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Research Article
 

Effect of Various Chemicals on the Mycelial Growth and Fruiting Body of Milky Mushroom (Calocybe indica)



Vinit Pratap Singh, Gopal Singh, Brajesh Kumar, Adesh Kumar and Seweta Srivastava
 
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ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) has become the centerpiece for commercial utilization all over the India. Milky mushroom is sturdy, fleshy and milky white in color even after flattening. As it grows in hot humid climate hence this mushroom is highly suitable for cultivation in most of the plains of India almost throughout the year. During the present study, effect of different chemicals on radial growth of the Calocybe indica was seen. Materials and Methods: For this experiment two Calocybe indica strains namely APK-2 and CI-6 were used. The sterilized substrates after spawning at 6% filled in polythene bags and kept in spawn running room at 28-32̊C. The polythene bags of completely impregnated mycelial growth were sprayed with 11% chemical solution of calcium carbonate, manganese sulphate, potassium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, zinc sulphate and ferrous sulphate before casing. Observations were recorded as total yield (g kg1 dry straw), days for pinhead formation (DFPF), days for first harvesting (DFFH), number of pinhead initiation (NOPI) and average weight of fruiting body (g/FB). Results: Results revealed that the highest numbers of fruiting bodies were plucked from strain APK-2 (25.00/bag) with calcium carbonate supplemented treatment and from strain CI-6 (23.33/bag), in control (without supplementation). Maximum yield was harvested significantly well in magnesium sulphate treatment from strains APK-2 and CI-6 (650.00 and 648.33 g kg1 of dry substrate with 65.00 and 64.83% B.E.) followed by calcium carbonate (635.00 and 623.33 g kg1 of dry substrate with 63.50 and 62.33% B.E.), respectively. Conclusion: However, maximum average weight per fruit body was recorded significantly well in magnesium sulphate supplemented treatment from strain APK-2 (31.58 g) and similarly from strain CI-6 (37.92 g). These chemical additives are also very cost effective and having no any residual effect on the quality and taste of mushroom.

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  How to cite this article:

Vinit Pratap Singh, Gopal Singh, Brajesh Kumar, Adesh Kumar and Seweta Srivastava, 2018. Effect of Various Chemicals on the Mycelial Growth and Fruiting Body of Milky Mushroom (Calocybe indica). Asian Journal of Crop Science, 10: 168-173.

DOI: 10.3923/ajcs.2018.168.173

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajcs.2018.168.173
 
Received: April 23, 2018; Accepted: August 14, 2018; Published: November 01, 2018


Copyright: © 2018. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

INTRODUCTION

Mushrooms are almost fat free proteinaceous edible fungi popular for their pleasant aroma, vitamins of B group and minerals. It generally contains 20-40% proteins on a dry weight basis and no cholesterol1. Other than protein, mushrooms are also a good source of non-starchy carbohydrates along with dietary fibre2. Mushroom has got a place in all religious books3. According to Greek or Roman myth ‘‘Mushroom sprang from a stroke of lightening’’ providing strength and energy during battle and Romans also regarded them as “Food of Gods” or “Gods Flesh”, which were served only on festive occasions4. Mushrooms are carved as exclusive kind of food, since ancient times believed as a product of an interaction between lightning and the earth5. Some also considered it as a flower of Ishwar for Hindus or a dish of Jannat for Islamic people. It is also known by various names like Khumbhi, Gobarchatta, Bhumiphor etc., in India. The Hindi term Khumbhi has been originated from Sanskrit word “Ksumpa”. The local name “Gobarchatta” is assigned due to its habitat and chhatra like structure. Since some of its species come out by breaking the soil layer so it is also known as “Bhumiphor”.

Milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) has become the third commercially grown mushroom in India after the species of Agaricus and Pleurotus6. Calocybe indica belongs to sub-division Basidiomycotina, class Hymenomycetes, order Agaricales and family Tricholomataceae7. The dried sporophores of this mushroom contain 17.69% protein, 4.10% fat, 3.40% crude fibre, 64.26% carbohydrates, 4.00% soluble sugar, 2.95% starch and 7.43% ash. In addition to this it has most of the mineral salts such as Potassium, Sodium, Iron and Calcium8. Integrating mushroom cultivation in the existing farming systems not only supplements the income of the farmers but also promotes proper recycling of agro-residues thereby improving soil health and promoting organic agriculture. Therefore, there is need to have mushroom which can grow during summer months being longer shelf-life. Milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) fits well under these conditions because of its ability to grow at temperature above 30°C, white sporophore, excellent shelf life, high biological efficiency (80-90%) and easier in post-harvest handling9. Calocybe indica is a relatively new introduction to the world of edible mushrooms from India10. It is also known as “Dudh Chhatta” because of its milky white appearance and large sized sporophores or as “white summer mushroom” because of its tropical nature.

So, the main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different chemicals on radial growth of the Calocybe indica. For these experiment two strains of Calocybe indica namely APK-2 and CI-6 were used.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The experiments were conducted in Mushroom Laboratory Department of Plant Pathology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India during the year 2015-16. During the experiment the effect of six chemical additives were evaluated for the growth and production of milky mushroom which were provided by the Laboratory of Agricultural Chemistry, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut. Analytical and commercial grading of all the chemicals mentioned in Table 1.

Effect of different chemicals on radial growth: The experiment was carried out by using six chemicals viz., ferrous sulphate (1%), manganese sulphate (1%), potassium sulphate (1%), magnesium sulphate (1%), zinc sulphate (1%) and calcium carbonate (1%) mixed in potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium by using poisoned food technique to see the effect of chemicals on the radial growth of the Calocybe indica11. The PDA medium was prepared and required amount of chemicals were added in the medium after sterilization. The 25 mL medium was poured in each sterilized Petri plate and subsequently inoculated with 9 mm disc of 7 days old culture of strain APK-2 and CI-6. Inoculated plates were incubated at 28±1°C. The observations of radial growth were taken at each 48 h till the colony covered the first full plate.

Effect of different chemicals supplement in substrate on cropping: For this experiment two Calocybe indica strains namely APK-2 and CI-6 were used. The sterilized substrates after spawning at 6% filled in polythene bags and kept in spawn running room at 28-32°C. The polythene bags of completely impregnated mycelial growth were sprayed with chemical solution of ferrous sulphate (1%), manganese sulphate (1%), potassium sulphate (1%), magnesium sulphate (1%), zinc sulphate (1%) and calcium carbonate (1%) before casing. Observations were recorded as total yield (g kg1 dry straw), days for pinhead formation (DFPF), days for first harvesting (DFFH), number of pinhead initiation (NOPI) and average weight of fruiting body (g/FB).

Table 1: Grading of chemicals
Image for - Effect of Various Chemicals on the Mycelial Growth and Fruiting Body of Milky Mushroom (Calocybe indica)

Statistical analysis: Data with appropriate transformations were analyzed with the help of one way analysis of variance table wherever required. The F-value was tested and critical difference (CD) was calculated at 5% of significance for comparing treatment means12,13.

In order to compare the means of various entries, calculating the critical difference (CD) by the following formula:

Image for - Effect of Various Chemicals on the Mycelial Growth and Fruiting Body of Milky Mushroom (Calocybe indica)

where, SE is standard error of the difference of the treatment means to be compared and:

Image for - Effect of Various Chemicals on the Mycelial Growth and Fruiting Body of Milky Mushroom (Calocybe indica)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Effect of different chemicals on radial growth: It was evident from the data presented in Table 2 and Fig. 1 that the chemicals viz., ferrous sulphate (1%), potassium sulphate (1%), magnesium sulphate (1%) and calcium carbonate (1%) significantly increased the radial growth of two strains of C. indica (i.e., APK-2 and CI-6) as compared to control. Maximum radial growth was observed on 9th day of observation in magnesium sulphate (9.00 cm), potassium sulphate (8.92 cm) and calcium carbonate (7.92 cm) supplemented medium in APK-2 strain followed by ferrous sulphate (7.78 cm). Similarly in case of CI-6 maximum radial growth on 9th day observed in magnesium sulphate (9.00 cm), potassium sulphate (8.78 cm) and calcium carbonate (8.22 cm) supplemented medium followed by ferrous sulphate (7.52 cm). The poor growth was recorded in strains APK-2 (3.78 cm) and CI-6 (2.95 cm) in zinc sulphate supplemented medium.

The results are almost in accordance with the findings of many scientists who studied the effect of various source of carbon (brown sugar, fructose, lactose, glucose, sucrose, starch and maltose), nitrogen [wheat bran, yeast cream, beef cream, peptone, (NH4)2SO4, NH4Cl and (NH4)2CO3] and inorganic salts (K2SO4, MgSO4, CaSO4, MnSO4 and FeSO4) on the mycelial growth of P. Ostreatus14. The mycelial growth was more pronounced with brown sugar as the carbon source, wheat bran as the nitrogen source and MgSO4 as the inorganic salts source. The most suitable culture medium for P. ostreatus consisted of various nutrient sources, including 3% wheat bran, 1% brown sugar, 1% MgSO4 and 10 mg vitamin B1 per litre12. The chemicals viz., salicylic acid (0.1%), ferrous sulphate (1%), copper sulphate (1%), manganese sulphate (1%), potassium sulphate (1%), magnesium sulphate (1%), zinc sulphate (1%) and calcium carbonate (1%) significantly increased the radial growth of the five strains of Calocybe indica (i.e., CI-3, CI-4, CI-5, CI-6 and CI-10) as compared to control. Maximum radial growth was observed at 6th day’s observations in ferrous sulphate, manganese sulphate and copper sulphate (9.00, 9.00 and 8.93 cm) in CI-6 strain followed by magnesium sulphate (8.45 cm)15.

Image for - Effect of Various Chemicals on the Mycelial Growth and Fruiting Body of Milky Mushroom (Calocybe indica)
Fig. 1: Effect of different chemicals on radial growth of Calocybe indica (1: MgSO4, 2: K2SO4, 3: FeSO4, 4: CaCO3, 5: MnSO4, 6: ZnSO4 and 7: Control)

Table 2: Effect of different chemicals on the radial growth of Calocybe indica strain APK-2 and CI-6 in PDA media
Image for - Effect of Various Chemicals on the Mycelial Growth and Fruiting Body of Milky Mushroom (Calocybe indica)
CD at 5% Chemical: 0.2446, Strains: 0.1307, Chemical×Strains: 0.346, Average of three replications

Effect of different chemical supplements on yield: The results in Table 3 and 4 indicated that incorporation of the chemical supplements increased the yield and number of sporophores of both strains of Calocybe indica. Wheat straw substrate supplemented with different chemicals took less period for pinhead formation and first harvesting while produced more number of pin head initiation and higher yield in case of both strains APK-2 and CI-6 as compared to control (without supplementation). The magnesium sulphate supplemented treatment showed least days for pinhead formation (15.33 and 14.00 days) and for first harvesting (18.33 and 23.33 days) in both strains APK-2 and CI-6 as compared to control, respectively. Maximum number of pinhead was recorded in treatment supplemented with magnesium sulphate and potassium sulphate (both 49.67/bag) in APK-2 and they were non-significant while in case of CI-6 supplemented with magnesium sulphate (62.00/bag) followed by potassium sulphate (58.67/bag) which were significantly superior in overall treatments.

Maximum numbers of fruiting bodies were harvested from strain APK-2 (25.00/bag) with calcium carbonate supplemented treatment and from strain CI-6 (23.33/bag), in control (without supplementation). Maximum yield was harvested significantly well in magnesium sulphate treatment from strains APK-2 and CI-6 (650.00 and 648.33 g kg1 of dry substrate with 65.00 and 64.83% BE) followed by calcium carbonate (635.00 and 623.33 g kg1 of dry substrate with 63.50 and 62.33% BE) as compared to control (533.33 and 475.00 g kg1 of dry substrate with 53.33 and 47.50% BE), respectively. However, maximum average weight per fruit body was recorded significantly well in magnesium sulphate supplemented treatment from strain APK-2 (31.58 g) and similarly from strain CI-6 (37.92 g), respectively.

Kumar et al.16 recorded comparatively similar results that is minimum time was observed for spawn run in supplemented with magnesium sulphate followed by salicylic acid and manganese sulphate in strains CI-6 and CI-4, which were significantly superior than without supplemented treatment. The salicylic acid supplemented treatment was significantly showed least days for pinhead formation and magnesium sulphate for first harvesting in both strains CI-6 and CI-4 as compared to control. Maximum numbers of pinhead initiation were showed in treatment supplemented with magnesium sulphate in CI-6 followed by ferrous sulphate and supplemented with manganese sulphate followed by calcium carbonate in CI-4. Maximum yield was harvested significantly well in magnesium sulphate treatment from strains CI-6 and CI-4 followed by calcium carbonate as compared to control16.

Table 3: Effect of different chemicals on spawn run, cropping period and yield of Calocybe indica using APK-2 strain
Image for - Effect of Various Chemicals on the Mycelial Growth and Fruiting Body of Milky Mushroom (Calocybe indica)
Average of three replications, DFPF: Days for pinhead formation, DFFH: Days for first harvesting, NOPI: Number of pinhead initiation, NOFB: Number of fruiting body

Table 4:- Effect of different chemicals on spawn run, cropping period and yield of Calocybe indica using CI-6 strain
Image for - Effect of Various Chemicals on the Mycelial Growth and Fruiting Body of Milky Mushroom (Calocybe indica)
Average of three replications, DFPF: Days for pinhead formation, DFFH: Days for first harvesting, NOPI: Number of pinhead initiation, NOFB: Number of fruiting body

CONCLUSION

During the present experiment, maximum numbers of fruiting bodies were harvested from strain APK-2 with calcium carbonate supplemented treatment and from strain CI-6, in control (without supplementation). Maximum yield was harvested significantly well in magnesium sulphate treatment from strains APK-2 and CI-6 followed by calcium carbonate, respectively. However, maximum average weight per fruit body was recorded significantly well in magnesium sulphate supplemented treatment from strain APK-2 and similarly from strain CI-6.

In view of the presented results, it can be concluded that the yield, yield contributing characteristics and biological efficiency in the supplemented sets increased as compared to the unsupplemented control set except zinc sulphate but the utilization of magnesium sulphate supplemented substrate is promising for the enhanced production of milky mushroom (Calocybe indica). The addition of chemical additives to substrate significantly increased the mycelia extension, density and yield of Calocybe indica.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

Salient findings of this study is that the addition of these inorganic additives in the substrate will furnished significant increment in the yield of milky mushroom because these additives are cost effective for the poor farmers and having no any residual effect on the quality and taste of mushroom.

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