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Morpho-Physicochemical Study of Jesso-balam Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Accessions of Bangladesh



M.S. Ahmed, M.K. Bashar, M. Wazuddin and A.K.M. Shamsuddin
 
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ABSTRACT

In total 28 accessions of Jesso-balam rice were characterized for 38 morpho-physicochemical characters at Bangladesh Rise Research Institute during T. Aman 2009 and 2011 seasons. The analysis of variance showed highly significant differences (p<0.01) among the genotypes for all the characters. The mean separations showed high degree of variations and no single duplicate was found. The culm height (cm) ranged from 99.74 (JB20)-138.53 (JB22), effective tiller number per hill from 7 (JB6)-15 (JB4, JB26), straw yield per hill (g) from 21.01 (JB26)-47.01 (JB22), panicle length (cm) from 23.49 (JB20)-29.89 (JB22), primary branch number from 9.67 (JB20)-13.67 (JB23), secondary branch number from 19.67 (JB20)-53 (JB18), grain length (mm) from 5.92 (JB26)-9.37 (JB8), 1000-grain weight (g) from 11.0 (JB26)-25.88 (JB14), protein content (%) from 5.9 (JB15)-9.9 (JB26), grain yield per panicle (g) from 1.65 (JB12)-3.37 (JB21) and grain yield per hill (g) from 16.67 (JB26)-26.4 (JB4), respectively. The high GCV and h2b together with high GAPM were found in 1000-grain weight, seedling height, secondary branch number, panicle exertion, effective tiller number per hill, straw yield per hill and penultimate leaf area suggested that selection may be effective for these characters in segregating generations. The simple correlation indicated that the higher the PBN, SBN, SBFGW, LBR and TGW possessed greater PL, GL and PGY. Finally, the pure lines of Jesso-balam rice germplasm offers valuable gene reservoir which need to conserve and characterize using molecular tools for validating useful genes.

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M.S. Ahmed, M.K. Bashar, M. Wazuddin and A.K.M. Shamsuddin, 2016. Morpho-Physicochemical Study of Jesso-balam Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Accessions of Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Crop Science, 8: 13-23.

DOI: 10.3923/ajcs.2016.13.23

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajcs.2016.13.23
 
Received: September 07, 2015; Accepted: October 16, 2015; Published: December 15, 2015



INTRODUCTION

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the staple food for nearly half of the global population especially in Asia, Africa and Latin America (Maclean et al., 2002; FAO., 2004). Over 90% of the world’s rice is produced in Asia. Bangladesh is one of the largest producer and consumer of rice in the world with an annual production of 33.88 million Mt by occupying 77.15% of the total cropped area of the country (BBS., 2013). Presently, Bangladesh is self sufficient in rice production and even export to some extent. But in future, maintaining the increased production of rice will be the main challenge especially in the context of decreasing cultivable rice land and scarcity of irrigated water of the country. Moreover, climate changes make everything more critical especially higher rice production. Therefore, new diverse genes that govern biotic and abiotic stresses, nutritional qualities and even various attributes with indigenous or traditional values need to be considered.

Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. Rice genetic resource is the primary material for rice breeding and makes a concrete contribution to global wealth creation and food security (Zhang et al., 2011). The rice germplasm is a rich reservoir of valuable genes that plant breeders can harness for crop improvement (Yadav et al., 2013). With an increasing global population, the demand for rice will continue to rise, which raises challenges for the breeding of high yielding rice cultivars (Zhang et al., 2013).

Rice is rich in genetic diversity at both inter and intra-specific levels. Knowledge regarding the extent of genetic variation and genetic relationships between genotypes are vital for designing effecting breeding and conservation strategies (Roy et al., 2015). Genetic diversity underlies the improvement of crops by plant breeding. Land races of rice (Oryza sativa L.) can contain some valuable alleles not common in modern germplasm (Pervaiz et al., 2010).

Genetic diversity is the foundation for an efficient choice of parents for the variety development program which require a continuous supply of new genetic inputs (genes/gene-complexes). The available diversity in the germplasm serves as an insurance against unknown future needs/conditions, thereby contributing to the stability of farming systems at local, national and global levels (Singh et al., 2000). Ghosal et al. (2010) conducted field experiment on 18 advanced breeding lines for yield contributing characters and found significant variation for all the tested characters. Parikh et al. (2012) characterized 71 aromatic rice germplasm and found highly significant variability among the varieties. However, Singh et al. (1991) stated that the genetic diversity of a collection can be reflected perfectly, only if, various kinds of traits have been evaluated compositively. But, now rice diversity in Bangladesh is threatened due to extensive cultivation of Modem Varieties (MVs) all over the country (Ahmed et al., 2010).

There are 28 germplasm of ‘Jesso-Balam Transplant Aman Pure Line (TAPL), in Rice Genebank of Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur, which need to be characterized for their effective conservation and utilization. However, the Balam rice is the most popular rice in Southern regions of the country. But due to low yield compare to MV’s, the cultivation area of this rice is decreasing year after year. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the variability and genetic parameters of 28 Jesso-balam Pure Line (PL) rice accessions to identify potential genotypes through morpho-physicochemical characters for improving the Balam rice in Bangladesh.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The field experiment was conducted at Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur during T. Aman, 2009 and 2011, seasons and laboratory experiment in the laboratory of Grain Quality and Nutrition Division (GQND) of the same during 2011. A total of 28 Jesso-balam TAPL rice accessions, collected from Genebank of BRRI were used in the experiments (Table 1). The genotypes were developed as ‘Pure Lines’ by ‘Head to row method’ in the hybridization programs of Plant Breeding Division, BRRI.

The 30 days old single seedling was transplanted per hill for each genotype in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications.

Table 1: List of the 28 Jesso-Balam TAPL rice accessions
Image for - Morpho-Physicochemical Study of Jesso-balam Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Accessions of Bangladesh
*BRRI Rice Gene bank accession number, TAPL: Transplant aman pure line

Space within and between rows were 20 and 25 cm, respectively. The unit plot size was four rows each of 2.7 m length. The fertilizer dose of 60-50-40-10 kg NPKS per hectare was applied in the form of Urea, Triple Super Phosphate (TSP), Muriate of Potash (MP) and Gypsum, respectively. Total fertilizers except urea were applied before the final land preparation. Urea was applied in three installments at 15, 30 and 45 Days after Transplanting (DAT). Appropriate control measures were taken for pest and disease when necessary.

The data were statistically analyzed using MstatC software. For each character, the mean, range and standard deviation were calculated and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) was performed. The mean values were separated by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) as suggested by Stell and Torrie (1960). The genotypic variance (σ2g), phenotypic variance (σ2p) and heritability (h2b, %) in broad sense were calculated according to Johnson et al. (1955), while the Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV %) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV %) was computed with the formula suggested by Burton (1952). The Genetic Advance (GA) was calculated according to Lush (1949) and Johnson et al. (1955), the Genetic Advance in Percent Mean (GAPM) by Comstock and Robinson (1952) and the simple correlation coefficients by Beale (1969).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Analysis of variance for morpho-physicochemical characters: The analysis of variance of 38 morpho-physicochemical characters, showed highly significant differences (p<0.01) among the genotypes for all the characters (Table 2). It indicated wide range of genetic variations among the pure lines of Jesso-balam.

Table 2: Mean sum of square of 38 morpho-physico chemical characters of 28 Jesso-Balam PL rice accessions
Image for - Morpho-Physicochemical Study of Jesso-balam Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Accessions of Bangladesh
**Significant at1% level of probability, PL: Pencil length

Previously, Abarshahr et al. (2011) studied 19 quantitative traits in 30 genotypes of rice, respectively and found highly significant differences among the genotypes. But, Dhananjaya et al. (1998) by studying genetic variability of 121 elite homozygous rice observed maximum variations for productive tillers per plant, number of fertile spikelet and grain yield per plant among the studied traits. Therefore, means of the studied characters were separated for further study.

Variability of Jesso-balam rice germplasm: The mean performance of 28 Jesso-balam rice accessions for 38 morpho-physiochemical characters showed that high degree of genetic variations existed among the germplasm (Table 3-6). The seedling height (cm) with the mean value of 66.47 had wide range from 50.6 (JB26)-73.71 cm (JB14). Similarly, penultimate leaf length (cm) with a mean value of 56.75, varied from 46.63 (JB7)-69.18 (JB17) cm, penultimate leaf area (cm2) with mean 36.87 varied from 36.87 (JB8)-67.26 cm2 (JB17), culm height (cm) with mean 118.19 varied from 99.74 (JB20)-138.53 cm (JB22), respectively. Again, plant height (cm) with mean 145.3 varied from 123.23 (JB20)-168.42 cm (JB22), effective tiller number per hill with mean 11.93 varied from 7 (JB6)-15 (JB4, JB26), straw yield per hill (g) with mean 31.62 varied from 21.01 (JB26)-47.01 g (JB22), days to maturity with mean 148.9 varied from 139 (JB16)-160 (JB22), respectively. On the other hand, panicle length (cm) with a mean value of 27.11 varied from 23.49 (JB20)-29.89 cm (JB22), grain yield per panicle (g) with mean 2.75 varied from 1.65 (JB12)-3.37 g (JB21), grain yield per hill (g) with mean 22.71 varied from 16.67 (JB26)-26.4 g (JB4), harvest index (%) with mean 33.37 varied from 21.21 (JB22)-43.2% (JB23) and biological yield (g) with mean 47.18 varied from 31.57 (JB26)-59.71 g (JB22), respectively. Moreover, primary branch number with mean 11.73 varied from 9.67 (JB20)-13.67 (JB23), average primary branch length (cm) with mean 11.67 varied from 9.67 (JB15)-13.61 cm (JB11), secondary branches number with mean 38.6 varied from 19.67 (JB20)-53 (JB18) and average secondary branch length (mm) with mean 25.52 varied from 20.06 (JB24)-28.09 mm (JB9), respectively. Again, the grain length (mm) with mean value of 8.33, showed wide range of grain length variation from 5.92 (JB26)-9.37 mm (JB8),1000-grain weight (g) with mean 20.52 varied from 11.0 (JB26)-25.88 g (JB14), milling outturn (%) with mean 71.84 varied from 69 (JB11, JB14)-75% (JB26), head rice outturn (%) with mean 84 varied from 48 (JB3)-96% (JB1, JB9), amylose content (%) with mean 24.54 varied from 22.6 (JB17)-26.5% (JB24) and protein content (%) with mean 7.34 varied from 5.9 (JB15)-9.9% (JB26), respectively.

Table 3: Mean performance of seedling, leaf and culm characters of 28 Jesso-balam PL rice accessions
Image for - Morpho-Physicochemical Study of Jesso-balam Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Accessions of Bangladesh
In column, means followed by a common alphabetical small letter are not statistically different att he 5% level by DMRT

Table 4: Mean performance of morpho-physiological characters of 28 Jesso-Balam PL rice accessions
Image for - Morpho-Physicochemical Study of Jesso-balam Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Accessions of Bangladesh
In column, means followed by a common alphabetical small letter are not statistically different at the 5% level by DMRT, PL: Pencil length

Therefore, it can be said that in this collection of germplasm, one can find wide range of variation of different important morpho-physicochemical characters. Moreover, the identified potential genotypes can be selected and utilized for developing new variety of Jesso-balam rice.

Earlier, Parikh et al. (2012) characterized 71 aromatic rice germplasm and found the highest plant height, panicle length, hundred seed weight and head rice recovery as 146.05, 26.9 and 2.99 g and 73.7%, respectively by evaluating 22 morphological and agronomical traits. Chakravorty et al. (2013) observed the highest leaf length as 61 cm, leaf breadth as 2.20 cm, plant height as 43 cm, days to maturity as 172 days, panicle length as 30.50 cm, primary branch per panicle as 16, grain length as 11.2 mm, 1000-grain weight as 29.91 g and grain per panicle as 334 etc., in 51 rice landraces of West Bengal. Thus, desirable characteristics with high potentiality of similar and duplicate named rice germplasm under study can be utilized as beneficial gene pool in developing varieties to maintain rice diversity as well as its sustainable production.

Again, Biswas et al. (2001) evaluated 34 modern and local rice varieties for physico-chemical properties and found the highest grain length and L/B ratio as 6.9 and 3.6 mm, respectively. Biswas et al. (2001) by evaluating 34 modern and local rice varieties for physico-chemical properties and found the highest milling out turn as 72%, head rice outturn as 98%, amylose as 27% and protein content as10.5%, respectively. But Subudhi et al. (2012) evaluated 41 rice varieties of different ecologies and found the highest milling recovery, head rice recovery, kernel length, amylose content as 76, 68, 7.54 mm, 26.1%, respectively. As a result, different important physicochemical characters were existed among the germplasm for rice improvement. Therefore, the genetically potential genotypes with special physicochemical characters can be utilized for developing high yielding varieties with better nutritional quality.

The mean separations of 28 Jesso-balam PL rice germplasm showed highly significant differences among the genotypes (Table 3-6). No single duplicate genotype was found among the pure lines. However, the genotype JB1, JB2, JB3, JB7, JB9, JB11, JB12, JB19 and JB25 were found statistically similar for seedling height.

Table 5: Mean performance of PB and SB characters of 28 Jesso-Balam rice
Image for - Morpho-Physicochemical Study of Jesso-balam Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Accessions of Bangladesh
In column, means followed by a common alphabetical small letter are not statistically different at the 5% level by DMRT, PB: Primary branch, SB: Secondary branch

Similarly, genotype JB10, JB13, JB15, JB16, JB21, JB22, JB23, JB27 and JB28 were found statistically similar for the same character. Again, the genotype JB1 to JB9, JB11 to JB12, JB14 to JB19, JB21 and JB24 to JB27 were found statistically identical for seedling and plant height. In case of days to maturity, genotype JB2, JB5, JB7, JB8 and JB9 and in case of grain yield per hill genotype JB1 to JB5, JB7, JB8, JB10 to JB12, JB14, JB15, JB18, JB19, JB21 to JB25, JB27 and JB28 were found duplicate. Again, for primary branch number per panicle genotype JB1 to JB4, JB6, JB13 to JB15, JB17 to JB19, JB22, JB25 to JB27 and for secondary branch number per panicle genotype JB1 to JB3, JB5 to JB6, JB8, JB12, JB14, JB19, JB23 to JB25 and JB28 were found statistically identical. Similarly, genotype JB1 to JB4, JB7, JB9, JB12, JB13, JB16, JB18, JB20, JB23, JB25, JB27 and JB28 for grain length, genotype JB1, JB7, JB9, JB13, JB21, JB22, JB25 and JB28 for milling outturn and genotype JB1, JB8, JB9, JB13, JB15, JB18, JB19, JB24 and JB28 for cooking time were found statistically similar. Therefore, the 28 Jesso-Balam pure lines wide genetic variations were existed among them.

Hossain (2008) also observed highly significant differences among the aromatic and fine grain landraces of rice genotypes with duplicate names for all the morphological and physico-chemical characters studied. Nascimento et al. (2011) studied 146 accessions with same names of upland rice for 14 quantitative traits also found significance differences. However, Fukuoka et al. (2006) studied aromatic rice landraces and concluded that significant variation may be found among genotypes with the same name for quantitative traits. Besides, Kisandu and Mghogho (2004) studied 275 accessions from all rice growing regions of the Southern Highlands of Tanzania, reported that a large number of similar names were existed for rice cultivars. Finally, it can be concluded that wide range of genetic variation for different morpho-physicochemical characters were present among the pure lines and each line was unique and diverse from others.

Genetic parameters of Jesso-balam rice germplasm: Heritability (h2b %), genetic advance and Genetic Advance in Percent of Mean (GAPM), Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV %) and Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV %) of 28 Jesso-balam PL rice germplasm are presented in Table 7. It was observed that the genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variations were close to each other for seedling height as 8.9 and 9.2%, days to maturity as 3.5 and 3.5%, grain length as 7.2 and 7.4%, 1000-grain weight as 12.7 and 13.2% and L/B ratio as 5 and 5.9%, respectively indicating less environmental influence and additive gene action for the characters.

Table 6: Mean performance of grain characters of 28 Jesso-Balam PL rice accessions
Image for - Morpho-Physicochemical Study of Jesso-balam Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Accessions of Bangladesh
In column, means followed by a common alphabetical small letter are not statistically different at the 5% level by DMRT

But wide differences were found for filled grains weight per secondary branch as 19.6 and 31.3%, followed by panicle exertion as 35.3 and 46.1%, grain yield per panicle as 12.2 and 22.2% and filled grains number per secondary branch as 8.8 and 17.6%, respectively. Higher estimates of both GCV and PCV were found for panicle exertion (35.3 and 46.1%), followed by filled grain weight per primary branch (21.6 and 30.1%), filled grain weight per secondary branch (19.6 and 31.3%), straw yield per hill (19.2 and 26%), secondary branch number (18 and 22.2%) and effective tiller number per hill (15.9 and 22.1%), respectively indicating wide degree of variations for these traits. But very little GCV was found in days to maturity (3.5%), followed by L/B ratio (5%), plant height (5.3%), panicle length (5.4%) and primary branch number (5.4%) indicating lack inherence for these traits.

However, high h2b coupled with high GAPM were found for seedling height (93.6% and 17.7%), followed by 1000-grain weight (91.8% and 25%), grain length (94.8% and 14.5%), secondary branch number (65.9% and 30.1%) and panicle exertion (58.7% and55.8%), respectively suggested that they were simply inherited traits governed by a few genes with additive effects. While high h2b estimates with low GAPM were found for days to maturity (99.6 and 13.5%, respectively). Again, high GCV and h2b together with high GAPM were observed in 1000-grain weight (12.7, 91.8 and 25%), seedling height (8.9, 93.6 and 17.7%), secondary branch number (18, 65.9 and 30.1%), panicle exertion (35.3, 58.7 and 55.8%), effective tiller number per hill (15.9, 52.1 and 23.7%), straw yield per hill (19.2, 54.2 and 29%) and penultimate leaf area (12.7, 52.1 and 18.9%), respectively.

Ghosal et al. (2010) conducting experiment on 18 advanced breeding lines for yield contributing characters during Boro season, observed the genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variations close to each other for plant height, panicle length, 1000-grain weight, growth duration and yield, while some differences were found for effective tillers per square meter and spikelet sterility indicating influence of environment on the expression of these characters. Hossain and Haque (2003) stated that closer difference between the phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variations indicating less environmental influences on the expression of the respective characters in rice. Thus, improvement of studied germplasm groups may be possible through direct selection for the characters having high GCV and PCV in segregating generations. Iftekharuddaula et al. (2001) by studying 24 modern rice varieties of irrigated ecosystem found high heritability coupled with high genetic advance in percentage of mean in plant height, 1000-grain weight, spikelet per panicle and grain yield per panicle.

Table 7: Genetic parameters of 38 morpho-physicochemical characters of 28 Jesso-Balam PL rice accessions
Image for - Morpho-Physicochemical Study of Jesso-balam Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Accessions of Bangladesh
GCV: Genotypic coefficient of variation, PCV: Phenotypic coefficient of variation, H2b: Heritability, GA: Genetic advance, APM: Genetic advance in percent of mean

Ghosal et al. (2010) documented high h2b estimate with high GAPM for yield, 1000-grain weight, panicle length, spikelet sterility and plant height suggested that they were simply inherited traits governed by a few major genes or additive gene effects. Akter et al. (2004) observed high heritability coupled with high genetic advance in percentage of mean for 1000-grain weight. Parikh et al. (2012) stated high heritability coupled with high genetic advance indicating preponderance of additive gene action in the expression of these characters. Shanthakumar et al. (1998) found high genotypic coefficient of variability together with high heritability and genetic advance for plant height, total tillers per hill, flag leaf length, panicle length,spikelet fertility, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. However, Prasad et al. (2001) studied eight fine rice genotypes and found that 1000-grain weight, number of effective tiller per plant, number of fertile grain per panicle and yield per plant showed high GCV and high heritability coupled with high GAPM. Therefore, selection may be effective for these characters for improving jesso-Balam rice germplasm.

Correlation of different characters for Jesso-Balam rice germplasm: Out of 24 very highly significant (p<0.001) estimates among the total 153 correlations obtained between 18 different character pairs, 19 correlation coefficients were found positive in nature and only 5 estimates were negative (Table 8). The result also revealed that SBFGW had the highest very highly significant positive association with PGY (0.824), followed by GL with TGW (0.816), SBN with SBFGW (0.730), GL with LBR (0.701) etc.

Table 8: Estimates of simple correlation coefficients between 18 agro-morphological characters of 28 Jesso-Balam PL rice
Image for - Morpho-Physicochemical Study of Jesso-balam Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Accessions of Bangladesh
PFLA: Penultimate and flag leaf area, PH: Plant height, ENT: Effective tiller number per hill, DM: Days to Maturity, PL: Panicle length, PBN: Primary branch number, APBL: Average primary branch length, PFGN: Filled grain number per primary branch, PFGW: Primary branch filled grain weight, SBN: Secondary branch number, ASBL: Average secondary branch length, SFGN: Filled grain number per secondary branch, SFGW: Secondary branch filled grain weight, GL: Grain length, LBR: LB ratio, TGW: 1000-grain weight, PGY: Grain yield per panicle, HGY: Grain yield per hill and ***’**’*Significant at 0.1, 1 and 5% probability levels, respectively

Besides, SBN had the highest very highly significant negative association with GL (0.434), followed by PL with LBR (-0.432), ETN with TGW (-0.418), SBN with TGW (-0.399) etc. Therefore, these characters emerged as most important associates of grain yield in rice.

Secondly, among the 12 highly significant (p<0.01) estimates, nine correlations were positive in nature and three were found negative. The ASBL showed the highest highly significant positive association with SBFGW (0.335), followed by PL with SBN (0.332), ENT with HGY (0.328), PBN with PGY (0.321) etc. Besides, PL showed the highest highly significant negative association with TGW (-0.275), followed by ETN with GL (-0.270) etc. Therefore, these characters also emerged as important associates of grain yield in rice. Finally among the seventeen significant (p<0.05) estimates, 11 correlations were positive in nature and six were negative. The PH showed the highest significant positive association with APBL (0.256), followed by ETN with DM (0.255), PBN with PBFGW (0.254), PGY with HGY (0.247) etc. Besides, SBN showed the highest significant negative association with LBR (-0.265), followed by PBFGN with GL (-0.270) etc. Similar trend of associations between yield components were also reported earlier on rice (Chaudhary and Motiramani, 2003; Zahid et al., 2006; Yadav et al., 2011). Finally, the results indicated that the higher the PBN, SBN, SBFGW, LBR and TGW possessed greater the PL, GL and PGY, which appears logical. This also indicates high response for improving yield and yield components of studied rice germplasm. Janardhanam et al. (2001) also reported positive associations between different yield and yield components in rice.

CONCLUSION

Finally, each pure line of Jesso-balam rice accession offers valuable gene reservoir which needs to conserve and characterize for further improvement of Balam rice as highly significant differences among the lines were observed. The highest potentiality (positive) were found in JBPL17 for penultimate leaf area, JBPL22 for straw yield per hill, biological yield, panicle length, culm height and plant height, JBPL23 for primary branch number and harvest index, JBPL8 for grain length, JBPL26 for milling outturn, protein content and lowest TGW. Moreover, the correlation between different characters revealed that the higher the PBN, SBN, SBFGW, LBR and TGW possessed greater PL, GL and PGY. Finally, molecular approach need to apply for QTL mapping of the identified traits.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This study was the part of the corresponding author’s Ph.D dissertation and he acknowledges the financial support and research facilities of Genetic Resources and Seed Division of Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh.

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