Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Nutrient Content of Various Padjadjaran Hybrid Maize as Feed Forage at Arjasari Village Bandung



Nyimas Popi Indriani, Yuyun Yuwariah, Anne Nuraini and Dedi Ruswandi
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Corn crop (Zea mays L.) was very beneficial among other agriculture as high-quality forage for ruminants and the main source of raw materials for the poultry feed industry. The 22 hybrids corn plants have been developed at Padjadjaran University and have been selected as ruminant forage. The purpose of this study was to find out the nutrient content of corn plant from 22 hybrids which included fresh weight, dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, calcium, phosphorus, crude fat and nitrogen free extract of the corn plant. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from October, 2015 to January, 2016 in Arjasari Village, Bandung Regency, West Java. The method used was experimental method using completely randomized design (CRD). The 22 maize hybrids were weighed as treatments with two repetitions. The data were analyzed by variant analysis and had their differences in each treatment tested by Duncan Multiple Range Test. Results: The results showed that the fresh weight and dry weight of Padjadjaran corn plant were the same. The nutrient content showed various values among the hybrid maize. Conclusion: The crude protein in the Padjadjaran hybrid 8×11 yielded the highest of 11.57% among the hybrids and contained 23.37% crude fiber, 0.145% P, 0.24% Ca, 2.42% crude fat, 55.865% nitrogen free extract and 3,416 kcal kg–1 energy and then was chosen as the best feed forage.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Nyimas Popi Indriani, Yuyun Yuwariah, Anne Nuraini and Dedi Ruswandi, 2018. Nutrient Content of Various Padjadjaran Hybrid Maize as Feed Forage at Arjasari Village Bandung. Asian Journal of Crop Science, 10: 121-126.

DOI: 10.3923/ajcs.2018.121.126

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajcs.2018.121.126
 
Copyright: © 2018. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

INTRODUCTION

Corn is a member of Poaceae Family and it is one of the multipurpose plants with high nutritional values and was used as food, fuel and animal feed1. Corn is a summer grass with increasing demand and is needed globally for food, ethanol production, biogas, fodder and raw materials for bio-plastic production2. Corn crop as a cereal is a promising crop, its demand always increases every year and makes a high chance of export for bioethanol as it has very high forage production of 80-100 t ha–1. The eastern part of Indonesian people mostly consumes corn as the main food in daily life. Corn is the second contributor after rice in gross domestic income so that the increase of domestic corn production needs to be continuously pursued3. In another side the drought land increases as a result of global climate change4.

The selection of hybrid corn is very important in forage production management, especially for ruminants5. Seeding information needs the nature and the extent of variation, the relationship of production to other agronomic characteristics and the degree of environmental influence affecting the nature of the plant6. The planted maize plant requires 20 kg of seed per hectare, it is a large amount of seed for an agricultural area. The F1 hybrid corn seeds production requires the superior parent seed lines in the hybrid corn seed assembly so that the hybrid corn seed can produce high quality F1 hybrid. The dependence of F1 hybrid corn seeds to other countries is still high, so Indonesia must immediately start to assemble inbred lines as parents in assembling hybrid corn seeds7. Growth, yield and quality of forage feed depend on species, cultivars, soil chemistry and physics, climatic conditions, plant life, physiology and management. The best efficiency of feed forage utilization can only be achieved by understanding the interactions of the above factors8. Selected Genotypes shall have high protein in the stem and have high oil content in leaves, have higher nutrient content than other genotypes and are present in the flowering stage9.

Proximate determination and mineral composition of maize will provide effective nutritional information for preparing food compositions10. The protein content recommended by Van Soest11 to meet the requirements of minimum nitrogen compounds to activate the rumen microorganisms is 70 g kg–1 dry weight or 7% of dry weight. The average fresh weight of single-planted maize is 551.67 g and the dry weight is 111.63 g. The forage yield is about 56.65 t ha–1 with the dry matter is 10.90 t ha–1 and the crude protein is 8.76% with the crude fiber is 30.93%12. The 22 hybrids corn plants have been developed at Padjadjaran University and have been selected for ruminant forage use. Therefore the 22 Padjadjaran hybrid maize plants needed to be evaluated for nutritional composition prior to be used as ruminant forage.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Padjadjaran Hybrid corn crops research as single planted forage in Arjasari village, Bandung Regency had been carried out from October, 2015 to January, 2016. Arjasari village is a plateau with an altitude of 900 m a.s.l. The materials used in the research were 22 hybrid corn plant, N, P and K fertilizer. The tools used were oven cabinets for forage materials and a set of tools for proximate analysis. Chemical analysis was carried out in the Laboratory of Plant Feed and Nutrition Laboratory for Ruminant Livestock and Feed Chemistry, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Padjadjaran University. Twenty-two hybrids were selected for ruminant forage source and to be evaluated for nutritional content. The selected hybrids were: 8×11, 3×8, 1×8, 7×14, 11×12, 9×13, 9×11, 7×10, 6×10, 4×13, 11×14, 10×15, 5×10, 2×12, 3×15, 13×15, 8×14, 8×15, 5×12, 7×8, 6×11, 10×14. The distance of maize crop planting was 75×25 cm. Padjadjaran hybrid corn plants were used as the treatment with 2 times replications. Variables measured were the absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium resulting from the multiplication of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium with the dry material forage maize crops. Padjadjaran hybrid corn plants were harvested at 70 days after planting. The data obtained from the research results were analyzed by using the experimental method. The design used was completely randomized design (CRD) with 22 treatments and repeated twice. The data were then analyzed by variant analysis (one-way ANOVA). To know the average difference in each treatment Duncan’s multiple-range test was used.

RESULTS

The nutritional feed content for protein, crude fiber, phosphorous and calcium of the 22 corn crop hybrids on a single plant were presented in Table 1.

Crude protein of 8×11 Padjadjaran hybrid maize plant is the highest among the others. It had 11.57% of crude protein and significantly higher than the other 21 hybrids. The crude protein was varied and ranged from 7.36-11.57% of dry matter.

The data showed that 10×15 hybrid maize had significantly higher crude fiber than others. It had 29.97% crude fiber. The crude fibers in this study ranged from 22.59-29.97% of dry matter.

Table 1:
Nutritional feed content for protein, crude fiber, phosphorous and calcium of corn crop hybrids on single plant
Image for - Nutrient Content of Various Padjadjaran Hybrid Maize as Feed Forage at Arjasari Village Bandung
Different letter in the same column showed the significance difference (p<0.05)

Table 2:
Nutritional feed content for fat, nitrogen free extract, ash and energy of corn crop hybrids on single plant
Image for - Nutrient Content of Various Padjadjaran Hybrid Maize as Feed Forage at Arjasari Village Bandung
Different letter in the same column showed the significance difference (p<0.05)

The 2×12 Padjadjaran hybrid maize had higher phosphorus content than other hybrids, it reached 0.21% of dry matter. The remaining hybrids did not have significant difference in phosphorus content. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.12-0.21% of dry matter.

Table 3: Fresh weight and dry matter of corn crop hybrids on single plant
Image for - Nutrient Content of Various Padjadjaran Hybrid Maize as Feed Forage at Arjasari Village Bandung
Different letter in the same column showed the significance difference (p<0.05)

The highest calcium content of 0.29% was reached by 13×15 Padjadjaran hybrid maize and significantly different. The calcium content was varied and ranged from 0.22-0.29% of dry matter.

The nutritional feed content of fat, nitrogen-free extract, ash and energy of the 22 Padjadjaran hybrid maize plants were presented in Table 2.

The fat content for 70 days old maize of the 8×11 hybrids was 2.42%. Fats in plants are part of protoplasts. As the age of plant grows from vegetative to generative phase, the protoplasts in the vegetative part of the plant will decrease, resulting in decreased fat content. The fat result was varied and ranged from 1.435-3.46% of dry matter.

Nitrogen free extract content of 8×11 hybrid corn plant was 55.865%. The NFE content is a complement of water content, ash, protein, fat and crude fiber so the value is highly dependent on these nutrients.

The forage energy of 8×11 corn crop hybrid was 3,416 kcal kg–1. The energy results were varied and ranged from 3,266-3,494 kcal kg–1.

The fresh weight and dry matter of the Padjadjaran hybrid maize can be seen in Table 3.

The corn plant research used 22 hybrids for the ruminant forage. The data were then analyzed by Duncan's variety and further tests and showed the same results for the fresh and dry weight of all hybrids (22 hybrids). The fresh weight of the 8×11 hybrid corn plant is 761 g/plant and the dry weight is 160 g/plant at the 70th days after planting. Age of the plant has a big role in the fresh weight and dry weight of the plant as corn crop forage. The fresh weight and dry weight of the 22 hybrid maize are not significantly different.

DISCUSSION

The 22 hybrids maize were developed at Padjadjaran University and resulted in high crude protein content. Fourteen hybrids have a crude protein content of more than 9% of dry matter that mean a potential for the high-value feed forage.

The 8×11 Padjadjaran hybrid maize had the best crude protein content while the other nutrient content was sufficient for ruminant forage. The fresh weight and dry weight results of the 22 hybrid maize were not different. Therefore, the 8×11 Padjadjaran hybrid maize would be used as ruminant forage.

The highest crude protein content was found in leaves rather than from other parts. Younger plants contained more crude protein than older plants. The crude fiber content in various plants ranged from 19.12-35.6% with the maximum available at the base of the stem or rootstock. Older plants contained more crude fiber. Cell analysis showed that NDF was present at the bottom and in the mixed plant part. Maximum DMD (dry matter digestibility) was present on the leaves followed by the middle and bottom of the stem. The DMD values were higher in young plants than in older plants. It could be concluded that the upper young plants had higher nutritional value than old and lower plants13.

According to Sarmini and Premaratne14, the crude protein content in 70 days old corn (Maize Pacific 984) was 7.35% and the crude fiber content was 35.15%. According to a research by Babiker et al.15 on a plant of Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) the overall 10 plants contained an average crude protein of 10.8% and crude fiber of 37.6%. In study by Kanduri et al.16, maize crops grown without fertilization yielded 13.86% dry matter, 5.03% crude protein and 22.12% crude fiber. Crude fiber content is one indicator that determines the quality of forage. As the age of the plant increases, the content of crude fiber will also increases, because the plants have the opportunity to arrange components of the wall cell. Gardner et al.17 state that crude fiber is the main structure of the wall cell. The older the corn plants are, the higher the crude fiber content is. In a study conducted by Vaswani et al.18, the crude protein, crude fiber and ash contents were 10.62, 16.16 and 5.03%, respectively for DHM 117 maize that is 40-50 days after planting, which were lower than 8×11 Padjadjaran hybrid that were 11.57, 23.37 and 6.775%, respectively. Similarly, a study conducted by Htet et al.19 found that the 70 days old maize plant has a crude protein content of 7.6, 23.1% crude fiber and 6.1% ash, while 97 days old maize has a protein content of 6.1%, crude fiber of 28.9% and ash of 6%. According to Retnani et al.20, the crude fiber content of more than 20% of dry weight can meet the fiber requirement for ruminants. Then the corn crops could be widely used as feed for ruminants. Hartadi et al.21 says that dry weight, crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat and NFE content of maize crop is higher than are in sorghum.

In the 66% maize flowering stage planted in Saskatchewan, Canada, the genotype DKC 26-25 has 7.3% crude protein, 0.20% phosphorus and 0.21% calcium, while the 2D093 genotype has 7.6% crude protein, 0.20% phosphorus and 0.24% calcium22. Arifiye hybrid has a protein content of 8.6%23. In the results of Htet et al.19, the crude protein content of the maize seeds was 6.9%, the phosphorus content was 0.1% and Ca content was 0.5%. According to Jefferson et al.24, the phosphorus concentrations for various species of broiler cattle adequately met the need of 1.2 g kg–1 or 0.12%. Calcium (Ca) has an important role in plant life cycle as a major component of the wall cell and plant membrane structure25.

Protein required by ruminant derived from microbes and food intake. Metabolism of proteins is a protein absorbed by the intestine and is derived from microbial proteins and proteins that emerge from rumen degradation. The requirement of ruminant protein that is only calculated from food intake is not enough. Thus, the need for ruminant proteins should include food sources and rumen microbial26. Rochana et al.27, says that the crude protein content is a very important nutrient for ruminant productivity. Sufficient crude protein for ruminants means the livestock is able to perform its functions in the process of decomposition of crude fiber derived from forage and the availability of amino acids for ruminants. One or more polypeptide chains are structures of proteins consisting of hundreds of amino acids each. The composition and size of each protein depending on the type and amount of sub-units of amino acids; but most plant proteins have molecular weights of over 40,000 Daltons, e.g., ferredoxin proteins that involved in photosynthesis28.

The fat content for 70 days maize age of the 8×11 hybrids was 2.42%. Fats in plants are part of protoplasts. As the age of plant grows from vegetative to generative phase, the protoplasts in the vegetative part of the plant will decrease, resulting in decreased fat content. The 8×11 hybrid has the highest fat content in this corn plants research. Oseni and Ekperigin29 says that the corn straw has a fat content of 1.82%. This was due to the 8×11 maize hybrid that was harvested at 70 days age as a forage, while in the corn straw, the fat content has been shifted to the formation of seeds. The results of proximate analysis from AIAT South Sulawesi30 (2012) on corn straw showed that it has 1.08% crude fat content.

Nitrogen Free Extract content of 8×11 hybrid corn plant was 55.865%. The NFE content is a complement of water content, ash, protein, fat and coarse fiber so the value is highly dependent on these nutrients. According to Akpensuen’s research31, 91-days harvested cultivars of SHIMAZ have NFE content of 53.6%2 and Htet et al.19, reports NFE content of 52,6% for 70 days corn crop age and 47.1% for 97 days corn crop age.

The forage energy of corn crop hybrid 8×11 is 3416 kcal kg–1. According to Alhaidary et al.32, the higher the energy content in feed ruminants, the lower feed consumption. In the Yusriani and Susanti33 study show that the corn straw (leaves and stems) without the corn cobs has an energy content of 1570 kcal kg–1, lower than 70 days hybrid 8×11 maize crop.

The fresh weight of the 8×11 hybrid corn plant is 761 g/plant and dry weight is 160 g/plant at the 70th days after planting. Age of the plant has a big role in the fresh weight and dry weight of the plant as corn crop forage. Younger plant has more level of crude protein forage plants (stems and leaves) and less content of crude fiber and plant biomass. According to Indriani et al.34, dry matter feed plant is very important to determine or to predict the production of forage. Measurement of dry matter production of feed plants can be used to determine the growth, production and quality of the plant.

CONCLUSION

The Padjadjaran hybrid corn showed high fresh and dry weight and also high protein content as ruminant feed. Nutritional content of Padjadjaran hybrid corn for crude fiber, calcium, phosphorus, etc., were sufficient for ruminant feed. Therefore, most of 22 hybrid maize can be used as a high value feed forage.

The results showed that the fresh weight and dry weight of the selected Padjadjaran hybrid corn plant were the same. The crude protein in the 8×11 Padjadjaran hybrid maize was the highest with 11.57% among the hybrids and had 23.37% crude fiber, 0.145% P, 0.24% Ca, 2.42% crude fat, 55.865% nitrogen free extract and 3,416 kcal kg–1 energy. Therefore, the 8×11 Padjadjaran hybrid maize was chosen as the best for feed forage.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

This study is part of an integrated agricultural research system that examines plant breeding, cultivation, pest and plant diseases, economics, feed crops, forage silage and sheep farming. The 22 hybrids maize were developed at Padjadjaran University and resulted in high protein content (14 hybrids have protein content of more than 9% of dry matter) and high fresh and dry weight (687 g to 894 g/plant fresh weight). With the sufficient content of other nutritional values (crude fiber, Calcium, Phosphorus, etc.), most of 22 hybrid maize can be used as a high value feed forage.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors acknowledge to DRPMI (Direktorat Riset, Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat dan Inovasi) of Padjadjaran University for financial support through the ALG (Academic Leadership Grant) of Prof. Dr. Ir. Yuyun Yuwariah, M.S. from Internal Grant Padjajaran University with reference number 003/UN6.E/2018.

REFERENCES

1:  Gupta, H.S., P.K. Agrawal, V. Mahajan, G.S. Bisht and A. Kumar et al., 2009. Quality protein maize for nutritional security: Rapid development of short duration hybrids through molecular marker assisted breeding. Curr. Sci., 96: 230-237.
Direct Link  |  

2:  Mussadiq, Z., 2012. Performance of forage maize as high latitudes. Ph.D. Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umea.

3:  Azrai, M., 2013. Early maturing hybrid maize: Its prospect to anticipate climate changes. IPTEK Food Crops, 8: 90-96.
Direct Link  |  

4:  Ruswandi, D., Agustian, E.P. Anggia, A.O. Canama, H. Marta, S. Ruswandi and E. Suryadi, 2014. Mutation breeding of maize for anticipating global climate change in Indonesia. Asian J. Agric. Res., 8: 234-247.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Cusicanqui, J.A. and J.G. Lauer, 1999. Plant density and hybrid influence on corn forage yield and quality. Agron. J., 91: 911-915.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

6:  Pahadi, P., M. Sapkota, D.B. Thapa and S. Pradhan, 2017. Cluster and principal component analysis for the selection of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. Int. J. Exp. Res. Rev., 9: 5-10.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Kartahadimaja, J. and E.E. Syuriani, 2013. Penampilan karakter fenotipik 15 galur inbred jagung selfing ke-14 (S-14) rakitan polinela. J. Agrotropika, 18: 46-51.
Direct Link  |  

8:  Da Silva, F.F., J.F. de Sa, A.R. Schio, L.C.V. Itavo, R.R. Silva and R.G. Mateus, 2009. Grazing supplementation: Availability and quality × supplementation levels × performance. Rev. Bras. Zootec., 38: 371-389.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  Gokkus, A., F. Kahriman, F. Alaturk and B. Ali, 2016. Variation of nutritional values in leaves and stalks of different maize genotypes having high protein and high oil during vegetation. Agric. Agric. Sci. Procedia, 10: 18-25.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Enyisi, I.S., V.J. Umoh, C.M.Z. Whong, I.O. Abdullahi and O. Alabi, 2014. Chemical and nutritional value of maize and maize products obtained from selected markets in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Afr. J. Food Sci. Technol., 5: 100-104.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Van Soest, P.J., 1994. Nutrition Ecology of Ruminant. 2nd Edn., Cornell University, Ithaca, Pages: 476

12:  Ahmad, W., A.U.H. Ahmad, M.S.I. Zamir, M. Afzal, A.U. Mohsin, F. Khalid and S.M.W. Gillani, 2012. Qualitative and quantitative response of forage maize cultivars to sowing methods under subtropical conditions. J. Anim. Plant Sci., 22: 318-323.
Direct Link  |  

13:  Azim, A., Z. Naseer and A. Ali, 1989. Nutritional evaluation of maize fodder at two different vegetative stages. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci., 2: 27-34.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

14:  Sarmini, M. and S. Premaratne, 2017. Yield and nutritional quality potential of three fodder grasses in the Northern region of Sri Lanka. Trop. Agric. Res., 28: 175-182.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  Babiker, S.A., M.A.M. Khair, I.S.A. Tahir and F.M.A. Elhaq, 2015. Forage quality variations among some sudan pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] collection. Annu. Res. Rev. Biol., 5: 293-298.
Direct Link  |  

16:  Kanduri, A.B., P.V. Patil and P.S. Mogale, 2016. Green fodder yield and nutrient composition of african tall maize fodder (Zea mays) with various nitrogen-phosphorus levels. Int. J. Adv. Eng. Manage. Sci., 2: 279-281.
Direct Link  |  

17:  Gardner, F.P., R.B. Pearce and R.J. Mitchel, 1991. Fisiologi Tanaman Budidaya [Agriculture Physiology]. UI Press, Jakarta

18:  Vaswani, S., R. Kumar, V. Kumar, D. Roy and M. Kumar, 2016. In vitro evaluation of different varieties of maize fodder for their methane generation potential and digestibility with goat rumen liquor. Vet. World, 9: 1209-1213.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

19:  Htet, M.N.S., N.N. Than, R.N. Soomro, Y.D. Xu and J.B. Hai, 2016. Comparison of Nutrients composition, forage and silage yields of maize (Zea mays L.). Sch. J. Agric. Vet. Sci., 3: 474-479.
Direct Link  |  

20:  Retnani, Y., L. Herawati, W. Widiarti and E. Indahwati, 2009. The physical properties and palatability test of corn plant waste biscuits as substitutes of fiber source for sheep. Livest. Bull., 33: 162-169.

21:  Hartadi, H., S. Reksodiprodjo and A.D. Tillman, 2005. Tabel of Livestock Feed Compositions in Indonesia. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta

22:  Lardner, H.A., L. Pearce and D. Damiran, 2017. Evaluation of low heat unit corn hybrids compared to barley for forage yield and quality on the Canadian Prairies. Sustain. Agric. Res., 6: 90-102.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

23:  Iptas, S. and A.A. Acar, 2006. Effects of hybrid and row spacing on maize forage yield and quality. Plant Soil Environ., 52: 515-522.
Direct Link  |  

24:  Jefferson, P.G., W.P. McCaughey, K. May, J. Woosaree and L. McFarlane, 2004. Forage quality of seeded native grasses in the fall season on the Canadian Prairie provinces. Can. J. Plant Sci., 84: 503-509.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

25:  Rohyani, I.S., E. Aryanti and Suripto, 2015. Local food plants nutritional value potential on strengthening national food security. J. Sci. Technol. Environ., 1: 43-47.

26:  Das, L.K., S.S. Kundu, D. Kumar and C. Datt, 2014. Metabolizable protein systems in ruminant nutrition: A review. Vet. World, 7: 622-629.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

27:  Rochana, A., N.P. Indriani, B. Ayuningsih, I. Hernaman, T. Dhalika, D. Rahmat and S. Suryanah, 2016. Feed forage and nutrition value at altitudes during the dry season in the West Java. Anim. Prod., 18: 85-93.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

28:  Parman, S., 2007. Protein and ash content of Alfalfa plant (Medicago sativa L.) after fertilization of biorisa. Bioma, 9: 38-44.
Direct Link  |  

29:  Oseni, O.A. and M. Ekperigin, 2007. Studies on biochemical changes in maize wastes fermented with Aspergillus niger. Biokemistri, 19: 75-79.
Direct Link  |  

30:  BPTP., 2012. Proximate analysis result of corn forage. Agricultural Technology Assessment Center, South Sulawesi, BPTP., South Sulawesi, pp: 3.

31:  Akpensuen, T.T., 2012. Evaluation of two maize accessions for forage yield, nutrient composition and digestibility. M.Sc. Thesis, The Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria Dough Stage.

32:  Alhaidary, A., H.E. Muhammed and A.C. Beynen, 2010. Differences betbeen rats and rabbit in their response of feed and energy intake to increasing dietary fat content. Scand. J. Lab. Anim. Sci., 37: 237-240.
Direct Link  |  

33:  Yusriani, Y. and A.E. Susanti, 2016. Potential and utilization of side as animal feed crops ruminant. Proceedings of the National Seminar of Suboptimal Land, October 20-21, 2016, Palembang, pp: 460-468
Direct Link  |  

34:  Indriani, N.P., Y. Yuwariah, A. Rochana, I. Susilawati and L. Khairani, 2016. The role of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) and rock phosphate application on production and nutritional value of centro legumes (Centrosema pubescens). Legume Res., 39: 987-990.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved