Objective: The objective of this research was to study the growth and yield of Atlantic Potato cultivar grown in medium altitude areas with different amount of watering. Methodology: This study was conducted in search station of Agriculture Faculty of Padjadjaran University located in Jatinangor at the altitude of 685 m.a.s.l., at D3 rainfall rate in Inseptisol soil. A split plot design was used during the experiment. The main plot factor was using paclobutrazol at 3 different levels of concentrations (0, 50 and 100 ppm) and the second factor was watered at 4 different levels (100, 85, 70 and 55% water of field capacity). Results: The experiment result showed that applying 100 ppm of paclobutrazol could increase the tubers weight per plant, the starch content (12.50%) and reduce the sugar content (0.45%) for growing atlantic cultivar potato in medium altitude, however, it showed low height of the plants. The potato plants which were watered by 85% of field capacity showed the same height as ones watered by 100% while in other parameters low percentage of watering inhibited potato growth and its yield. Conclusion: Applying 100 ppm of paclobutrazol could increase the tubers weight per plant, starch content (12.50%) and reduced its sugar content (0.45%) other than that low percentage of watering inhibited potato yield for growing atlantic cultivar potato in medium altitude.
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Potato is a type of vegetables which plays more important role either as fresh products or as processed products; an alternative commodity within food diversification. Wider range of potato lands in high altitude areas has caused negative effect to the environment, such as environment damage, due to erosion. For this reason, some alternative ways need to be implemented in order to develop the possibility of growing potato in medium altitude areas at 300-700 m a.s.l., found in many areas of Indonesia, which could produce relatively same yield and quality. The experiment showed that cultivar Atlantic potato could grow and produced well when planted in medium altitude1,2.
In medium altitude of Indonesia and at low rainfall rate, water is not always obtainable. Thus, it will aggravate the growth of plants, especially during the phases when amount of water needs to be sufficient. In the field, young plants will be often dead if the environment gets very dry. This basically happens because evapotranspiration is bigger than the water absorbed by the plants through their root systems.
Based on the previous fact, if the roots ability to absorb water is improved, plants will be able to survive the drought. This is very vital as in certain areas rain may start very late while plants need sufficient water. Paclobutrazol application is one of the innovations in plants modification which needs further experiment for growing Atlantic potato cultivar in medium altitude with different amountof watering. It is expected that the application of hormonal growth of paclobutrazol can overcome those problems. This is possible because paclobutrazol role in improving the process of assimilation fotosintat from the leaves to the potato so sweet potatoes have high starch content3. Furthermore, a plant that applied paclobutrazol needed less water and fertilizer compared to one without paclobutrazol4.
Applications paklobutrazol influential in increasing crop yields for potatoes grown in plain medium5, having an effect in improving the quality of the roses6 and influential in improving the quality of begonia7.
One of paclobutrazol growth retardant factors is the decline in leaf area on traspirational surface, which in turn reduces transpiration3,5,6. It could also induce the stomatal closure which reduced transpiration. A plant which was given paclobutrazol is able to adapt with low light condition, survive the drought, increase the plants caroten substances and improve photosyntesis efficiency4. Furthermore, a plant that applied paclobutrazol needed less water and fertilizer compared to one without paclobutrazol4,8,9.
According to the facts, if the ability of the roots to absorb water can be improved, transpiration and evapotransipartion can be reduced, so a plant can survive the drought. This becomes important where in certain areas rain can start late while the plants needs sufficient amount of water. Growing factor like paclobutrazol, considered as an innovation in cultivation technique, should be tried on growing potatoes in medium altitude which are watered differently.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment took place in a research station located at the Agriculture Faculty of Padjadjaran University from March-September 2015. The altitude of 685 m.a.s.l., with D3 rainfall in inseptisol soil. Split-plot design was being used during the experiment. The main-plot factor applying paclobutrazol consisted of three different levels of applications (0, 50 and 100 ppm). The split-plot was the experiment design with the amount of water given in four different levels (100, 85, 70 and 55% of water field capacity). From those two treatments, 12 treatment per unit were obtained with three replications, so in total there were 36 plots treated. Each treatment was provided with 10 polybags of 15 kg and each polybag consisted of 1 plant, thus, 360 pots were obtained.
Growing media, which had been prepared in polybag, was given 20 t ha1 of fertilizer on the left and the right side of the plant. About 300 kg ha1 of N fertilizer was given twice on the 1st day planting and on the 30th day after planting. While 100 kg ha1 of K and 150 kg ha1 of P fertilizer were given at one time on the 1st day planting. After being fertilized, a diemeter of 10 cm hole was initially made to grow potato seed. The second generation of the seed of Atlantic cultivar of 30-45 g per piece was planted in 7.5 cm depth. To avoid soil insects and other pests, 3 g of furadan was spread around the seeds with a dose of 37.5 kg ha1. About 30% paranet shield was put up before growing the potatoes5. Paclobutrazol application was given on the 30th day after planting by spraying 15 mL per plant. Based on 100% water capacity for inseptisol soil, 1,950 L of water was needed. Plants were watered everyday with the appropriate amount of water accordingly. To mantain the amount of water on treatment, the provision of water was given as much water loss through evapotranspiration added with fresh weight of the plant as a correction factor that is maintained by weighing.
Weeds were removed and then soil was loosen and tiled and added with N fertilizer. Spraying dithane M-45 fungicide and decis 2,5 EC insecticide were aimed to control insects and pests based on the frequency of their attack. Harvesting could be started when the top of potato plants, the stems and the leaves, became yellow and began to fall and the skin of tubers were not peeled off.
Observation was done on the changing factors; leaves Relative Water Content (LRWC) calculated based on calculation:
|BS||=||Fresh weights of leave which is opened perfectly|
|BT||=||Turgor weights was obtained by saturating the leaves for about 2 clock|
Chlorophyl content was counted by using chlorophyl meter. The parameters of growth consisted of plants height, leaf area and dry weight, while the parameter of yield consisted of numbers of tubers per plant, the weight of tubers per plant and per hectare as well as the yield quality which consisted of starch and sugar content. The F test was performed to determine the differences in each treatment. If theres significant effect of treatment, Duncans multiple range test at the 5% significance level will be applied.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Content of leaves relative water: From Table 1, it was found that leaves relative water content with 100 ppm paclobutrazol concentration were much higher than with 50 and 0 ppm concentration. Reducing water had caused decline of the content of leaves relative water.
Plants growth-plant height, leaf area and chlorophyll content: Variance analysis results showed no interaction between the effects of packlobutrazol and the amount of the provision of water in the height of potato plant but the effect independently showed that paclobutrazol and the amount of water administration show the effect on plant height, leaf area and chlorophyll content. Treatment of 50 and 100 ppm paclobutrazol shown lower plants height and leaves area than 0 ppm paclobutrazol, which however, showed higher chlorophyll content. Plant height, leaves area and chlorophyll content became lower as a greater amount of water given (Table 2).
Number of tubers and its total weight per plant: Variance analysis result showed that theres no interaction between paclobutrazol application and the water procentage of field capacity on the number of tubers per plant but it had independently showed influence. Application of 50 and 100 ppm of paclobutrazol could increase the number of tubers and its total weight per plant. The amount of water given had also affected them.The number of tubers watered by 85% of field capacity showed most tubers and differed from other treatments. However, they indicated different result when watered by 100% of field capacity. Then, the number and the weight of potatoes decreased as less water given (Table 3).
Sugar and starch content: The result of statistic analysis showed that the sugar content of a plant with 100 ppm paclobutrazol application was 0.45 as the lowest value, while the starch content showed the highest value, 12.50%. Less water of field capacity percentage had caused higher sugar content, yet lower starch content (Table 4).
|Table 1:||Effect of paclobutrazol and the amount of water on the Leaves Relative Water Content (LRWC)|
|Table 2:||Effect of paclobutrazol and the amount of water on plants height, leaf area and the chlorophyll content of 56 days old potato|
|Average numbers followed by same letters are the same based on Duncans multiple range test on 5% level|
|Table 3:||Effect of paclobutrazol and percentage of water content of field capacity on the numbers of tubers|
Average numbers followed by same letters are the same based on Duncans multiple range test on 5% level
|Table 4:||Effect of paclobutrazol and the amount of water on starch and sugar content|
Average numbers followed by same letters are the same based on Duncans multiple range test on 5% level
As water of field capacity was less given, content of leaf relative water was smaller. This was consistent with the research10 which had found that leaf area, dry weight of leaf, its relative water content and its index were decreasing when less water was given. It happened because the cell had became smaller and the leaf hadnt developed well during the water stress. It also decreased the ability for photosynthesis due to smaller leaf area11. The relative water content of leaves of the plants which had been given paclobutrazol were higher than one without paclobutrazol. One of the retardant substances of paclobutrazol was reducing leaf area on transpirational surface, which in turn reduced transpiration ability3. It could also induce stomatal closure, which then reduced transpiration as well. Therefore, the relative water content of the leaves could be maintained.
About 50 and 100 ppm paclobutrazol tretments showed that the plant was shorter and the leaves were smaller compare to 0 ppm paclobutrazol. Paclobutrazol application on plants would cause inhibition of the synthesis of gibberellins which implicated on shorter stems of the plants. The plants response on paclobutrazol application was there would be a reduction in the growth of the shoots6,7,8,11. Plants applying paclobutrazol would be shorter and compact, that was related to shortened stems. It happened because applying paclobutrazol could reduce plants height through inhibition of gibberellins biosynthesis, an important hormone for cell elongation and enlargment6,12. The content of photoshyntesis of potato plants which had been given paclobutrazol were higher than ones without paclobutrazol. Paclobutrazol application could cause the content of leaf photosynthesis went through the pathway of certain substances formation on gibberellin synthetic pathway, such as pytol which was chlorophyll formation precursor4,13.
The values of plants height, leaf area and chlorophyll contents were lower as less water was given (Table 2). Plants growth are very much influenced by water provision, because water is one of the most improtant components needed for photosynthesis process besides CO2 and sunlight. The height of stems, numbers of green leaves and the length of leaf were sensitive parameters for drought14. While, on less water or dry condition chlorophyll formation could be inhibited15. Drought is an inhibitory factor on growth and leaf development of potato. Early drought caused leaf limitation and branch development16. It happened because the cells had became smaller and under developed during the water stress, which resulted in reducing leaf area for photoshynthesis15. The numbers of tuber per plant with 85% water of field capacity showed higher number of tubers, different from other treatment. However, it didnt showed any difference when watered with 100%. Then, the number of tubers were decreasing as less water was given (Tabel 3). There was a significant difference between the high amount of water with the low amount of water given, yet giving 85-100% of water could still support plants growth and produce more tubers due to higher numbers of stolon forming the tubers. Number of tubers per plant tends to decrease as the response of water insufficiency17.
Packlobutrazol of 50 and 100 ppm application showed the numbers of tubers and its weight were much higher than without paclobutrazol. Paclobutrazol application could increase clear assimilation phase18. Its related to the high content of chlorophyll and the postponment of senescence on potato leaf and its also related to the effect caused by paclobutrazol stimulating cytokinins hormone. The increased cytokinins hormone would trigger chlorophlast diffrentiation and biosynthesis, it would prevent chlorophyll degradation as well. Finally, those conditions affected tuberization on potatoes because the phase of photosynthate translocation into the tubers were increased due to paclobutrazol application11,18.
The sugar and starch content of potato with paclobutrazol application were close to its standard value accepted in potato processing industry. Based on industrial standard, to make potato chips the value of starch content should be above 11.90% and sugar content2,19 is below 0.5%. One of photosynthesis product is starch. Starch is a polysaccharide that is the end product of carbon fixation during photosynthesis. In addition to starch, sucrose is another product of photosynthesis20,21.
Paclobutrazol application had lessened gibberellins accumulation in the tuber tissue, therefore, it increased the strength of sink storage to accommodate more assimilates and starch synthesis18. Furthermore, photoshyntate translocation occurs because the plants avoided high accumulation of sugar in order to maintain osmotic gradient. One of organ sink mechanisms in reducing the accumulation of sugar was to synthesize starch or other macromolecules substance which have a lower osmotic activity22.
|•||About 100 ppm paclobutrazol application increased the tuber weight per plant, its starch content (12.50%) and reduced its sugar content (0.45%) for growing atlantic cultivar potato in medium altitude, yet, it showed low height|
|•||Potato plants watered by 85% of field capacity showed the same height as watered by 100% of field capacity while other parameters less water inhibited its growth and yields for growing Atlantic potato cultivar in medium altitude|
We would like to thank the Directorate General of Higher Education Ministry of Research and Technology of Indonesia that has funded this research through the National Strategic Research Programme.
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ardena maulidia Reply
This research is very interesting for development potato in medium altitude