Feasibility of Reusing the Agricultural Drainage Water for Irrigation of
Taimour Mango Transplants
Ahmed M.K. Abdel Aal
Nowadays, reusing drainage water in Egypt represents a major potential water
resource for expanding more cultivated area. This study was conducted during
2011 and 2012 seasons to test the possibility of reusing the agricultural drainage
water for irrigating of Taimour mango transplants. In addition, to examine the
effect of this water on some vegetative growth and root characters, total carbohydrate
percentage in the leaves, plant pigments and uptake of N, P, K, Na ad Cl by
plants. Transplants were irrigated with both drainage water and Nile water alone
and also with different proportions from each (75:25, 50:50 and 25:75). The
obtained data reveal that irrigation with drainage water alone or mixed with
Nile water at a ratio of 25% badly affected all the investigated parameters
of transplants. A positive relation between the proportion of drainage water
and the uptake of Na and Cl. Irrigation using drainage water mixed with river
Nile at a ratio of 50-75 was apparently no depressive effect on all of the considered
aspects of the transplants. From the economical standpoint, drainage water may
be mixed in equal parts (50: 50%) with river Nile for irrigate Taimour mango
transplants growing on sandy soil. For more safety, irrigation with Nile water
may be applied for leaching soil and preventing salt accumulate every four mixed
Received: July 25, 2013;
Accepted: October 25, 2013;
Published: March 08, 2014
Water resources in Egypt are Nile river (55.5 billion m3 year-1),
drainage water (27.0 billion m3 year-1 that reach from
irrigated lands, domestic and industrial sources), groundwater (5.3 billion
m3 year-1), rainfall, sewage water and industrial effluent
Increasing water efficacy reuse is an important and natural methods for managing
drainage water. As water resources are increasingly becoming scarce, agricultural
drainage water reuse has become an important source of irrigation water in Egypt.
The reuse of drainage water increased from 2.6 billion cubic meters in 2002
to about 10 billion m3 year-1 in 2012 (FAO,
Salinity in water and in soil retards growth and causes nutrients imbalance
in various crop fruits. It is responsible for inhibiting the biosynthesis of
plant pigments and organic foods. The different responses of fruit crops to
salinity was reviewed by Aly (1979), Sourial
et al. (1979), Lauchli and Epstein (1984),
Dahshan (1986), Bhambota et
al. (1990), Issa (1991), Abd
El-Karim-Nemat (1991), Ahmed and Darwish (1992),
Schmutz and Ludders (1993, 1994,
1998, 1999a, b),
Haggag et at. (1994), Aly
(1995), Ahmed and Ahmed (1998), Jury
et al. (2003), Qian and Mecham (2005), Kassam
et at. (2006), Dubey et al. (2007),
Ahmad and Al Rawashdeh (2012) and Abid
et al. (2013).
The present study aimed to clarify the effect of using drainage water alone
or in different proportions with River Nile on growth and nutritional status
of young Taimour mango trees.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was carried out in a private nursery located at El-Kosyia district
Assuit Governorate during 2011 and 2012 seasons. For achieving this study 150
uniform in vigour and grafted Taimour mango transplants (30 months age) were
selected. They were planted in March in clay pots (34 cm diameter) and filled
with 10 kg sandy soil (one transplant/pot).
This experiment involved the following five treatments from drainage water
and/or Nile water alone and at various proportions:
||Irrigation with 100% agricultural drainage water
||Irrigation with 75% agricultural drainage water+25% Nile water
||Irrigation with 50% agricultural drainage water+50% Nile water
||Irrigation with 25% agricultural drainage water+75% Nile water
||Irrigation with 100% Nile water
In both seasons, a fixed amount of water from the five irrigation treatments
i.e., 2 L pot-1 was added 6, 4 and 7 days intervals in Spring (March,
April, May), Summer (June and July) and Autumn (Sept.) months, respectively.
One irrigation with Nile water was applied every four irrigations from agricultural
drainage water treatments for preventing salt accumulations. The methods of
Ayers and Branson (1977) and Wilde
et al. (1985) were used for the determination of water quality parameters.
The values are the average of seven samples taken during each season. Averages
of the two seasons of electrical conductivity of the water before the forty
two irrigations are shown in Table 1.
The experimental was laid out in a complete randomized design with five irrigation
treatments and three replications each with ten transplants. Plants were maintained
under uniform program of N, P, K and micronutrients fertilization besides diseases
and insects control.
The effects of different treatments on the following measurements were recorded.
Growth characters: At the termination of experiment in both seasons
(last week of Sept.) all Taimour mango transplants were excavated and washed
with tap water twice then the following growth parameters were recorded:
||Stem height (cm)
||Stem thickness (cm)
||No of leaves/plant
||Leaf area (cm2) (according to Ahmed and
||Root distribution (cm2)
||Main root length (cm)
||Fresh and dry weights of whole plant (g)
Plant pigments: Chlorophylls a and b were determined in the fresh leaves
(Carlson, 1981). Total carbohydrates percentage in
the dry leaves was determined according to Anthron method (AOAC,
Uptake of N, P, K, Na and Cl: Uptake of N, P, K, Na and Cl by each transplants
was recorded by multiplying dry weight of each transplant by percentage of each
element according to Chapman and Pratt (1975) and Wilde
et al. (1985) and multiplying the product by 1000 (mg element/transplant).
Statistical analyze: All the obtained data were tabulated and statistically
analyzed according to Mead et al. (1993) using
new LSD parameter at 5% for made comparisons among different irrigation treatments.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Electrical conductivity, pH and T.S.S of agricultural drainage water and Nile
water: Overall, the agricultural drainage water is having a water quality
that is less than that of the Nile water, as the electrical conductivity and
total soluble salts were about 3.09 fold those of the River Nile water. In addition,
pH was higher in agricultural drainage water (7.9 and 7.6) than in River Nile
(7.5 and 7.2) in both seasons. This is indicated that a salinity problem would
occur when irrigation was done by using agricultural drainage water alone or
mixed with Nile water at 75:25%, respectively (Table 1).
Effect of water quality treatments on vegetative growth characters:
It is clear from the data in Table 2 that significant and
great reduction on the investigated growth characters were observed when Taimour
mango transplants were irrigated with drainage water alone or when irrigated
with water containing 75% agricultural drainage water+25% Nile water. The inhibition
on such growth characters was associated with increasing the percentage of agriculture
drainage water applied with Nile water. Mixing agricultural drainage water with
Nile water at 25-50% failed to show significant reduction on these growth characters
compared with using Nile water alone. The maximum values for stem height (100
and 111 cm), stem thickness (1.55 and 1.63 cm) and number of leaves/plant (36
and 35 leaves) were recorded on transplants irrigated with Nile water alone
during both seasons, respectively. Insignificant reduction on such growth traits
was obtained with using agricultural drainage water at percentages ranged from
25-50+75-50% Nile water compared to irrigation with 100% Nile water. Generally
the foregoing trends noticed in 2011 season were the same as those noticed in
These results are in agreement with those obtained by Aly
(1979), Lauchli and Epstein (1984), Dahshan
(1986) and Haggag et al. (1994).
Effect of water quality treatments on some root characters: It is clear
from the obtained data in Table (2) that root distribution and main root length
of Taimour mango transplants were negatively affected by using water containing
more than 50% drainage water plus 50% Nile water. Irrigation with drainage water
at 75-100+25-0.0% Nile water significantly was accompanied with decreasing root
distribution and main root length of Taimour mango transplants compared to using
Nile water alone or using a mixture of drainage water+Nile water at 25-50:75-50%,
respectively. The reduction on such root characters was associated with increasing
percentages of drainage water from 25-l00% out of the total water irrigation.
Using the drainage water alone for irrigating of transplants reduced root distribution
area (110.00 and 109.50 cm2) compared with irrigation with the Nile
water alone (150.50 and 152.00 cm2) in the first and second seasons,
respectively. No harmful effects were detected for the application of 25-50%
drainage water with 75-50% River Nile water in comparison to Nile watering on
either root distribution or main root length. Irrigation with drainage water
alone or when mixing with Nile water at 25% resulted in highly depressive effect
on such two root parameters. These results were true in both seasons.
Similar trend was reported by Sourial et al. (1979),
Bhambota et al. (1990), Issa
(1991) and Ahmed and Darwish (1992).
Effect of water quality treatments on total carbohydrates percentage and
plant pigments: It is clear from the obtained data in Table
3 that total carbohydrates and plant pigments significantly varied among
different irrigation management treatments.
||Effect of irrigation with agricultural drainage water and
or Nile water at various proportions on some vegetative and root characters
of Taimour mango transplants during 2011 and 2012 seasons
||Effect of irrigation with agricultural drainage water and
Nile water at various proportions on total carbohydrates%, plant pigments
(mg/1 g F.W) and uptake of N, P, K, Na and Cl (mg plant-1) of
Taimour mango transplants during 2011 and 2012 seasons
The reduction on such parameters was associated with increasing percentages
of agricultural drainage water applied with Nile water. Values were slightly
reduced with using drainage water at percentages ranged from 25-50% with 75-50%
Nile water compared to using Nile water alone. Irrigation with drainage water
at 75-l00% out of the amount of total irrigation water significantly was followed
by minimizing such traits. Using the drainage water alone reduced total carbohydrates
(10.00 and 9.90%) in relative to using the Nile water alone (16.20 and 16.00%)
in both seasons, respectively. The maximum values were recorded on the leaves
from transplants irrigated only with Nile water. These results are in concordance
with those obtained by Aly (1979), Abd
El-Karim-Nemat (1991), Ahmed and Darwish (1992)
and Haggag et al. (1994).
Effect of water quality treatments on uptake of N, P, K, Na and Cl:
It is clear from the data in Table 3 that uptake of N, P,
K, Na and Cl by each transplant were greatly varied among the five water quality
treatments. Taimour mango transplants irrigated with Nile water alone contained
the higher uptake of N, P and K and the lowest uptake of Na and Cl.
The transplants irrigated with agricultural drainage water had the minimum
uptake of N, P and K and the maximum uptake of both Na and Cl. Irrigation with
either drainage water alone or with the diluted drainage waters at different
proportions caused a reduction on uptake of N, P and K and a promotion on uptake
of Cl and Na compared to irrigation with Nile water. Irrigation with water containing
75-100% drainage water significantly decreased uptake of N, P and K and increased
uptake of Na and Cl compared to irrigation with Nile water and other diluted
drainage waters. Similar results were announced in the two seasons. These results
are in coincidence with those obtained by Aly (1979),
Sourial et al. (1979), Lauchli
and Epstein (1984), Dahshan (1986), Bhambota
et al. (1990), Schmutz and Ludders (1993)
and Haggag et al. (1994).
The previous negative effects of water salinity on growth and nutritional status
of young Taimour mango transplants might be attributed to the impaired effects
of salinity on cell division, plant pigments, uptake of nutrients, water absorption
and plant metabolism (Nijjar, 1985).
A general look for the obtained data reveal that agricultural drainage water
alone or mixed with Nile water at 75% seriously affected the plant. Doubtless,
the considerations of water salinity are the principal factors in deciding the
suitability of such water for irrigation of mango which is considered as low
tolerant plant (Singh, 1960). Therefore, it may be concluded
that no harmful effects on plant were obtained with using drainage water mixed
with Nile water at ratio of l:1 in comparison to using Nile water alone. Na
and Cl contents of plants subjected to such mixed water were very closer to
those obtained with Nile water. Accordingly, and from an economical point of
view, agricultural drainage water with qualities similar to those of the present
work may be combined in equal proportions with Nile water for irrigation Taimour
mango transplants on sandy soil. To minimize salts accumulation, one complete
Nile irrigation may be applied every four mixed water irrigations for leaching
the excess of salts in the soil.
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