1972. Assay for Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. In: Inflammation: Mechanism and Control, Lepow L.H. and P.A. Word (Eds.). Academic Press, New York, pp: 1-2.

22:  Hukkeri, V.I., C.V. Nagathan, R.V. Karadi and B.S. Patil, 2006. Antipyretic and wound healing activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. in rats. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 68: 124-126.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

23:  Mahimaidoss, J., C. Antony and A.R. Vincent, 2013. Phytochemical screening and bioactivity studies of Phyllanthus wightianus. J. Pharm. Res., 6: 188-192.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

24:  Joshi, S.G., 2000. Indian Medicinal Plants. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, pp: 400, 284, 109.

25:  Kala, C.P., 2005. Current status of medicinal plants used by traditional Vaidyas in Uttaranchal state of India. Ethnobot. Res. Applied, 3: 267-278.
Direct Link  |  

26:  Karaman, I., F. Sahin, M. Gulluce, H. Ogutcu, M. Sengul and A. Adiguzel, 2003. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus L. J. Ethnopharmacol., 85: 231-235.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

27:  Kumar, S., S.A. Hassan, S. Dwivedi, A.K. Kukreja and A. Sharma et al., 2000. Proceedings of the National Seminar on the Frontiers of Research and Development in Medicinal Plants: September 16-18, 2000. Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India, Pages: 711.

28:  Kumbhare, M. and T. Sivakumar, 2011. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of stem bark of Moringa Oleifera. Pharmacologyonline, 3: 641-650.
Direct Link  |  

29:  Kumbhare, M.R., V. Guleha and T. Sivakumar, 2012. Estimation of total phenolic content, cytotoxicity and in-vitro antioxidant activity of stem bark of Moringa oleifera. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Dis., 2: 144-150.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

30:  Li, R.W., S.P. Myers, D.N. Leach, G.D. Lin and G. Leach, 2003. A cross-cultural study: Anti-inflammatory activity of Australian and Chinese plants. J. Ethnopharmacol., 85: 25-32.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

31:  Litman, G.W., R.T. Litman and C.J. Henry, 1976. Analysis of lipophilic carcinogen-membrane interactions using a model human erythrocyte membrane system. Cancer Res., 36: 438-444.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

32:  Manivannana, R. and D. Sukumar, 2007. The RBC membrane stabilization in an in vitro method by the drug isolated from Leucas aspera. Int. J. Applied Sci. Eng., 2: 133-138.
Direct Link  |  

33:  Saleem, T.K.M., A.K. Azeem, C. Dilip, C. Sankar, N.V. Prasanth and R. Duraisami, 2011. Anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf extacts of Gendarussa vulgaris Nees. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 1: 147-149.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

34:  Nadro, M.S., R.M. Arungbemi and D. Dahiru, 2006. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity. Trop. J. Pharmaceut. Res., 5: 539-544.
Direct Link  |  

35:  Nwosu, M.O. and J.I. Okafor, 1995. Preliminary studies of the antifungal activities of some medicinal plants against Basidiobolus and some other pathogenic fungi. Mycoses, 38: 191-195.
PubMed  |  

36:  Olajide, O.A., J.M. Makinde, D.T. Okpako and S.O. Awe, 2000. Studies on the anti-inflammatory and related pharmacological properties of the aqueous extract of Bridelia Ferruginea stem bark. J. Ethnopharmacol., 71: 153-160.
Direct Link  |  

37:  Omale, J. and P.N. Okafor, 2008. Comparative antioxidant capacity, membrane stabilization, polyphenol composition and cytotoxicity of the leaf and stem of Cissus multistriata. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 7: 3129-3133.
Direct Link  |  

38:  Oyedapo, O.O. and A.J. Famurewa, 1995. Antiprotease and membrane stabilizing activities of extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides, Olax subscorpioides and Tetrapleura tetraptera. Int. J. Pharmacogn., 33: 65-69.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

39:  Perianayagam, J.B., S.K. Sharma and K.K. Pillai, 2006. Anti-inflammatory activity of Trichodesma indicum root extract in experimental animals. J. Ethnopharmacol., 104: 410-414.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

40:  Rajakumar, P. and R. Anandhan, 2011. Synthesis and in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of novel glycodendrimers with benzene 1,3,5 carboxamide core and triazole as branching unit. Eur. J. Med. Chem., 46: 4687-4695.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

41:  Rajurkar, R., R. Jain, N. Matake, P. Aswar and S.S. Khadbadi, 2009. Anti-inflammatory action of Abutilon indicum (L.) sweet leaves by HRBC membrane stabilization. Res. J. Pharm. Technol., 2: 415-416.
Direct Link  |  

42:  Rao, C.V. and S.K. Ojha, 2003. Analgeslc effect of Moringa oleifera Lam leat extract on rats. Proceedings of the 2nd World Congress on Biotechnological Developments of Herbal Medicine, February 20-20, 2003, Lucknow, India -.

43:  Ritch-Krc, E.M., N.J. Turner and G.H. Towers, 1996. Carrier herbal medicine: An evaluation of the antimicrobial and anti cancer activity in some frequently used remedies. J. Ethnopharmacol., 5: 151-156.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

44:  Sadique, J., W.A. Al-Rqobah, M.F. Bughaith and A.R. El-Gindy, 1989. The bio-activity of certain medicinal plants on the stabilization of RBC membrane system. Fitoterapia, 60: 525-532.
Direct Link  |  

45:  Selvakumar, D. and P. Natarajan, 2008. Hepato-protective activity of Moringa oleifera Lam leaves in carbon tetrachloride induced hepato-toxicity in albino rats. Pharmacogn. Mag., 4: 97-98.
Direct Link  |  

46:  Sessa, G. and G. Weissmann, 1968. Effects of four components of the polyene antibiotic, filipin, on phospholipid spherules (Liposomes) and erythrocytes. J. Biol. Chem., 243: 4364-4371.
Direct Link  |  

47:  Shen, T.Y., 1967. Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. Interscience Publishers, New York, India, pp: 1-29.

48:  Spiliotis, V., S. Lalas, V. Gergis and V. Dourtoglou, 1997. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of seeds of different Moringa oleifera varieties. Pharm. Pharmacol. Lett., 7: 39-40.

49:  Sutar, N.G., V.V. Patil, S.B. Narkhede, A.P. Patil and R.T. Kakade, 2008. Analgesic activity of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. Int. J. Green Pharm., 2: 108-110.
CrossRef  |  

50:  CSIR, 2003. The Wealth of India. Vol. 2, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, India.

51:  CSIR, 1999. The Wealth of India. Vol. 6, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, India, pp: 108.

52:  Tona, L., K. Kambu, N. Ngimbi, K. Cimanga and A.J. Vlietinck, 1998. Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some congolese medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol., 61: 57-65.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

53:  Vane, J.R. and R.M. Botting, 1995. New insights into the mode of action of anti-inflammatory drugs. Inflamm. Res., 44: 1-10.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

54:  Kumar, V., Z.A. Bhat, D. Kumar, P. Bohra and S. Sheela, 2011. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts of Basella alba Linn. Var. Alba. Int. J. Drug Dev. Res., 3: 176-179.
Direct Link  |  

55:  Weissmann, G., I. Spilberg and K. Krakauer, 1969. Arthritis induced in rabbits by lysates of granulocyte lysosomes. Arthristis Rheumatism, 12: 103-116.
PubMed  |  

56:  Yesilada, E., O. Ustun, E. Sezik, Y. Takaishi, Y. Ono and G. Honda, 1997. Inhibitory effects of Turkish folk remedies on inflammatory cytokines: Interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α. J. Ethnopharmacol., 58: 59-73.
CrossRef  |  

57:  Zampini, I.C., S. Cuello, M.R. Alberto, R.M. Ordonez, R.D. Almeida, E. Solorzano and M.I. Isla, 2009. Antimicrobial activity of selected plant species from 'the Argentine Puna' against sensitive and multi-resistant bacteria. J. Ethnopharm., 124: 499-505.
PubMed  |  

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved