Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Fulltext PDF
Research Article
Quality Assessment of Some Spring Bread Wheat Cultivars

Ahmed Mohamed Saied Hussein, Hatem Salama Ali and Abdel Rahman Al-Khalifa

Background and Objective: Wheat products are long known as a pioneer main food, where it considered a calories source along with a considerable nutrients amount. The objective was to explain how the variation of extraction rate affected wheat variety along with its impact on the quality of wheat products. Materials and Methods: Several wheat types (Yecora Rojo, Sakha 93, Pavon76, KSU 102 and Sama) were evaluated chemically, rheological and microstructure using farinograph and extensograph. The statistical analysis were done using SPSS 16.0 (at p = 0.05). Results: Yecora Rojo was higher in protein, fat and phosphorus, it reached 13.16, 2.66% and 215 mg/100 g, respectively. Sakha 93 was also higher in fiber, calcium and zinc (2.35%, 85 and 4.17 mg/100 g), while Pavon76 was higher in ash (2.0%). Wet gluten content was significantly higher (at p = 0.05) in whole meal wheat flour than in wheat flour 72%. Rheological, whole meal of each wheat type characterized with higher water absorption than its 72% flour but dough stability was declined. Wheat flour 72% of Sama differentiated with its great in rank of arrival time (2.0 min). Resistance to extension of whole meal dough ranged between 600-550 BU, while wheat flour 72% decreased to 510-400 BU. Conclusion: The quality of wheat varieties varied according to its type, in comparison between three varieties of wheat, wheat grain cracks and partial disruption of native starch granule which constitute one of the most difficult defects to detect, affect on the quality and value of wheat products. Yecora Rojo, KSU 102, Sama and (Sakha 93) wheat flour could be recommended to use as a durum, hard and soft wheat, respectively.

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Ahmed Mohamed Saied Hussein, Hatem Salama Ali and Abdel Rahman Al-Khalifa, 2018. Quality Assessment of Some Spring Bread Wheat Cultivars. Asian Journal of Crop Science, 10: 10-21.

DOI: 10.3923/ajcs.2018.10.21

Received: August 21, 2017; Accepted: November 09, 2017; Published: February 23, 2019

Copyright: © 2018. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Wheat products are long famous as a major staple food, where it is source of calories and contains significant quantities of nutrients i.e. vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber1. Whole grains contain a wide range of nutrients and biologically active compounds, i.e. dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals and phytochemical compounds, which may reduce the incidence of various chronic diseases2.

Wheat flour 72 or 82% is the most extraction rate that used in bakery products. Several investigators studied the possibility of increasing flour yield to reach 100% in several products (Shouk)3-5. Wheat variety (soft or hard wheat) as well as the rate of flour milling and particle size, make the differences usually noted in the wheat flour products. On the other hand, whole meal flour have the whole of the product resulted from the milling of cleaned wheat.

The amount of flour derived from wheat after milling is known as the extraction rate6. White flour is a refined form with an extraction rate range from 60-75%. More bran characterized the brown flour (extraction rate 85%) and responsible for the dark color, strong flavor and aroma of the final products. Protein content as well as fiber, lipids, minerals and sugars are increase with the rise in exaction rate, on the contrary, the starch decreases7. Additionally, gluten strength and water absorption are affected by the extraction rate8. As a result, the extraction rate affected markedly the nutritional content of wheat flour based on its rate. According to Matthews and Workman9 the nutrient level of high extraction rate flour increases directly with increase in flour ash values, however, with lowering the extraction rate, the minerals content is reduced to 30% in comparison to the whole wheat flour and also the concentration of essential nutrients10.

The quality of the technological properties of wheat varieties is depending on specific parameters i.e. protein content, wet gluten content, gluten strength, extensibility and resistance11. Gluten content is one of the most important parameter used to evaluate wheat quality. This study aimed to evaluate some wheat varieties at different extraction rate to identify its technological properties. It was targeted to classify these wheat types depends on characters which help to redirect the application of these varieties.


Wheat grains varieties:

Yecora Rojo (Recommended cultivars from USA)
Sakha 93 (Field Crops Department, Agricultural Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Giza, Egypt)
Pavon76 (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT))
KSU 102 (Wheat Breeding Program at the Plant Production Department, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences
Sama (Local strains of Saudi Arabian wheat)

This study was performed in National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt during spring season of year 2014

Milling: Wheat grains varieties were manually cleaned, tempered to 14% moisture content, then milled using Quadrumat Junior flour mill (Model MLV-202, Switzerland). The obtained flour represent whole flour mill (100% extraction), then sieved to obtain flours of 72% extraction.

Rheological properties: Dough characteristics (water absorption, dough development time, dough stability, weakening and mixing tolerance index) were evaluated according to AACC12 using farinograph (model No: 81010, Duisburg, Germany). Dough elastic properties (resistance to extension, extensibility, proportional number and energy) were measured according to AACC12 by using extensograph (Model No: 81010, ©Brabender, Duisburg, Germany). Falling number was determined according to AACC12. Viscoamylograph test was carried out according to Kim and d'Appolonia13. Wet and dry gluten contents of flour were estimated following the method No. 38-1012.

Diffraction scanning colorimeter: Thermal properties of wheat varieties flour were measured by using a Shimadzu DSC-50. The heating rate was 10°C min–1 and the hold temperature was at 200°C. The melting temperature TM and (H) of the enthalpy was determined from the thermogram.

Starch crystallinity: The crystallinity of starch was evaluated by X-ray diffraction patterns of samples using monochromatic Cuk radiation on a Philips X-ray diffract meter at 35 kv and 15 mA (Central Lab, National Research Centre, Egypt). Lyophilized samples were placed on the 1 cm2 surface of a glass slide and equilibrated overnight at 91% RH and run at 2-32ْ (diffraction angle 2θ). The spacing was computed according to Bragg’s law14.

Chemical analysis
Gross chemical composition:
Wheat varieties were analyzed for moisture, crude protein (% N×5.71), fat, total ash and crude fiber according to methods described in AOAC15. Total carbohydrates were calculated by the difference (100-(fat+ protein+ash+fibers) on dry weight basis.

Minerals content: Sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc and copper in all raw materials were determined according to AOAC15.

Statistical analysis: All results were evaluated statistically using analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) SPSS.16.0, (at p = 0.05) according to McClave and Benson16.


Chemical composition of wheat flour at extraction rate 100 and 72%: Moisture, protein, ether extract, fiber and ash were significantly higher (at p = 0.05) in whole meal wheat flour than that found in wheat flour (72% ext.) as shown by the data presented in Table 1. It could be regarded to the presence of higher amounts of bran layer and germ which possessed such components with higher amounts than the other layers, in the whole meal than the 72% extraction one.

Several studies declared that protein, fat and fiber of germ or bran was more than those found in endosperm7,17. Consumption of whole wheat increase the benefits of cereal fiber along with the other protective compounds, such as vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, phytosterols, unsaturated fatty acids and lignans18,19. Consumption of whole grains was decreased the risk of all-cause mortality and cancer death, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory disease and other causes20,21. On converse, total carbohydrates were significantly less in the former than the latter. In liken study, Yecora Rojo found that whole meal characterized with its high protein and fat, while Sakha 93 was altitude ratio in fiber and Pavon 76 was higher in ash and total carbohydrate.

Minerals content of raw materials and their mixtures: Conventional milling of wheat grains is based on separating the endosperm (which produces white flour when milled) from the bran layers and embryo. The aleurone cells, along with the other bran layers and the embryo, are removed to form the bran fraction. Sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc and cupper contents in whole meal. The bioavailability of minerals in wheat bran only without the flour presence is under discussion related to the foundation of the ‘anti-nutrient’ phytic acid22,23. Wheat flour were significantly higher (at p = 0.05) than that found in 72% extraction wheat flour as shown in Table 2. Such results was due to, as previously mentioned, the presence of the higher amounts of such minerals in germ and cover layer, which involved in the whole meal with a higher amounts than in 72% extraction wheat flour. In state of the contrasting mineral content including samples of whole meal variety, Yecora Rojo differentiate with its more content of phosphorus (215 mg/100 g), while Sakha 93 was higher in zinc (4.17 mg/100 g) and Sama was higher in calcium (85 mg/100 g).

Gluten content and falling number of wheat samples: Gluten content is one of the most important factors in wheat varieties, which is responsible for baking strength and quality of wheat flour24,25. Therefore, falling number and gluten were estimated in order to characterize the technological properties of wheat products and given in Table 3.

Table 1:Chemical composition of whole meal and 72% extraction wheat flour (on dry weight basis)
TC: Total carbohydrates calculated by difference, Each value (an average of three replicates) within the same column, followed by the same letter are not significantly different at <0.05, Each value (an average of three replicates) is followed by the standard deviation

Table 2:Minerals content of whole meal and 72% extraction wheat flour
Each value (an average of three replicates) within the same column, followed by the same letter are not significantly different at <0.05, Each value (an average of three replicates) is followed by the standard deviation

Table 3:Falling number and gluten content of wheat varieties
Each value (an average of three replicates) within the same column, followed by the same letter are not significantly different at <0.05, Each value (an average of three replicates) is followed by the standard deviation

According to the obtained data, great wet gluten content was significantly higher (at p = 0.05) in whole meal wheat flour than that exist in wheat flour (72% extract.). The finding recorded significant differences between wheat species. In the same parallel way, that the protein content has been elevated to a higher level correlated to the elevation of gluten content26,27. The contrasting in wet and dry gluten ingredient of every wheat varieties are reflected by the difference in moisture and exist protein ratio28.

The present results documented the obtained result of Farooq et al.29. The previous study noticed significant effect of wheat varieties on wet and dry gluten contents. The highest wet gluten content was found in wheat flour of Yecora Rojo, while KSU 102 and Sama recorded lower ratio. The less gluten content was reached to in Sakha 93. This result announced that Yecora Rojo, KSU 102 and Sama and (Sakha 93) varieties could be used as a hard and soft wheat, respectively. Therefore, it could be recommended to use Yecora Rojo, KSU 102 and Sam in bread and Sakha 93 in biscuit product. The decline in gluten ratio of wheat species may be due to the ecosystem conditions i.e. temperature and genotype differences30.

Falling number was evaluated to assess α-amylase which expressed as enzyme activity of wheat flour varieties, elevate in falling number means that lower will be enzyme activity. Falling number of 72% extraction wheat flour was significantly higher (at p = 0.05) than that found in whole meal. Falling number of wheat varieties found in the following order, Sama, KSU 102, Pavon76, Sakha 93 and Yecora Rojo as shown in Table 3.

The elevation of enzymatic activity of Sama and KSU 102 wheat species revealed that the starch is destroying very quickly during gelatinization compared to other studied subjects31. Furthermore, Zahoor analyzed 44 Pakistani wheat species with a falling number ranged between of 277.83-1065 sec and stated that the variation in falling number values in wheat varieties is due to the variation in moisture and protein ratio28.

Rheological properties of whole meal and wheat flour's dough: The Rheological methodology is helpful in the research of dough properties and to determined characterization dough. Rheometry assesses most important functional properties of flour, i.e. viscosity that related to dough characterization during preparing and up to end product quality32.

Table 4:Farinograph parameters of whole meal and 72% extraction wheat flour

Table 5:Extensograph parameters of whole meal and 72% extraction wheat flour

Rheological properties of five wheat varieties were evaluated using farinograph. Water absorption and dough stability of whole meal wheat species are more than wheat flours (72%) probably due to bran particles that presented in whole meal, consequently may intermediate in rapid development of gluten as shown in Table 4. The score of the dough stability are in the same line with those found by Corbellini et al.28. Arrival time of wheat meal species was found to be at the highest ratio in Sama (2.5 min). Also, wheat flour (72%) of Sama characterized with its more arrival time (2.0 min) compared to wheat flour 72% of other species. The same score noticed in dough stability time of wheat meal and wheat flour 72% of the five studied varieties. Dough development time and mixing tolerance index of whole meal decline compared to wheat flour 72% as influenced by bran fiber. The above results are in agreement with previous studies showed a decline in dough stability with increasing in arrival time and water absorption as flour extraction elevate3,33.

The extensibility of wheat varieties was assessed by extensograph, whole meal dough were lower values than wheat flour dough 72% values as shown in Table 5. This trend observed in all species of wheat types. Resistance to extension of the whole meal dough varieties ranged between 600-550 BU, while it was reduced in wheat flour 72% as indicated in Table 5. The same findings were reported by Shouk3, Mousa et al.34 and Kamil et al.35, who reported that flour extraction elevate extensibility but resistance to extension reduced. Moreover, Table 5 showed that, dough energy of wheat type 72% induced to be ranged between (85-70 cm2), while it’s whole meal declined 120-85 cm2. This score could lead to the higher component of fiber in whole meal than wheat flour 72% or by reduce ratio of (dilution) gluten with fiber36.

The viscosity of a flour water suspension was evaluated using amylograph by a change in the temperature is increased at a steady rate. The top of the amylogram peak is indicate to the gelatinization properties of the starch and the a-amylase activity37.

The rheological properties of wheat varieties were evaluated by heat of transition, maximum viscosity and temperature of maximum viscosity as presented in Table 6. Data reported that wheat flour value ranged between (55.5-66°C), (75-93°C) and (450-850 BU) for heat of transition and maximum viscosity, respectively. The transition temperatures and temperature of maximum viscosity were significantly higher (at p = 0.05) of whole meal wheat flour than that found in wheat flour (72% extract), while the maximum viscosity was significantly lower of whole meal wheat flour (100% extraction) than that found in wheat flour (72% extract).

Thermal properties of wheat varieties: The differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) of Yecora Rojo, Sakha 93, Pavon76, KSU 102 and Sama as shown in Fig. 1(a-j). The overall gelatinization temperature of the flour samples were 72.63, 3.23, 61.50, 10.63 and 38.74 J g–1 in whole meal of Yecora Rojo, Sakha 93, Pavon76, KSU 102 and Sama, while in 72% extraction of same varieties were 45.56, 8.50, 45.26, 52.38 and 21.63 J g–1, respectively. Lowest H enthalpy was found in Sakha 93 that could be due to the enthalpy of amylase lipid complex formulate during induce temperature. It is well known that starch gelatinization is affected by the limit of milling and the ratio of non-starch lipids presented in sample Champagne et al.38 and Hussein et al.5.

Effect of extract rate on starch crystallinity: The crystalline raw starch granules of wheat type changes with different extractions are estimated by X-ray technique. Crystal form, extent of amylopectin branching and proportion of amylose and amylopectin, characterize starch granules36, as a result, X-ray diffraction patterns of such granules are subsequently varied. According to X-ray diffraction data, the structure of starch can be arranged into four types, A, B, C and V39.

X-ray diffractograms of different wheat varieties: X-ray diffraction trace of Yecora Rojo, Sakha 93, Pavon 76, KSU 102 and Sama (100% extraction). Sharp diffraction peaks around 2θ value of 100, 100, 95.76, 100 and 42.26% according to d-spacing of about 2.36, 2.03, 2.039, 2.029 and 2.03A respectively as shown in Fig. 2(a-j). This style closely matches reported values of A-type cereal starches39. The diffractogram of extraction 72% of whole samples (Fig. 2) illustrate similar peaks with some shifting.

Table 6:Viscoamylograph parameters of whole meal and 72% extraction wheat flour

Fig. 1(a-j):
DSC of wheat varieties with different extraction, (a) Yecora Rojo (100% extraction), (b) Yecora Rojo (72% extraction), (c) Sakha 93 (100% extraction), (d) Sakha 93 (72% extraction), (e) Pavon 76 (100% extraction), (f) Pavon 76 (72% extraction), (g) KSU 102 (100% extraction), (h) KSU 102 (72% extraction), (i) Sama (100% extraction) and (j) Sama (72% extraction)

Fig. 2(a-j):
X-ray diffractograms of wheat varieties with different extraction, (a-b) Yecora Rojo wheat variety (100% extraction and 72% extraction), (c-d) Sakha 93 wheat variety (100% extraction and 72% extraction), (e-f) Pavon 76 wheat variety (100% extraction and 72% extraction), (g-h) KSU 102 wheat variety (100% extraction and 72% extraction) and (i-j) Sama wheat variety (100% extraction and 72% extraction)
  A: D spacing, (%) is the relative intensity value, X-axis: Count

Partially disruption with a less organized X-ray pattern along could be noted in the diffractogram of native starch (Fig. 2), with a development of diffractogram peak at about 2.9 Å (35 Å d-spacing value), which distinguished v-type starch37. Blends 2 to blends 5 displayed another amorphous X-ray pattern with a peak around 5.9-2.6 Å. With respect to the above findings, the material exhibits the properties of a liquid rather than a rigid Chakraverty and Kaleemulla40. The location of this peak was slightly displaced from the strong 4.4 Å peak characteristic of the v-type amylose-lipid complex pattern14.


X-ray diffraction detect successfully wheat grain cracks and partial disruption of native starch granule, that constitute one of the most difficult defects to detect, affecting on the quality and value of wheat products. On the other hand, DSC could be used to identify wheat type (durum, hard or soft) or gelatinization temperature of the flour samples. Furthermore, rheological properties, gluten content of wheat species and falling number suggested using Yecora Rojo; KSU 102 and Sam in bread and Sakha 93 in biscuit product.


This study help the researchers to uncover the critical areas of differentiation of wheat varieties on quality characters of the flour product that many researchers were need to explore. Depending on the analysis and the differentiation characters that were explored in this study, the wheat variety can be classified as pasta variety, that using in pasta processing, or bread variety and patisserie variety. Thus, new theory developed on making a relation between the variety and the quality characters. Also, it will help to redirect the wheat flour for the suitable application uses.

AACC., 2000. Gluten-hand washing method. AACC Method No. 38-10, American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN., USA.

AOAC., 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 17th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC., USA., Pages: 234.

Ahmad, I., F.M. Anjum and A.M.S. Butt, 2001. Quality characteristics of wheat varieties grown in Pakistan from 1933-1996. Pak. J. Food Sci., 11: 1-4.

Aline, A., M.A.L. Verny, H.W. Lopez, M. Leuillet, C. Demigne and C. Remese, 2001. Whole wheat and triticale flours with differing viscosities stimulate cecal fermentations and lower plasma and hepatic lipids in rats. J. Nutr., 131: 1770-1776.
Direct Link  |  

Anjum, F.M. and C.E. Walker, 1991. Review on the significance of starch and protein to wheat kernel hardness. J. Sci. Food Agric., 56: 1-13.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Anjum, F.M. and C.E. Walker, 2000. Grain, flour and bread-making properties of eight Pakistani hard white spring wheat cultivars grown at three different locations for 2 years. Int. J. Fod Sci. Technol., 35: 407-416.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Aune, D., N. Keum, E. Giovannucci, L.T. Fadnes and P. Boffetta et al., 2016. Whole grain consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and all cause and cause specific mortality: Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Br. Med. J., Vol. 353. 10.1136/bmj.i2716

Bernstein, A.M., B. Titgemeier, K. Kirkpatrick, M. Golubic and M.F. Roizen, 2013. Major cereal grain fibers and psyllium in relation to cardiovascular health. Nutrients, 5: 1471-1487.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Bloksma, A.H. and W. Bushuk, 1988. Rheology and Chemistry of Dough. In: Wheat: Chemistry and Technology, 3rd Edn., Pomeranz, I.Y. (Ed.). AACC International, St. Paul, MN., pp: 131-217.

Chakraverty, A. and S. Kaleemullah, 1991. Conversion of rice husk into amorphous silica and combustible gas. Energy Convers. Manage., 32: 565-570.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Champagne, E.T., W.E. Marshall and W.R. Goynes, 1990. Effects of the degree of milling and lipid removal on starch gelatinization in the brown rice kernel. Cereal Chem., 67: 570-574.
Direct Link  |  

Chen, H., G.L. Rubenthaler and E.G. Schanus, 1988. Effect of apple fiber and cellulose on the physical properties of wheat flour. J. Food Sci., 53: 304-305.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Corbellini, M., S. Empilli, P. Vaccino, A. Brandolini, B. Borghi, M. Heun and F. Salamini, 1999. Einkorn characterization for bread and cookie production in relation to protein subunit composition. Cereal Chem., 76: 727-733.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Czerny, M. and P. Schieberle, 2002. Important aroma compounds in freshly ground wholemeal and white wheat flour identification and quantitative changes during sourdough fermentation. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50: 6835-6840.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Farooq, Z., Salim-ur-Rehman, M.S. Butt and M.Q. Bilal, 2001. Suitability of wheat varieties/lines for the production of leavened flat bread (naan). J. Res. Sci., 12: 171-179.
Direct Link  |  

Gomez, M.H., J.K. Lee, C.M. McDonough, R.D. Waniska and L.W. Rooney, 1992. Corn starch changes during tortilla and tortilla chip processing. Cereal Chem., 69: 275-279.
Direct Link  |  

Heshe, G.G., G.D. Haki, A.Z. Woldegiorgis and H.F. Gemede, 2016. Effect of conventional milling on the nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of wheat types common in Ethiopia and a recovery attempt with bran supplementation in bread. Food Sci. Nutr., 4: 534-543.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Huang, T., M. Xu, A. Lee, S. Cho and L. Qi, 2015. Consumption of whole grains and cereal fiber and total and cause-specific mortality: Prospective analysis of 367,442 individuals. BMC Med., Vol. 13. 10.1186/s12916-015-0294-7

Hussein, A.M., M.M. Kamil and G.H. Ragab, 2010. Technological properties of some Egyptian new wheat varieties. J. Am. Sci., 6: 1160-1171.
Direct Link  |  

Jonnalagadda, S.S., L. Harnack, R.H. Liu, N. McKeown, C. Seal, S. Liu and G.C. Fahey, 2011. Putting the whole grain puzzle together: Health benefits associated with whole grains-summary of American society for nutrition 2010 satellite symposium. J. Nutr., 141: 1011S-1022S.
Direct Link  |  

Kamil, M.M., A.M. Hussien, G.H. Ragab and S.K.H. Khalil, 2011. Detecting adulteration of durum wheat pasta by FT-IR spectroscopy. J. Am. Sci., 7: 573-575.

Kent-Jones, D.W. and A.J. Amos, 1967. Modern Cereal Chemistry. Food Trade Press, London.

Kim, S.K. and B.L. d'Appolonia, 1977. Bread staling studies. I. Effect of protein content on staling rate and bread crumb pasting properties. Cereal Chem., 54: 207-215.
Direct Link  |  

Maleki, M. and H. Parchami, 1976. Iranian bread technology. Publication No. 3, Report of Research Center of Agriculture College, University of Shiraz, Iran, pp: 209-217.

Matthews, R.H. and M.Y. Workman, 1977. Nutrient composition of selected wheat products. Cereal Chem., 54: 1115-1123.

McClave, J.T. and P.G. Benson, 1991. Statistical for Business and Economics. Max Well Macmillan International Edn., Dellen Publishing Co., USA., pp: 272-295.

Mousa, E.I., R.H. Ibrahim, W.C. Shuey and R.D. Maneval, 1979. Influence of wheat classes flour extractions and baking methods ond Egyptian balady bread. Cereal Chem., 56: 563-566.
Direct Link  |  

Niewczas, J., S. Grundas and Z. Slipek, 1994. The analysis of increments of internal damage to wheat grain affected by dynamic loading. Int. Agrophys., 8: 283-287.
Direct Link  |  

Orth, R.A. and K.C. Mander, 1975. Effect of milling yield on flour composition and breadmaking quality. Cereal Chem., 52: 305-314.
Direct Link  |  

Pedersen, B. and B.O. Eggum, 1983. The influence of milling on the nutritive value of flour from cereal grains. 2. Wheat. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr., 33: 51-61.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Popa, C.N., 2007. Influenta unor amelioratori de origine vegetala si microbiana asupra parametrilor de calitate ale fainurilor din grau. Ph.D. Thesis, The Faculty of Horticulture, The University of Agronomical Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Bucharest, Romania.

Rao, G.V., D. Indrani and S.R. Shurpalekar, 1985. Effect of milling methods and extraction rates on the chemical, rheological and bread making characteristics of wheat flours. J. Food Sci. Technol., 22: 38-42.

Samsel, A. and S. Seneff, 2013. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance. Interdisciplin. Toxicol., 6: 159-184.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Shouk, A.A.L., 1991. Production and evaluation of wholemeal wheat bread. Ph.D. Thesis, Food Technology Dept., Agric. Faculty, Cairo University, Egypt.

Shuey, W.C., 1975. Practical instruments for rheological measurements on wheat products. Cereal Chem., 52: 42r-81r.
Direct Link  |  

Sidhu, J.S., S.N. Al-Hooti and J.M. Al-Saqer, 1999. Effect of adding wheat bran and germ fractions on the chemical composition of high-fiber toast bread. Food Chem., 67: 365-371.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Stevenson, L., F. Phillips, K. O'sullivan and J. Walton, 2012. Wheat bran: Its composition and benefits to health, a European perspective. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 63: 1001-1013.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Yaghobfar, A., 2016. The effect of cell wall content of wheat and rice brans on biological relative bioavailability value of minerals binding from the broilers diet. J. Nutr. Food Sci., Vol. 6. 10.4172/2155-9600.100562

Zilic, S., M. Barac, M. Pesic, D. Dodig and D. Ignjatovic-Micic, 2011. Characterization of proteins from grain of different bread and durum wheat genotypes. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 12: 5878-5894.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Zobel, H.F., S.N. Young and L. Rocca, 1988. A starch gelatinization an X-ray diffraction study. Cereal Chem., 66: 443-448.
Direct Link  |  

©  2019 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved
Fulltext PDF References Abstract