Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Effective Concentration of Poly Ethylene Glycol on the Growth of Soybean Varieties



Hidayati , Mahfudz , Fathurahman and Sakka Samuddin
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Priming or pretreatment on seeds using osmotic solution with PEG (Poly Ethylene Glycol) can improve physical, physiological and biochemical characteristics of seeds. The aim of this research is to examine the effect of PEG-4000 concentration on the growth of varieties of soybean. Material and Method: The experiment used Completely Randomized Design (RAL) factorial pattern with two factors. The first factor is pretreatment by soaking the seeds (w/v) into various concentrations of osmotic solution (PEG-4000) for 3 h, consisting of six levels: (1) Soaking the seeds in destilat (R0 = 0 Mpa), (2) 20% PEG (R1), (3) 25% PEG (R2), (4) 30% PEG (R3), (5) 35% PEG (R4) and (6) 40% PEG (R5). The second factor is Soybean Seed varieties with medium seed (10-14 g/100 seeds), which consist of three levels, namely: (1) Mitani varieties, (2) Dering varieties and (3) Wilis varieties (local). The observed variables were germination, germination rate, crown length, root length, canopy and root length ratio and dry weight of plants. The data analysis included regression. Results: Seeds pretreated in osmotic solution (PEG-4000) tend to have a good effect on the growth of each soybean varieties than without PEG. Interaction with 40% PEG treatment yields the highest value for all indicators compared to other concentrations. Conclusion: Interaction of 40% PEG treatment is an effective concentration on the growth of soybean varieties. Dering varieties showed the best growth compared to the varieties of Wilis and Mitani varieties.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Hidayati , Mahfudz , Fathurahman and Sakka Samuddin, 2018. Effective Concentration of Poly Ethylene Glycol on the Growth of Soybean Varieties. Asian Journal of Crop Science, 10: 127-133.

DOI: 10.3923/ajcs.2018.127.133

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajcs.2018.127.133
 
Copyright: © 2018. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

INTRODUCTION

The use of high-quality seeds is the first step in supporting the increase in the production of food crops commodities. One factor limiting the production of soybean is the deterioration (regression of seed quality) physically, physiologically and genetically and is irreversible but can be maintained or reduced depending on handling and environmental factors. Deterioration often occurs mainly in the tropics due to temperature, faulty handling during harvest and limited storage. Deterioration can be solved by seed priming the seeds to be planted.

The seed priming method is the pretreatment of seed, can be done chemically by using osmotic solution (osmoconditioning). Priming seeds indirectly optimize the viability and vigor, so the seeds are able to grow quickly and simultaneously in various conditions. It is a way of improving germination and performance/vigor in a wide and effective spectrum for tampered conditions1,2. seeds Priming can work on physiological and biochemical improvement in seeds starting when seeds are seeded in an osmotic with a low water potential and this water content can be retained after reaching equilibrium3,4.

The osmotic solution with PEG is able to retain water, depending on the molecular weight and its concentration, its non-toxic and is soluble in nature5. The osmotic solution is used in the priming process. Priming can be done on seeds in the form of grains for example in rice, sesame, chilli and soybeans2,6,7.

Soybean varieties in Indonesia have some advantages in terms of resistance to diseases. Particular yields, such as varieties of mitani are resistant to leaf rust disease and have average yield of 2.0 t ha1. The type of wilis is resistant to leaf rust and viruses and has average yield of 1.6 t ha1. The varieties of Dering borer-resistant pest type have average yield of 2.0 t ha1 8.

The final goal of genetic improvement of soybeans is to release high yielding varieties of high yield, adaptive to the production environment and the quality of seeds favored by farmers. Successful development of the superior species is determined by various aspects, namely the adaptation area, having a variety of yield potential, harvest age and seed quality. Each variety of plants has different adaptability to grow optimally. It was reported by Visser9 that each variety has a significant genetic variation for water use efficiency because each variety has a different response to drought stress.

Previous research has been done to see the effect of GA3 concentration on seed quality of cultivar soybean of burangrang varieties10. The use of Polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) compared with other research is that the research that has been done is focused on the development of soybean varieties that are adaptive to the environment and optimizing the use of dry land11,12. This is in accordance with research by Lawlor13 which shows that PEG 4000can reducing water absorption and causing desiccation of the plant, so it fits on dry land.

In this research, seed priming of several varieties, such as varieties of mitani species, varieties of Dering and varieties of wilis (local), was done with concentration of PEG-4000. The beneficial nature of seeds priming and the information on the suitability of new improved varieties growing in certain areas are identified. Therefore, research is needed to assess the use of osmotic solution with PEG-4000 which is effective against different viability and vigor of soybean varieties, also functioning as seed osmoprotectant to overcome the pressure of drought in the field.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Research type: The experiment was prepared using Completely Randomized Design (RAL) of factorial pattern with 2 factors14. The experiments were conducted at the Seed Technology Laboratory and the screen house of Faperta University Tadulako, starting from June-August, 2017.

Materials: The materials used are varieties of soybean mitani type, soybean varieties of Dering and soybean varieties of wilis (local), 1000 mL Aquades and PEG-4000.

Research procedure
Preparation stage: The research began by making osmotic solution with PEG-4000 (w/v). Scaling PEG depends on treatment and each was dissolved in 1000 mL of aquadest15.

Immersion stage: The osmoconditioning treatment was done by 2 factors. The first factor is pretreatment by soaking the seeds (w/v) into various concentrations of osmotic solution (PEG-4000) consisting of six levels: (1) Soaking the seeds in distillate (R0), (2) 20% PEG (R1), (3) 25% PEG (R2), (4) 30% PEG (R3), (5) 35% PEG (R4) and (6) 40% PEG (R5). The second factor is Seed Soybean varieties with medium seed (10-14 g/100 seeds), which consists of three levels, namely: (1) Mitani varieties, (2) Varieties of Dering and (3) Varieties Wilis (local). Each treatment combination was repeated three times. Each experimental unit used 20 soybean seeds so that the whole contained 54 units, consisting of 108 experimental pot where soybean seeds were soaked into PEG-4000 solution for 3 h. Then, they were rinsed with water and dried for 2 h.

Planting and germination testing: Seeds are germination in a container using soil and sand medium (1:1). Maintenance and observation were done daily for 14 days.

Data analysis: Germination rate is measured based on the percentage of normal sprouts at 10 HST based on the 2006 ISTA formula16. Germination rate (etmal-1 %) was calculated using the 2006 ISTA formula16. Length of crown at 14 HST (cm), Root Length at 14 HST (cm)17. Length of crown and Root (cm)18. Dry weight of plant at 14 HST19.

The effect of treatment, variance analysis test was used (ANOVA). If it is significant, then followed by the test of True Real Difference (BNJ)20 at α = 0.05 and α = 0.01. Relationship was done in equation with regression analysis.

RESULTS

Sprouting power: The germination power is different between effect of soaking treatment of seed with destilat (control = 0 MPa) and soaking treatment using osmotic solution of various concentration of PEG-4000. Each variety tends to have different effects on different concentrations of PEG-4000. Interaction treatment 40% PEG and Dried varieties yield the highest value (91.67%) (Fig. 1). Dering varieties provide the highest germination response with equations; yDering = 0.5583x+68.542; r = 0.9610**. This means that the treatment of soaking the seeds with distillate (R0) yields 68.54% germination and the soaking of seed in an osmotic solution with 40% PEG (-1.6 MPa) reaches 91.67% with increased germination rate of 23.13% of the varieties of Dering (Fig. 1).

Sprouting speed: The linear correlation analysis in Fig. 2 yields an equation; yWilis = 0.4537x+63.664; r = 0.8111**, meaning that the response speed germinate with highest value was achieved by Wilis Varieties.

Image for - Effective Concentration of Poly Ethylene Glycol on the Growth of Soybean Varieties
Fig. 1: Average sprouting power {r (0.05: 0.468; 0,01: 0,590)}

Image for - Effective Concentration of Poly Ethylene Glycol on the Growth of Soybean Varieties
Fig. 2: Average growing velocity {r (0.05: 0.468; 0,01: 0,590)}

The seed immersion treatment with distillate yielded 63.66% germination rate per etmal while with treatment of 40% PEG osmotikum solution yielded germination rate of 81.81% per etmal.

Average length of header: The linear correlation analysis in Fig. 3 yields the equation yMitani = 0.125x+11.317; r = 0.8657**, meaning that the varieties of Minati give the highest response on the length parameter of the canopy. Soaking the seeds with the distillate (control) reaches the crown length value of 11.31 cm and in the treatment with 40% PEG osmotikum solution yields a crown length value of 16.31 cm. So, there is a change in the length of the canopy of 5 cm. The growing velocity in Mitani varieties is different from that of the varieties of Dering and Wilis varieties. The effect of each treatment of different varieties is on the concentration level of 40% PEG (-1.6 MPa) and correlated with increased canopy growth up to 14 days after planting.

Root length: The linear correlation analysis in Fig. 4 yields the equation; yDering = 0.08x+11.836; r = 0.8062** showing that the treatment of Dering varieties responds the root length with the highest value. The treatment of seed immersion with distillate (control) reached the root length value of 11.83 cm while treatment with 40% PEG osmotic solution resulted in a root length of 15.03 cm so that there is a difference of 3.2 cm.

Image for - Effective Concentration of Poly Ethylene Glycol on the Growth of Soybean Varieties
Fig. 3: Average length of crown {r (0.05: 0.468; 0,01: 0,590)}

Image for - Effective Concentration of Poly Ethylene Glycol on the Growth of Soybean Varieties
Fig. 4: Average root length {r (0.05: 0.468; 0,01: 0,590)}

Image for - Effective Concentration of Poly Ethylene Glycol on the Growth of Soybean Varieties
Fig. 5: Average crown and root length ratio {r (0.05: 0.468; 0,01: 0,590)}

Image for - Effective Concentration of Poly Ethylene Glycol on the Growth of Soybean Varieties
Fig. 6: Average plants dry weight {r (0.05: 0.468; 0,01: 0,590)}

Long and root ratio: The quadratic correlation analysis in Fig. 5 shows that the varieties of Minati produced a response of the length ratio of the crown and the highest root to the equation; yMinati = -0.0003x2+0.0132x+1.0286; r = 0.7367**, meaning that every soaking of the seeds in an osmotic solution with 25% PEG-4000 will result in a maximum canopy and root length ratio of 1.17.

Plant dry weight: The linear correlation analysis in Fig. 6 yields an equation; yDering = 0.0119x+0.7774; r = 0.8773** showing that the Dering variety gives the highest plant dry weight response. The seed immersion treatment with distillate yielded dry weight of plant 0.777 g while the solution of 40% PEG osmotic resulted in a dry weight of 1.253 g. There was a dry weight difference of 0.5 g.

DISCUSSION

The results showed that the concentration of PEG-4000 tends to influence the growth of each seed of soybean varieties. Immersion with distillate (0 MPa) is suspected to cause a high (uncontrolled) turgor pressure resulting in rupture of the seed shell due to imbibition rate uncontrolled by cell membranes. Cell membranes that absorb water too much will disrupt and inhibit metabolic activity such as respiration. Furthermore, according to Varier et al.21, the pattern of water absorption in seeds that received invigoration treatment is slow and under control. Soaking the seeds with osmotic solution at a concentration of 40% PEG (-1.6 MPa) is possible because the PEG solution can form a layer that limits the amount of water absorbed by inhibiting the germination to have a good effect on the seed metabolism reaction and increase the enzyme activity to decompose organic molecules into simpler molecules and translocate it to the embryonic axis.

Both treatment factors showed a good balance of the PEG concentration treatment according to the genetic ability of the varieties in the germination process. The PEG properties that are inert and not easily hydrolyzed will accelerate the process of imbibition in the seeds, stimulating the enzyme activity of amylase from endosperm which becomes more available. The immersion treatment in a 40% PEG osmotic solution resulted in a maximum germination rate. Invigoration of seeds with PEG-4000 osmotic solution correlated with improvisation of viability and vigor for each variety. During the invigorating process, improved viability and vigor resulted in increased germination speed and synchrony and reduced environmental stress3,22.

Research on seed invigoration with PEG has been done on the seeds of food crops and vegetables and increases the speed of germination and vigor23. Figure 3 shows that the varieties of Minati give the highest response to the length parameter of the canopy. Soaking the seeds with the distillate (control) reaches the crown length value of 11.31 cm and the treatment with 40% PEG osmotikum solution yields a crown length value of 16.31 cm, so that there is a change in the length of the canopy of 5 cm. The effect of each treatment of different varieties on the concentration level of 40% PEG (-1.6 MPa) correlated with the increased canopy growth up to 14 days after planting.

The combination of immersion treatment in 40% PEG osmotic solution with Dering varieties treatment yielded the highest root length value of 15.90 cm. This can occur because highly efficient metabolic processes are supported by optimal growing environments at the screen house with a daily average temperature of 28-30°C so as to correlate with an increase in root length growth up to 14 days after planting. According to Hidayanto et al.24, the number of roots significantly affect the average plant height and root length. The longer root means its penetration ability in the rhizosphere is better and the water needs are met for the purpose of life.

Mitani varieties yielded the highest canopy and root ratios, in contrast to the varieties of Dering and Wilis varieties. The value of the canopy and root ratios may indicate that the plant is experiencing stress. In the case of environmental stresses, generally the canopy growth is more depressed than root growth25. Based on the values of the canopy and root ratios on the observations of the canopy and root ratios, the canopy length (cm) exceeds the length of the roots.

Dry weight of plants is the accumulation of organic compounds from the synthesis of plants from inorganic compounds derived from water and carbon dioxide through the process of photochemistry and reduction of important compounds, translocations that reflect the activity of seeds during growth. Fazilla et al.26 reported that seed priming using osmotic solutions with PEG significantly affected the growth rate after storage.

IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND LIMITATIONS

Seed priming in some soybean varieties is expected to increase the quality of soybean seed varieties and allows farmers to choose the types of varieties to be cultivated in accordance with natural conditions to increase the production of food crops commodities. Application of seed priming method with PEG-4000 concentration can be done on various varieties of soybeans and other seeds such as seeds of long beans and rice seeds. The limitations of the research is that the method of priming is done only to three types of soybean varieties

CONCLUSION

Preliminary treatment using osmotic solution with various concentrations of PEG-4000 tends to influence both the growth of each seed of soybean varieties than without pretreatment (control). Each variety with its genetic ability exhibits different growth influences. Dried varieties showed the best growth compared to the varieties of Wilis and Mitani.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

This study reveals that dried varieties showed the best growth compared to wilis and mitani varieties. This study will help the researchers uncover that Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG-4000) concentration can increase the germination rate, root length and dry weight of soybean plants compared to distillate concentration. Thus, a new theory application of seed priming method with PEG-4000 concentration can be done on various varieties of soybeans and other seeds such as seeds of long beans and rice seeds.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This article is part of Doctoral Dissertation Research funded by Directorate General of Research and Development, the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education, based on Letter of Agreement for Grant Program Implementation for Doctoral Dissertation (The Number: 097/SP2H/LT/DPRM/2017). The authors would like to thank the Directorate General for Research and Development Reinforcement for funding the research and all parties involved in this research.

REFERENCES

1:  Ekosari, R., N.A. Ariyanti and P. Widhy, 2011. Priming benih sebagai usaha peningkatan performansi bibit kubis (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata). Proceedings of the National Seminar on Biology, July 2, 2011, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, pp: 1-12
Direct Link  |  

2:  Nurjannati and Kandy, 2017. Efek Perlakuan Priming Terhadap Performa Tanaman Cabai (Capsicum annuum L.) Pada Kondisi Stres Air. Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia

3:  Sepanlo, N., R. Talebi, A. Rokhzadi and H. Mohammadi, 2014. Morphological and physiological behavior in soybean (Glycine max) genotypes to drought stress implemented at pre- and post-anthesis stages. Acta Biol. Szeged., 58: 109-113.
Direct Link  |  

4:  Sucahyono, D., 2013. Invigorasi benih kedelai. Bul. Palawija, 25: 18-25.
Direct Link  |  

5:  Sivasubramaniam, K., R. Geetha, K. Sujatha, K. Raja, A. Sripunitha and R. Selvarani, 2011. Seed priming: Triumphs and tribulations. Madras Agric. J., 98: 197-209.

6:  Masrum, 2010. Peningkatan viabilitas (priming) benih wijen (Sesamun indicum L.) dengan polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Malang.

7:  Purnawati, S. Ilyas and Sudarsono, 2014. Invigoration treatment to improve seed physiological quality and health of intani-2 hybrid rice seed during storage. Indones. J. Agron., 42: 180-186.
Direct Link  |  

8:  Balitkabi, 2016. Deskripsi Varietas Unggul Kedelai 1918-2016. Balai Penelitian Tanaman Aneka Kacang dan Umbi, Malang

9:  Visser, B., 2014. Impact of varietal differences in water use efficiency on soybean yield under water stress. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

10:  Herawati, E. and Alfandi, 2013. Pengaruh konsentrasi GA3 dan lama perendaman benih terhadap mutu benih kedelai (Glycine max L. Merrill) kultivar burangrang. J. Agroswagati, 1: 31-42.
Direct Link  |  

11:  Korbes, A.P. and A. Droste, 2005. Carbon sources and polyethylene glycol on soybean somatic embryo conversion. Pesq. Agropec. Bras., 40: 211-216.
Direct Link  |  

12:  Walker, D.R. and W.A. Parrott, 2001. Effect of polyethylene glycol and sugar alcohols on soybean somatic embryo germination and conversion. Plant Cell. Tissue Organ Cult., 64: 55-62.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

13:  Lawlor, D.W., 1970. Absorption of polyethylene glycols by plants and their effects on plant growth. New Phytol., 69: 501-513.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

14:  Rosidi, A., Mulyati and Sukartono, 2016. [Evaluation of the residual effect of biochar and doses nitrogen on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. merrill.) in sandy loam textured soils (Loam sandy)]. Crop Argo J. Ilm. Budid. Pertan., 9: 1-8.

15:  Ailah, M.H., 2011. Pegaruh konsentrasi dan lama perendaman menggunakan polyethylene glicol (PEG) 6000 terhadap viabilitas benih jarak pagar (Jatropha curcas L). Undergraduate Thesis, Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Malang.

16:  ISTA., 2010. International rules for seed testing. International Seed Testing Association, Bassersdorf, Switzerland.

17:  Adnan, A., B.R. Juanda and M. Zaini, 2017. Pengaruh konsentrasi dan lama perendaman dalam zpt auksin terhadap viabilitas benih semangka (Citurullus lunatus) kadaluarsa. J. Penelit. Agrosamudra, 4: 45-57.
Direct Link  |  

18:  Suyanti, Mukarlina and Rizalinda, 2013. Respon pertumbuhan stek pucuk keji beling (Strobilanthes crispus Bl) dengan pemberian IBA (Indole butyric Acid). J. Protobion, 2: 26-31.
Direct Link  |  

19:  Herdiawan, I., 2013. The growth of tree legume fodder Indigofera zollingeriana at various levels of drought stress treatment. Indones. J. Anim. Vet. Sci., 18: 258-264.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

20:  Marpaung, H.J., E. Pramono and M. Kamal, 2015. Pengaruh bahan organik terhadap mutu fisiologis benih beberapa varietas sorgum (Sorghum bicolor) setelah menjalani penyimpanan. J. Agrotek Trop., 3: 185-191.
Direct Link  |  

21:  Varier, A., A.K. Vari and M. Dadlani, 2010. The subcellular basis of seed priming. Curr. Sci., 99: 450-456.
Direct Link  |  

22:  Ahmadvand, G., F. Soleimani, B. Saadatian and M. Pouya, 2012. Effects of seed priming on germination and emergence traits of two soybean cultivars under salinity stress. Int. Res. J. Applied Basic Sci., 3: 234-241.
Direct Link  |  

23:  Sadeghi, H., F. Khazaei, L. Yari and S. Sheidaei, 2011. Effect of seed osmopriming on seed germination behavior and vigor of soybean (Glycine max L.). ARPN: J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 6: 39-43.
Direct Link  |  

24:  Hidayanto, M., S. Nurjanah and F. Yossita, 2003. Pengaruh panjang stek akar dan konsentrasi natriumnitrofenol terhadap pertumbuhan stek akar sukun (Artocarpus communis F.). J. Pengkaj. Dan Pengemb. Teknol. Pertan., 6: 154-160.
Direct Link  |  

25:  Song Ai, N., S.M. Tondais and R. Butarbutar, 2010. Evaluation on indicators of water-deficit tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) at the germination phase. J. Biol. Udayana, 14: 50-54.

26:  Fazilla, N.S., Charoq and R. Sipayung, 2014. The test of storage capacity and seed viability of rubber (Hevea brassiliensis Muell-Arg.) devoid of shells to the osmotic solution concentration and drying period. J. Online Agroteknol., 2: 993-997.

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved