Rapid Multiplication Techniques (RMTs): A Tool for the Production
of Quality Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Ethiopia
Gebremedhin W. Giorgis,
Productivity of potato is constrained primarily by use of low
quality seeds in Ethiopia. Many field multiplication generations of vegetatively
propagated basic seed result in build-up of seed-borne diseases and subsequent
dissemination to new fields. Use of soil-less media is an alternative to reduce
soil borne disease infections in production of vegetatively propagated planting
materials. The main bottleneck in potato seed tubers is slow multiplication
rate on the field and contamination of the seed with viral and bacterial diseases.
This has therefore, called for use of Rapid Multiplication Techniques (RMTs)
such as in vitro propagation of potato to eliminate viral and bacterial
infections. The production of potato seed under conventional system has not
been effective in avoiding or reducing the build-up of pathogens and has consequently
led to reduced quality seed and low crop yields. Holetta Agricultural Research
Center (HARC) aims to improve production and productivity of potato in Ethiopia
through promotion of the use of quality seed tuber. RMTs have been used at the
research center to improve the multiplication ratio of disease free potato seed
in short period of time. Using RMTs, large quantities and quality minitubers
have been produced at HARC starting from Tissue Culture (TC) in vitro
plantlets in the laboratory followed by screen house pot multiplication. Recently,
aeroponics unit were introduced and under use to produce high quality minitubers
for released potato varieties and clones as one of the RMTs tools. Thus, the
existing potato seed multiplication using conventional methods alone cannot
cope up with the current national seed demand for improved quality seed tubers.
Therefore, the use of TC mass propagation of in vitro plantlets and further
multiplication using RMTs such as screen houses and aeroponics techniques are
an efficient way of assisting the process of multiplying large quantity clean
seed tuber production. It also aims to contribute to the growing national seed
demand as well as to produce disease free planting materials that will be helpful
to eradicate the dissemination of potato viruses and bacterial wilt. Thus, this
review paper outlines the progress and achievements in RMTs for production of
high quality seed potato at HARC. The challenges and the need to develop certification
standards to increase capacity for potato minitubers production by RMTs in Ethiopia
were also explicitly discussed.
Received: December 04, 2013;
Accepted: January 21, 2014;
Published: April 14, 2014
In Ethiopia, potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) can significantly contribute
to food security improvement by increasing food availability and cash income
of smallholder farmers (Tufa, 2013). Hirpa
et al. (2010) also described that, potato is regarded a high potential
food security crop because of its ability to provide a high yield of high quality
product per unit input with a shorter crop cycle (mostly <120 days) than
major cereal crops like maize. The national average yield is approximately 10.5
t ha-1, which is very lower than the worlds average yield of
17 t ha-1 (Muthoni et al., 2011).
Moreover, Hirpa et al. (2010) stated that, the
potential of potato crop has not been adequately exploited due to poor quality
seed tubers and unavailability of seed tubers of improved varieties. The crop
is mainly grown at high altitudes of 1500-3000 masl by small scale farmers,
who account for over 90% of national potato production. Currently, potato production
is expanding from highland areas to mid and lowland parts of the country due
to its potential for production in a short period of time, high yield per unit
area, source of food and cash crops to large number of food-insecure smallholder
farmers and pastoralists in the country. Nowadays the main production season
for ware potato represents only 22% (34,000 ha), while the off-season production
is around 128,000 ha in northern and central Ethiopia (Haverkort
et al., 2012). The reason for a gradual shift from Meher (main growing
season) to Belg (off season) is the fact that the late blight pressure is increasing
and farmers experience less risk with cultivation during the small
rains combined with irrigation.
There are a number of production problems. The major ones are unavailability and high cost of seed tubers; lack of well adapted cultivars to the major agro-ecological zones; suboptimal agronomic practices; the prevalence of diseases and insect pests and inadequate storage, transportation and marketing facilities. To address these problems, the Ethiopian Agricultural Research Institute (EIAR) then the Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR) in collaboration with International Potato Centre (CIP) and national higher learning institutions like Haramaya University initiated potato improvement program in Ethiopia. The research had as its main objectives to develop adaptable and high yielding potato cultivars with good resistance to the biotic and abiotic stresses; identify the best agronomic practices and storage systems; adopt the use of botanical seed as an alternative propagation method; develop seed production system in the country and train farmers and other stakeholders.
A number of high yielding, wider adaptation and late blight disease resistance/tolerant
potato varieties have been released and under production by large number of
farmers in Ethiopia. However, one of the key production bottlenecks that contribute
to low yield of potato in Ethiopia is the lack of healthy and quality seed tubers
in the required quantity and quality (Lemaga and Gebremedhin,
1994). There is no formal seed certification system operating for clean/healthy
potato seed multiplication and distribution in Ethiopia. Hirpa
et al. (2010) reported that potato seed production in Ethiopia is
basically informal, which in most cases farmers are recycles planting materials
from previous crop harvest which results in viral and bacterial diseases accumulation.
According to the authors, 98.7% of the current national seed potato requirements
supplied through the informal seed system such as seed access from neighboring
farmers, friends, relatives, merchants, local market, part of ware potato and
commercial markets where potato is sold for consumption. Moreover, it is a common
practice to save the smaller size and inferior tubers that are not sold for
consumption for seed purposes; consequently, this practice allows disease and
viruses to build up and yield may gradually decline, as seed gets degenerated.
The conventional method of bulking potato seed tubers is by repeatedly multiplying
a set of tubers that has been proved to be disease-free in a process known as
clonal multiplication (Bryan, 1981). However, this method
has low multiplication rates of 6-8 tubers plant-1. Therefore, it
is expensive and time-consuming to produce enough seed tubers. Consequently,
the seed tubers are expensive; it is estimated that the cost of seed tubers
may account for 20-70% of the total production costs of commercial potatoes
(Accatino and Malagamba, 1982). In addition, multiplication
takes place in the field thereby exposing the seeds to soil-borne diseases.
The alternative to field seed multiplication of potato is use of rapid multiplication
techniques (Chandra and Birhman, 1994). Over the last
three decades rapid multiplication systems became an important technique to
provide disease-free propagules. These techniques yield in vitro plantlets,
transplants, microtubers and minitubers, which are used in the initial phases
of a seed tuber production scheme (Murashige, 1974;
Roca et al., 1978; Hussey
and Stacey, 1981; Wang and Hu, 1982; Jones,
The production of clean seed is very crucial to sustain the production and
productivity of potato in the country. Currently, the common method for propagation
of commercially important potato cultivars is through tubers. However, this
propagation method has encouraged accumulation of tissue-borne viruses, fungi
and bacteria in subsequent seasons. This has lead to significant losses in yield
and tuber quality over seasons (Tsoka et al., 2012).
The low multiplication rate of conventional potato seed production and bulk
nature of the community are other challenges that not attract many private and
public seed companies not to engage in potato seed business.
This study seeks to review and assess the various options available for clean
seed tuber production or multiplication and suggest the way forward, with particular
emphasis on the applicability of Rapid Multiplication Techniques (RMTs) such
as Tissue Culture (TC), aeroponics and sand hydroponics technologies for minituber
production in Ethiopia.
Conventional techniques of seed potato production involve the use of potatoes
that are propagated by harvesting and replanting the tubers in the field. The
tubers used for planting are known as "seed potatoes", as opposed to "potato
seeds". Seed potato growers select better quality tubers for seed and discard
those of poor quality. The diseased tubers are separated from healthy tubers
and discarded while the healthy tubers are used for the next season's production.
However, this method of seed production has proved to be laborious (labour intensive),
prone to pest and disease infestation and time consuming. Considering that vegetatively
propagated crops especially potatoes are prone to both viral and bacterial diseases,
the conventional production of seed potatoes favors disease build-up, which
drastically reduces crop yield (Badoni and Chauhan, 2010;
El-Komy et al., 2010). If the mother potato
plant becomes infected with a disease during the growing season, each of the
new daughter tubers is likely to be infected as well.
The conventional method of propagation system is one of the slowest of seed
multiplication rates of 1:10 ration compared with other seed propagation techniques
like TC and aeroponics in the course of a year (Otazu, 2010).
This method has also shown to be time specific particularly in tropical and
sub-tropical regions where potato is a winter crop (Burton,
1989). The main disadvantages of a conventional seed potato program are
the low multiplication rate of field-grown potato plants, resulting in a slow
and inflexible system and the rising risk of catching viral, fungal or bacterial
diseases with an increasing number of field multiplication. A reduction in the
number of multiplication year requires a propagule that can be produced in large
numbers in protected environments in a short period (Lommen,
1995). However, pathogen-free planting material of selected potato varieties
and clones have been multiplied at Holetta and Jeldu research fields through
a conventional method and distributes to producers as a source of planting materials.
To avoid diseases like bacterial wilt and viruses a new system has been established
for producing healthy seed based on systemic virus testing and in vitro rapid
multiplication of virus free planting materials. Thus, different RMTs
have been used for bulking up minitubers of released potato varieties and promising
clones for distribution to growers.
|| No. of minitubers produced under aeroponics at HARC from
|CFC project annual report, 2013
RAPID MULTIPLICATION TECHNIQUES (RMTs)
RMTs are extensive methods used to increase the amounts of nuclear seed stocks
for further seed multiplication. RMTs provide a better multiplication method
than the conventional method of vegetative multiplication of potato (Endale
et al., 2008). The conventional method gives a lower multiplication
ratio ranging from 1:3 to 1:15 and more likely rapid virus infection. However,
RMTs provide higher multiplication ratios (1:40 to 1: several thousand per year)
and lower rate of contamination, particularly from soil and seed-borne pathogens.
Approximately 15% of the total area under potato cultivation around the world
is used for the production of seed tubers. With the conventional methods, potatoes
are often prone to pathogens such as fungi, bacteria and viruses, thereby resulting
in poor quality and yield (FAO, 2008), whereas using healthy
and quality seed is essential for growing an optimal potato crop (Parrot,
Different RMTs such as TC produced plantlets, screen house and aeroponics have
been used to bulk up selected potato varieties for multiplication and distribution
to growers. Selected improved potato varieties of Tolcha and Menagesha, have
been multiplied using stem cuttings before the establishment of the new system
and varieties, Jalene, Gudenie, Belete and Awash have been multiplied using
aeroponics (Table 1). For the stem-cutting activities, healthy
and clean in vitro plantlets received from TC and minitubers imported
form CIP were planted in pots in the screen houses where they get intensive
care and management. Although, these plants reach 20-30 cm high, the growth
point of each stem was removed to stimulate growth of lateral shoots from the
auxiliary buds. Cuttings, developed from auxiliary buds at each leaf, were taken
to root in moist, coarse sand at a distance of 5x5 cm between individual cuttings
for minituber production. Recently, several techniques have been evaluated and
proved to be suitable for minituber production, including aeroponics culture
(Kang et al., 1996; Kim
et al., 1999; Nugaliyadde et al., 2005).
In Ethiopia, techniques for minituber production that have been used include
stem cuttings and TC produced in vitro plantlets are then planted either
in pots in screen house or under aeroponics facility. Since the establishment
of aeroponics at HARC in 2011, the multiplication of quality planting materials
was improved in terms quality and quantity. As a result, recently released potato
varieties and promising clones have been multiplied using rapid multiplication
techniques for further research and dissemination.
TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES (TC)
Plant TC is the science of growing plant cells, tissues or organs isolated
from the mother plant, on artificial media. This is facilitated using liquid,
semi-solid, or solid growth media in sterilized tubes or containers. The TC
technique is one of the important new methods of plant propagation available
to growers and its use in seed production has allowed mass production of potato
plants in a very short time. The system is characterized by very flexible rapid
multiplication giving a high rate of multiplication (Beukema
and Van der Zaag, 1990). Meristem culture is one of the important plant
tissue culture applications for elimination of viruses from planting materials
(Naik and Karihaloo, 2007; Badoni
and Chauhan, 2010). It is a procedure in which apical/axillary growing tip
(0.1-0.3 mm) are dissected and allowed to grow into plantlets on artificial
nutrient media under controlled conditions. This technique for virus elimination
is based on the principle that, many viruses are unable to infect the apical/axillary
meristems of a growing plant and that a virus free plant can be produced if
a small piece of meristematic is propagated (Wang and Hu,
1982; Kassanis, 1950). Apical meristem has a number
of unique characteristics that has made elimination of virus possible and some
of the features include (1) Vascular system through which viruses are spread
is not developed in the meristematic region (2) Chromosome multiplication during
mitosis and high auxin content in the meristem may inhibit virus multiplication
through interference with viral nucleic acid metabolism and (3) Existence of
virus inactivating system with greater activity in the apical region than elsewhere
(Naik and Karihaloo, 2007).
The TC techniques employed in the micro-propagation of potatoes consists of
the aseptic cultivation of cells or fragments of plant tissues and organs in
an artificial medium under controlled temperature and light conditions. Vigorous
and disease free potato plantlets can be obtained in the laboratory using these
methods and then transferred to screen house in pots and aeroponics conditions
for the production of minitubers. Moreover, the seed materials should be free
of disease causing pathogens. Clean stocks are first obtained by meristem culture
and then these plantlets are transferred to seed beds, screen house in pots
and aeroponics to produce minitubers. Minitubers are commonly used in seed potato
production in order to increase seed tubers (Ozturk and
Yildirim, 2010). One of the advantages of this method is the maintenance
of genotype identity since meristem cell preserve their genetic stability more
uniformly (Grout, 1990). When materials have been cleaned
of the pathogens, they can be mass multiplied for use as planting materials.
MINITUBERS PRODUCTION USING AEROPONICS
Plantlet culture in aeroponics system is recently used as an efficient method
to produce and propagate minituber, which are healthy seeds without any contamination
to pathogens. Eradication of soil born plant diseases, prevention from inoculation
of pathogens by sterilized root medium, increasing in growth rate, propagation
and vigor of minitubers, multi harvesting, omission of terminal dominance, uniformity
in size and higher number of minitubers are results of applying this method
(Lommen and Struik, 1992; Lommen,
2007). The science of minituber production in soilless systems shows an
improvement in seed potato production program. Aeroponics is the process of
growing plants in an air or mist environment without the use of soil or an aggregate
media. Aeroponics system refers to the method of growing crop with their roots
suspended in a misted nutrient medium. This is an alternative method of soilless
culture in growth controlled environments. Minitubers are those progeny tubers
produced on in vitro derived plantlets. The term refers to their size,
as they are smaller than conventional seed tubers but larger than in vitro
tubers (or microtubers) produced under aseptic conditions on artificial media.
The size of minitubers may range from 5-25 mm in diameter, although in current
systems larger minitubers have also become common (Hassanpanah
et al., 2009). Minitubers can be produced throughout the year and
are principally used for the production of clean seed by direct field planting
(Ritter et al., 2001). The use of minitubers
in a seed program reduces the number of field multiplications. This may increase
the flexibility of seed production, improve the health status of the ultimate
seed and reduce the time for adequate volumes of seed from new cultivars to
become available for growers (Lommen and Struik, 1992).
Though the technique is in its early stage, attempts have been to improve production
healthy or high quality planting materials.
Importance of aeroponics: Aeroponics can be used to produce higher yields, up to 10 times higher than the conventional method as well as reduce the rate of soil-based disease infections (Otazu, 2010). In aeroponics, plant roots grow in the air, tuber contact with soil-borne pathogens is avoided and production plant-1 increases considerably (Otazu, 2010). This system will help shift from six generations of multiplication in open fields to only three generations. However, potato cultivars respond differently to aeroponics and proper plant populations need to be determined for each cultivar (Otazu, 2010).
This method of propagation is one of the most rapid methods of seed multiplication.
An individual potato plant can produce over 100 minitubers in a single row (Otazu, 2010). This contrasts with conventional methods that create only about 8-10
daughter tubers in a year and only 5-6 tubers plants-1 are produced
using soil in the greenhouse in 90 days (Hussey and Stacey,
1981; Otazu, 2010). Another advantage of aeroponics is that nutrient and
pH are easy to monitor. The system provides precise plant nutrient requirements
for the crop, thereby reducing fertilizer requirement and minimizing risk of
excessive fertilizer residues moving into the subterranean water table (Nichol,
Farran and Mingo-Castel (2006) reported that, soilless
production techniques, such as aeroponics, have successfully been employed in
tuber production, with good prospects for certification in seed production systems.
However, the worst drawbacks are the low volumes available to the root system
and any losses of power to pumps that can produce irreversible damages. Traditionally,
minituber production in Sub-saharan African countries is done on soil-base substrates
that are steam sterilized to avoid soil born diseases and pests. However, rising
prices of fossil fuels and scarcity of firewood used for the steam boilers render
this practice almost prohibitive. The best alternative is to use nutrient solutions
instead of soil substrates which is a common practice of aeroponics already
established for minituber production in industrialized Asian countries. CIP
has developed an economic module that is being promoted for developing countries.
In aeroponics, plantlets are grown in specially designed boxes where shoots grow on top and roots grow suspended in the air within the box and in darkness. Roots are fed with pressurized nutrient solution mist at short intervals; as plants develop tubers are formed from stolons near the roots. There are several advantages of this technology as compared to the soil-based substrates for minituber production; the most important ones are: Healthier tubers because of no soil borne diseases, higher number of tuber set per plant and reduced costs per minituber. In this system, minituber production is 10 times that of soil substrate.
The Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), with support from
the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) and USAID, established two aeroponics
units at Holetta Agricultural Research Center (HARC) in 2010 for the production
of minitubers of both popular and newly released varieties. The technique is
suitable for early stages of seed multiplication in which the production operations
are handled by the best technical support system. The technique is effective
in giving high number of minitubers upto 50 plant-1 but adoption
rates will be determined by availability of stable and low-cost power supply
and expansion in the seed market. Minitubers produced in the aeroponics unit
multiplied in the aphid-proof screen house/net house in HARC to produce seed.
The minitubers that are produced in the screen house and aeroponics are usually
either planted in open field or in pots in the screen house based on the size
of the tubers. The aim is to improve the health status of existing seed stock
by reducing the number of field multiplications (Kleingeld,
1997). Harvesting in aeroponics is convenient, clean and allows a greater
size control by sequential harvesting (Ritter et al.,
2001). The number and timing of non-destructive harvests are key factors
in the optimization of minituber production. To optimize the system, appropriate
nutrient solutions, plant densities, number of harvest and harvesting intervals,
as well as possible interaction between them should be considered (Farran
and Mingo-Castel, 2006).
Sand hydroponics: This new technology was established at HARC on 2013 for potato multiplication. Sand hydroponics is one of the RMTs used to produce clean planting materials as minitubers. It is adopted from CIP and all the nutrients required for plant growth and development was prepared in a container and supplied in the form of drip irrigation. Nonetheless, sterilized sand is used as a media for root development, to cover the new tuber and also to support the plants. In sand hydroponics system potato is planted at a spacing of 5x5 cm to produce minitubers. As a result and a remarkable yield was obtained from individual plants as compared to conventional potato multiplication on the field. For sand hydroponics, either the in vitro plantlets from TC lab or the minitubers from the aeroponics was used as a planting material. Thus, the resulting generation is free from viral and bacterial diseases. Therefore, about 3,159 minitubers of variety Belete was multiplied using sand hydroponics techniques that will be multiplied under a field conditions.
MULTIPLICATION AND DISTRIBUTION SCHEME
In this program, high quality planting materials are either imported from CIPs regional office in Nairobi or multiplied at Holetta and Jeldu research fields as well as TC laboratory. The materials are distributed to growers and different research centers for seed production or research purposes. A total of 1,669.5 tons of seed potatoes of 14 released potato varieties have been produced on station at Holetta and Jeldu from 2008 to 2011. The distribution of the materials to farmers was practiced using farmer groups organized in to Farmer Field Schools (FFS) or Farmer Research Groups (FRG). This had led the foundation of reaching more farmers to use clean seed for their seed production.
The healthy planting materials/stocks multiplied using RMTs are of the selected varieties, which are maintained under strict hygienic conditions in an insect-proof screen house. Subsequent propagation is carried out using rooted cuttings in the screen house to obtain enough planting material before they are planted in open field. A total of 227, 333 MT of several clones and released varieties were multiplied in screen houses which include Awash (1,710 MT), Gudenie (39,518 MT), Jelene (13,179 MT) and Belete (145,870 MT). Source materials for this MT production were either in vitro plantlets or smaller MT produced from the previous season in the aeroponics units. These materials have been introduced in to the centers seed production program and have played a paramount role in regenerating the stock materials (Table 2).
Way forward: Lack of good quality seed is mostly a consequent of the
prevailing seeds system; in most developing countries. Majority of farmers recycle
their own seeds potato or get them from informal sources. This leads to seed
degeneration and build-up of tuber-borne diseases and hence low yields. Therefore,
the use of RMTs like aeroponics technology produced far more minituber than
the conventional methods. Aeroponics system complemented by plant TC promises
a great potential to transform seed potato production in developing countries.
|| Minitubers produced under screen houses planted from in
vitro plantlets and small sized minitubers of aeroponics
|CFC project annual report, 2013
Considering the potential benefits of the system such as rapid production of
seed, spacious, good nutrient monitoring system, improvement of growth and survival
rate of plantlets, constant air circulation and ecologically friendly, this
system has a potential of revolutionizing potato seed production industry in
developing countries. However, the system needs further and complete evaluation
in terms of productivity, profitability and sustainability.
Aeroponics system itself can be inadequate in viral disease-free seed potato production if not complemented with tissue cultures meristem culture application. The meristem culture has to be applied in elimination of any viral pathogen from the desired clone of the potato before multiplying the plantlets to be used in the aeroponics system to produce pathogen-free seed tubers. A stock of viral-free planting materials can be maintained under both tissue culture conditions and in an insect-free screen house where re-infection cannot occur. The plant stocks maintained in a tissue culture laboratory have to undergo the hardening off stage each time before getting into the aeroponics system. In addition, a comparative cost analysis is required between aeroponics and conventional methods in terms of unit cost per tuber. The system has a potential of significantly increasing income and reduce time and cost of production of quality seed potatoes to make them more accessible to growers in developing countries.
Badoni, A. and J.S. Chauhan, 2010.
Conventional vis-a-vis biotechnological methods of propagation in potato: A review. Stem Cell, 1: 1-6.
Beukema, H.P. and D.E. van der Zaag, 1990.
Introduction to Potato Production. 2nd Edn., Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation (PUDOC), Wageningen, The Netherlands, ISBN: 9789022009635, Pages: 208
Burton, W.G., 1989.
The Potato. Longman Scientific and Technical, Essex, UK., pp: 470-504
El-Komy, M.H., E.M. Abou-Taleb, S.M. Aboshosha and E.M. El-Sherif, 2010.
Differential expression of potato pathogenesis-related proteins upon infection with late blight pathogen: A case study expression of potato osmotin-like protein. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 12: 179-186.Direct Link |
Endale, G., W. Gebremedhin and B. Lemaga, 2008.
Potato Seed Management. In: Root and Tuber Crops: The Untapped Resources, Gebremedhin, G.E.W. and B. Lemaga (Eds.). Ethiopia Institutes of Agricultural Research, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia, pp: 53-78
Farran, I. and A.M. Mingo-Castel, 2006.
Potato minituber production using aeroponics: Effect of plant density and harvesting intervals. Am. J. Potato Res., 83 : 47-53.CrossRef |
International year of the potato 2008. http://www.fao.org/agriculture/crops/thematic-sitemap/theme/hort-indust-crops/international-year-of-the-potato/en/.
Grout, B.W.W., 1990.
Meristem Tip Culture. In: Plant Cell and Tissue Culture, Pollard, J.W. and J.M. Walker (Eds.). Humana Press, Clifton, New Jersey, USA., ISBN: 978-0-89603-161-6, pp: 597
Hassanpanah, D., A.A. Hosienzadeh and N. Allahyari, 2009.
Evaluation of planting date effects on yield and yield components of Savalan and Agria cultivars in Ardabil region. J. Food Agricult. Environ., 7: 525-528.Direct Link |
Haverkort, A.J., M.J. van Koesveld, H.T.A.M. Schepers, J.H.M. Wijnands, R. Wustman and X.Y. Zhang, 2012.
Potato prospects for Ethiopia: On the road to value addition. Praktijkonderzoek Plant and Omgeving, PPO Publication No. 528, The Netherlands, pp: 1-66.
Hirpa, A., M.P.M. Meuwissen, A. Tesfaye, W.J.M. Lommen, A.O. Lansink, A. Tsegaye and P.C. Struik, 2010.
Analysis of seed potato systems in Ethiopia. Am. J. Potato Res., 87: 537-552.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Tufa, A.H., 2013.
Economic and agronomic analysis of the seed potato supply chain in Ethiopia. Ph.D. Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands.
Hussey, G. and N.J. Stacy, 1981. In vitro
propagation of potato (Solanum tuberosum
L.). Ann. Bot., 48: 787-796.
Jones, E.D., 1988.
A current assessment of in vitro
culture and other rapid multiplication methods in North America and Europe. Am. Potato J., 65: 209-220.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Kang, J.G., Kim S.Y., Y.H. Om and J.K. Kim, 1996.
Growth and tuberization of potato (Solanum tuberosum
L.) cultivars in aeroponics, deep flow technique and nutrient film technique culture films. J. Korean Soc. Hort. Sci., 37: 24-27.
Kim, H.S., E.M. Lee, M.A. Lee, I.S. Woo, C.S. Moon, Y.B. Lee and S.Y. Kim, 1999.
Production of high quality potato plantlets by autotrophic culture for aeroponic systems. J. Korean Soc. Hort. Sci., 123: 330-333.
Kleingeld, C., 1997.
The Potential Use of Mini-Tubers and the Production Volumes in South Africa. In: Potato Short Course: Potato Production in South Africa with Emphasis on KwaZulu-Natal. Urquhart, L. (Ed.). The Agricultural Research Council-Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Pretoria, South Africa, pp: 193-198
Lemaga, B. and W. Gebremedhin, 1994.
Prospects of seed potato production in Ethiopia. Proceedings of the 2nd National Horticultural Workshop of Ethiopia, December 1-3, 1992, Institute of Agricultural Research and FAO, Addis Ababa, pp: 254-275
Lommen, W.J.M. and P.C. Struik, 1992.
Production of potato minitubers by repeated harvesting: Effects of crop husbandry on yield parameters. Potato Res., 35: 419-432.CrossRef |
Lommen, W.J.M., 1995.
Basic studies on the production and performance of potato minitubers. PhD. Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Lommen, W.J.M., 2007.
The canon of potato science: 27. Hydroponics. Potato Res., 50: 315-318.CrossRef |
Murashige, T., 1974.
Plant propagation through tissue cultures. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol., 25: 135-166.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Muthoni, J., M. Mbiyu and J.N. Kabira, 2011.
Up-scaling production of certified potato seed tubers in Kenya: Potential of aeroponics technology. J. Horticul. For., 3: 238-243.Direct Link |
Naik, P.S. and J.L Karihaloo, 2007.
Micropropagation for production of quality potato seed in asia-pacific. Asia-Pacific Consortium on Agricultural Biotechnology, NewDelhi, India, pp:54. http://www.apcoab.org/uploads/files/1276940006potato_pub.pdf.
Nugaliyadde, M.M., H.D.M. De Silva, R. Perera, D. Ariyaratna and U.R. Sangakkara, 2005.
An aeroponic system for the production of pre-basic seed potato. Ann. Sri Lanka Department Agric., 7: 199-288.
Otazu, V., 2010.
Manual on Quality Seed Potato Production Using Aeroponics. Interantional Potato Center, Lima, Peru, ISBN: 978-92-9060-392-4, Pages: 44
Ozturk, G. and Z. Yildirim, 2010.
A comparison of field performances of minitubers and microtubers used in seed potato production. Turkish J. Field Crops, 15: 141-147.Direct Link |
Parrot, S.F., 2010.
Five stages of a potato plant. University of Idaho: Potato Growth and Development. http://www.ehow.com/list_6382688_five-stages-potato-plant.html.
Ritter, E., B. Angulo, P. Riga, C. Herran, J. Relloso and M. San Jose, 2001.
Comparison of hydroponic and aeroponic cultivation systems for the production of potato minitubers. Potato Res., 44: 127-135.CrossRef |
Roca, W.M., N.O. Espinoza, M.R. Roca and J.E. Bryan, 1978.
A tissue culture method for the rapid propagation of potatoes. Am. J. Potato Res., 55: 691-701.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Tsoka, O., P. Demo, A.B. Nyende and K. Ngamau, 2012.
Potato seed tuber production from in vitro
and apical stem cutting under aeroponic system. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 11: 12612-12618.Direct Link |
Wang, P.J. and C.Y. Hu, 1982. In vitro
mass tuberization and virus-free-seed potato production in Taiwan. Am. J. Potato Res., 59: 33-37.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Bryan, J.E., 1981.
Rapid Multiplication Techniques for Potatoes. International Potato Centre, Lima Peru, Pages: 20
Accatino, P. and P. Malagamba, 1982.
Potato Production from True Seed. International Potato Center(CIP), Lima, Peru, Pages: 20
Chandra, R. and R.K. Birhman, 1994. In vitro
micro propagation in relation to pedigree in potato. J. Ind. Potato Assoc., 21: 87-87.
Kassanis, B., 1950.
Heat inactivation of leaf-roll virus in potato tubers. Ann. Applied Biol., 37: 339-341.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Nichol, W.W., 2007.
Nutritional Disorders of Ruminants Caused by Consumption of Pasture and Fodder Crops. In: Pasture and Supplements for Grazing Animals, Rattray, P.V., I.M. Brookes, A.M.H. Nicol (Eds.). Occasional Publication, New Zealand, pp: 133-149