Effects of Poultry Manure and NPK (23:10:5) Fertilizer on Tomato Variety Tanya Grown on Selected Soil of Morogoro Region, Tanzania
This study was convened because of low levels of tomato produced in soils of
Tanzania with poor fertility status. It compared effects of poultry manure and
NPK (23:10:5) fertilizer to the performance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum
Mill). Poultry manure was applied at 2, 4 and 8 t ha-1 and NPK
fertilizer at 20, 40 and 80 kg ha-1. Results showed that the highest
number of leaves (70) and shoot length (93 cm) were recorded at 8 t ha-1
and lowest (46 and 57 cm, respectively) at 2 t ha-1 of poultry manure.
These variables were far small (18 and 55 cm, respectively) for absolute control.
In addition, 40 kg NPK ha-1 recorded the highest shoot length (91
cm) and 20 kg NPK ha-1 lowest (60 cm). Many tomato fruits (31) were
produced at 8 t ha-1 poultry manure compared with 22 in 40 kg NPK
ha-1 and differed significantly (p<0.001) with absolute control
(5) and among treatments. The smallest (823 g) and highest (2338 g) weights
of fruits recorded per plant at 2 and 8 t ha-1 poultry manure, respectively,
differed significantly (p<0.01) among treatments and absolute control (341
g). The smallest (676 g) and highest (1668 g) weights recorded at 20 and 40
kg NPK ha-1, respectively, also differed significantly (p<0.01).
It was concluded that poultry manure at 8 t ha-1 and NPK (23:10:5)
fertilizer at 40 kg ha-1 are sufficient for tomato plants but the
former outweighs the latter.
September 07, 2013; Accepted: November 04, 2013;
Published: March 08, 2014
Tomato is one of the most important vegetable fruit crops grown in Tanzania
whose production is widespread in the country with a total annual production
of more than 145,000 tons (Mushobozi, 2010) and it is
cultivated mainly in rural and partly in urban areas (Putter
et al., 2007).
Vegetables production in most parts of the Africa, Tanzania inclusive, has
been a backyard garden operation inherited to different generations for a long
time whereby farmers produce for their family subsistence (Williams
et al., 1980). Because of increased demand for tomatoes, among other
vegetables in Tanzania, for local and export markets, most smallholder farmers
have expanded and diversify vegetable production, resulting in increased hectare
planted (Minja et al., 2011). Tomato in eastern
Tanzania covering mainly the coastal belt of the country, Morogoro inclusive
yields 2.2 to 3.3 t ha-1 (Minja et al.,
2011). This is far below the world average of 27.5 t ha-1 (FAO,
2005). Minja et al. (2011) reported that
low production of tomato is caused by salinity, drought, excessive heat, declining
soil fertility. In addition, this is related to incidences of pests and diseases;
poor crop management and shortage or lack of well-adapted and high yielding
Tomato plants have high requirement, are heavy feeders, for macro-nutrient
elements including potassium (K) and Calcium (Ca) and some micronutrients such
as iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) (Abbasi et
al., 2002). A study by Hinman et al. (2012)
revealed that without adequate supply of K and Ca for tomato plant uptake and
utilization, tomato fruits will not accumulate soluble solids content (sugars)
and will be susceptible to physiological disorders such as blossom end-rot.
According to Jones (2008), smaller requirements of the
elements Nitrogen (N), Magnesium (Mg), Phosphorus (P), Boron (B) and Copper
(Cu) are also important for dry matter partitioning and fruit setting of tomato
Low soil fertility along with some of other environmental factors such as temperature,
precipitation, humidity, solar radiation, wind are reported to affect tomato
performance, hence its overall production (Akanni and Ojeniyi,
Application of fertilizers as soil amendment is inevitably pertinent in increasing
crop turnout in impoverished soils. However, recommendations given for each
fertilizer type are dictated by soil type and its nutrient levels, type of crop
and its stage of growth (Kisetu and Teveli, 2013).
According to Almulla et al. (2012), the general
principle is to apply phosphate fertilizer as basal dressing (during planting)
for root development. Diammonium phosphate (DAP) (NH4)2
HPO4) or Triple Superphosphate (TSP) (Ca (H2PO4)2)
can be used at a rate of 150 kg ha-1. In addition, after planting,
fertilizer urea (CO(NH2)2) or Calcium Ammonium Nitrate
can be used for leaf establishment of tomato plants. It is recommended to apply
urea after 2-3 weeks or CAN in the 5th week and both should be applied at a
rate of 200 kg ha-1.
Awareness to tomato growers in Tanzania is very scarce on nutrient composition
of poultry manure and associated growth and yield responses of tomato plants.
In addition, there is limited documentation on the easily available, affordable
and suitable nutrient sources to use. Furthermore, the information given by
stockists who in most cases are not trained agriculturists originates from the
labels and many assumptions (Maerere et al., 2006).
Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess and determine usefulness of poultry
manure as opposed to industrial fertilizer inputs in tomato production in acid
soils. The immediate impact of the positive output to be generated from this
study is to explore smallholder farmers in nearly similar soil types. This will
also provide knowledge on the alternative sources of nutrients to optimally
increase tomato production along with sustaining soil fertility.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Description of the study area: The study area is located between
latitude 6°85' South and longitude 37°64` East and at an elevation of
568 m above mean sea level. The field site is located at the Sokoine University
of Agriculture (SUA) Farm at the foot slopes of the Uluguru Mountain in Morogoro
urban, Tanzania (Kisetu et al., 2013). The rainfall
distribution is bimodal with the first season (normally with short rains) lasting
from November to January while the second season (long rains) lasting from February
to May. The annual rainfall ranges between 800 and 950 mm. The area is characterized
by kaolinitic clay soils, which are well drained. The physiographic feature
of the area is characteristically an undulating convex land and the slope is
about 4% (Kisetu et al., 2013).
Materials used for the study: The study was conducted at the Crop Museum,
SUA FarmMorogoro Tanzania. Tomato var. Tanya seeds were obtained from
Tanganyika Farmers Association (TFA) shop located in Morogoro town. The NPK
(23:10:5) fertilizer was obtained from retail shops in Morogoro town. In addition,
poultry manure was collected from locally raised poultry units in Misufuni Street,
Layout of the experimental plots and experimental design: The experiment
was laid down in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) whereby poultry manure
and NPK (23:10:5) fertilizer formed the treatments and tomato var. Tanya was
the experimental unit.
Nursery preparation and establishment of tomato seedlings: Seedlings
were raised in a nursery by sowing seeds and covered with fine-sand and some
banana straws. The seedbed was watered twice a day to ensure sufficient moisture
for seed germination. As soon as the seeds germinated, banana straws were removed
to allow proper seedlings establishment.
Decomposing poultry manure and their application with NPK fertilizer:
Four weeks before transplanting tomato seedlings, poultry manure was decomposed
in one confined pit. Thereafter, the compost was incorporated into experimental
subplots at rates of 216, 432 and 864 g, equivalent to 2, 4 and 8 t ha-1,
respectively. Then, 14 days after transplanting the seedlings NPK (23:10:5)
fertilizer was applied at rates of 2.16, 4.32 and 8.64 g, equivalent to 20,
40 and 80 kg ha-1, respectively. All treatments levels in the
experimental subplots were treated in three replications.
Transplanting of tomato seedlings: Tomato seedlings were transplanted
to the experimental plot 21 days after sowing when the seedlings had 3 true
leaves. Transplanting was done in the evening in order to reduce transplanting
shock. One seedling was planted per hole at a spacing of 75x60 cm and each subplot
comprised 10 tomato plants; the seedlings were watered immediately after being
Management of tomato plants in the experimental plots: Hand weeding,
pruning of some leaves and emerging twigs and staking of tomato plants were
among the managerial activities done in the experimental plots. Pesticide used
to control whiteflies was Mukpar-Dimethoate 40 EC, Dimethoate 400 g L-1.
In addition, Folicure EC 250, Tebuconazole 250 g L-1 was used to
control foliar diseases caused by fungus.
Data collection: The composite soil sample constituted 15 spots in 1
ha field encompassing the experimental site was collected at depths of 0-30
cm, air-dried, finely-grounded and sieved through 2 mm wire mesh sieve for lab
routine analysis (Okalebo et al., 2002). Furthermore,
the data collected from tomato plants were shoot length measured using a metre
rule, leaf number (excluding cotyledons) by physical counting, number of tomato
fruits and weight of tomato using a spring balance.
Statistical data analysis and management: The MS-Excel was used to organize
the data generated from the study and then subjected to Analysis of Variance
(ANOVA) using two-way in randomized blocks design and effects of treatments
means was compared following factorial approach. The Least Significance Difference
(LSD) at 5% level of statistic was used to carry-out all-pair-wise comparison
of treatments means which differed significantly and summarized by Duncans
Multiple Range Test. Statistical software used was GenStat Discovery 4th Edition
(Wim et al., 2007).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Characterization of the soil and poultry manure: The lab analysis
data of the soil from the area where this study was conducted and poultry manure
are presented in Table 1.
Properties of the soil: The findings of this study reflect interesting
pH value within a multi-universal nutrient range (5.5-7.0) which is medium (Table
1) and suits tomato production (FAO, 2008). The slightly
acid (pH 6.4) condition of the study soil indicates presence of nutrients but
their availability to plants is subject to soil moisture, chemistry, nutrients
transformations, plant type and age. According to Marinari
et al. (2006), slight acid (6.1-6.5) is the optimal range of pH for
most crops. Similar authors consider soil pH as one of the most important indicator
of soil fertility because of its effects on plant nutrients in the soil. The
solubility of soil micronutrients such as Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu is optimal at pH
ranges of 5.0-7.0 and decreases at pH>7.0 (Kisetu et
al., 2013). However, pH of the study soil indicates that Mn toxicity
is likely if present in high quantities, which was beyond the scope of this
study. In addition, this pH seems to favour soil microorganisms because acid
soils can slow the formation of nitrate through microbial nitrification in soils.
Jones (2008) reported that low soil pH (<6.0) is coupled
with low Ca, blossom end-rots of tomatoes and their tests are high in P and
pH levels. However, in similar soils Zn might become insoluble, resulting in
Zn deficiency symptoms in tomatoes such as cupped leaves and splotchy chlorosis.
The total N was low hence deficiency which could be attributed to low levels
of organic matter and nature of soil parent material along with lack of regular
fertilizer application. Soils available P was medium indicating possible
positive influences to crop performance, such as tomato plants, but calls for
the addition of P from none acid forming soil amendments.
Exchangeable K and Mg in the study soil were medium and low, respectively,
indicating a need for their replenishment. Uptake of Mg by plants is dependent
on the soil pH, level of soil Mg, Ca and K levels (Brady
and Weil, 2008).
Deficiency symptoms of some nutrient
elements in tomato plants, (a) K and P deficient tomato plants received
40 kg NPK ha-1, (b) K and P deficient tomato plants received
80 kg NPK ha-1, (c) N, Mg, P and Zn deficient tomato plants,
These plants received 4 t ha-1 of poultry manure and (d) N,
Mg, P and Zn deficient tomato plants, These plants received 8 t ha-1
of poultry manure
In general, Mg uptake by plants increases as the soil pH and soil test Mg
levels increase. Exchangeable Ca was low, which might result in unfilled pods
in peanuts and blossom end rot disease in peppers and tomatoes.
Properties of poultry manure compost: The pH of the manure used was
slightly alkaline in reaction (Table 1). This indicates an
availability of most nutrients for crop utilization if other soil and plant
factors do not interfere the process. Available P and exchangeable bases were
low but this manure suggests that it would serve to increase fertility status
of nutrients depleted soils. The nutrient value of poultry manure varies
considerably depending on the conditions under which it is processed or decomposed.
Muhammad et al. (2007) report similar observation.
Visual assessment of tomato plants: Figure 1 presents
pictorial assessment of tomato plants at 75 days after transplanting in some
Tomato plants showed obvious deficiency symptoms of essential nutrient elements
such as Zn, Fe, Mg, P, K and N, of which some were deficient to support crop
performance because they ranged from very low to medium in the study soil and
as well as in poultry manure compost (Table 1). The pictorial
assessment of the colour changes in leaves and variation in fruit size with
respect to a deficient nutrient element was based on a guide given in Brady
and Weil (2008).
Symptoms of K and P deficient tomato plants: Figure 1a
and b showed symptoms of K and P deficiency in tomato plants
which received 40 and 80 kg ha-1 of NPK fertilizer, respectively.
Yellow or purple leaf-tints with browning at the leaf edge and poor fruiting
attributed to poor flowering of tomato plants received 80 kg ha-1
of NPK fertilizer is a common deficiency symptom of K (Fig. 1b).
In addition, the intense purplish colour observed in the surfaces of mature/lower
leaves of the tomato plants is caused by P deficiency (Fig. 1a).
These findings indicate that NPK fertilizer applied did not meet K and P requirements
of tomato plants.
Symptoms of N, Mg, P and Zn deficient tomato plants: Tomato plants which
received 4 and 8 t ha-1 of poultry manure showed some symptoms of
N, Mg, P and Zn deficiency, respectively, among other nutrient elements. Fig.
1c and d showed yellowing or chlorotic leaves due to N
deficiency and its severity was shown by necrotic in most old leaves, which
was also supported by low quantities of N in the studied soil. These findings
suggest that the amount of N contained in manure was not enough to meet N requirements
of the tomato plants. In addition, N released from manure might have been transformed
into forms which were not easily taken by tomato plants. Yellowing and necrosis
between the leaf veins, with some reddish brown tints and are the symptoms of
Mg. Magnesium deficiency is common in tomatoes, apples, grape vines, raspberries,
roses and rhododendrons (Brady and Weil, 2008). Furthermore,
P deficiency symptoms were observed by dull yellow and brown netted veining
of the leaves in some old leaves of the tomato plants (Fig. 1c
and d). Some leaves (Fig. 1d) also showed
an advanced case of interveinal necrosis in the upper (young) leaves caused
by Zn deficiency. In addition, Zn deficiency symptoms were also indicated by
pitting and an intense interveinal necrosis developed in the upper surfaces
of the old (lower) leaves (Fig. 1d).
In addition, most tomato plants seemed to be stressed by variation in surrounding
temperature, soil moisture conditions and increased susceptibility to disease
and destructive pests such as fungus and white aphids, respectively.
Salam et al. (2010) reported that at the onset
of flowering, top dressing with NPK at 200 kg ha-1 is necessary to
supply N, P and especially K needed for flowering. According to Almulla
et al. (2012), incorporation of organic manures increased chlorophyll
in leaves, number of fruits and plant height. Similar results are also reported
in tomato plants received NPK fertilizer. Salam et al.
(2010) reported that application of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4), copper
sulphate (CuSO4) and ammonium molybdate (NH4)2(MoO4)
stimulates chlorophyll synthesis and fruit quality of tomato. Furthermore, Prativa
and Bhattarai (2011) reported that application of Farmyard Manure (FYM)
at 25 t ha-1+150% NPK (150:112:82.5 kg ha-1 NPK) in tomato
was the best for obtaining higher values in respect of growth, yield and quality
of tomato fruits.
Effects of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer to tomato performance
Growth parameters of tomato plants: The results of the effects of
poultry manure and NPK fertilizer to the growth parameters of tomato var. Tanya
are presented in Table 2.
Number of leaves per tomato plant: The results showed that the highest
number of leaves 70 per plant was recorded for the tomato plants which were
treated with poultry manure at 8 t ha-1 and the lowest number of
leaves 46 was recorded for plants treated with the lowest rate (2 t ha-1)
of poultry manure (Table 2). However, the lowest number of
leaves per plant recorded at the lowest rate of poultry manure applied was relatively
higher than that of the absolute control 18.
||Response of tomato plants to poultry manure and NPK fertilizer
|F test: p>0.05 = NS: Not significant; *p = 0.05; ***p<0.001,
Means in the same column bearing different letter(s) differ significantly
at 5% level based on Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT)
The results also showed that the highest number of leaves 68 was recorded for
the tomato plants which were treated with 40 kg NPK ha-1 and the
lowest number of leaves 43 was recorded for application of 20 kg NPK ha-1
(Table 2). Interestingly, tomato plants which were treated
with 80 kg NPK ha-1 recorded reduced number of leaves 54 compared
with the plants treated with 40 kg NPK ha-1 but these leaves were
far many compared with the leaves recorded in absolute control 18.
The findings of this study suggest that soil amendments that is poultry manure
compost and NPK fertilizer had exclusively insignificant (p>0.05) effects
to the number of leaves per tomato plant (Table 2). However,
the information generated from this study showed that the type of the soil amendment
and the rates applied are very important to be considered during soil fertility
replenishment. This study also revealed that the varying rates of poultry manure
and NPK fertilizer applied to tomato plants significantly (p<0.001) influenced
the number of leaves per plant compared with the absolute control. These findings
are consistent with the findings of Aduloju et al.
(2010) and Dada and Fayinminnu (2010) who in different
studies report that nutrients from mineralization of organic matter promote
Length of shoots of tomato plants: The results of the length of shoots
of tomato plants showed that the highest (93 cm) length was obtained for the
tomato plants which were treated with 8 t ha-1 of poultry manure
compost and the lowest shoot length (53 cm) was recorded at an application of
poultry manure at 4 t ha-1, which was statistically at par with the
absolute control (57 cm) (Table 2).
On the other hand, application of NPK fertilizer had almost similar influence
to shoot length as that of poultry manure. Results showed that the highest shoot
length (91 cm) was recorded for the tomato plants which were treated with 80
kg NPK ha-1 and the lowest length (60 cm) was recorded for the plants
treated with 20 kg NPK ha-1, which was statically at similar with
the absolute control (57 cm) (Table 2). Egene
(2011) and Ahmad et al. (1996) report similar
The findings of this study suggest that higher rates of poultry manure compost
and NPK fertilizer used as soil amendments significantly (p<0.001) increased
the length of tomato shoots.
||Effect of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer on yield of tomato
var. Tanya, data collected 60-90 days after transplanting
|F test: p>0.05 = NS: Not significant; *p = 0.05; **p<0.01;
***p<0.001, Means in the same column bearing different letter(s) differ
significantly at 5% level based on Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT)
In addition, each treatment differently affected the length of shoots and
the variation envisaged between poultry manure and NPK fertilizer could be associated
with their varying nutrient compositions, which are not ascertained in manure
materials. These findings are almost similar to the findings of Ayoola
and Adeniyan (2006) who report that nutrients variation in the source-material
particularly poultry manure might result in inconsistent lengths as growth and
developmental plant variables such as fruit length.
Yield components of tomato plants: The results of the effects of NPK
fertilizer and poultry manure to the yield of tomato are presented in Table
3. Fruits were the only targeted parameter at different market perspectives.
Number of fruits per individual plant: The application of poultry manure
compost and NPK fertilizer significantly (p<0.001) posed variation in number
of tomato fruits per plant and the highest number of tomato fruits 31 was recorded
for the plants which were treated with 8 t ha-1 of poultry manure
compost (Table 3). In addition, the lowest number of tomato
fruits was recorded for the plants which were treated with 2 t ha-1
of poultry manure compost, which was statistically at par with the number of
fruits 14 obtained when NPK fertilizer is applied at 20 kg ha-1.
This indicates the significance of poultry manure compost and NPK fertilizer
inputs as plant nutrient sources. This is in line with Babajide
and Salami (2012) who report that tomato responded best to integration of
30 kg N ha-1 of urea and 2.5 t ha-1 of tithonia compost
as reflected in best growth rate and fruit yield.
Furthermore, the results showed that application of NPK fertilizer had almost
similar influence to the number of tomato fruits with that of poultry manure
compost. Results indicated that the highest number of fruits 22 was recorded
for tomato plants which were treated with 40 kg NPK ha-1, which was
statistically in line with that obtained when poultry manure compost was applied
at 4 t ha-1. In addition, the lowest number of tomato fruits 14 was
recorded for the tomato plants treated with 20 kg NPK ha-1, which
was however, statistically similar with the number of fruits 15 obtained at
80 kg NPK ha-1 but larger than that of the absolute control 5. Similar
findings to these are also reported by Adebooye and Oloyede
Number of marketable fruits per individual plant: These consistently
followed similar trend to that of the number of fruits recorded for individual
tomato plant. The results showed that the highest number of marketable fruits
22 was recorded from tomato plants which were treated with 8 t ha-1
of poultry manure compost and the lowest number 11 was recorded from plants
treated with poultry manure compost at a rate of 2 t ha-1 (Table
3). In addition, tomato plants which were treated with 40 kg NPK ha-1
produced the highest number of marketable fruits 19 whereas the lowest number
9 was recorded from plants treated with 20 kg NPK ha-1 but this was
far higher than the absolute control 3. Chandra et al.
(2003) report similar findings.
These findings suggest that tomato plants which were treated with 80 kg NPK
ha-1 produced relatively low number of marketable fruits 10 probably
because of nutrients imbalance. This observation indicates that increase in
rates of poultry manure compost significantly (p<0.001) increased fruit yield
per plant. This is in line with the study of El-Shakweer
et al. (1998) who report that elevated rates of poultry manure among
other soil amendments increased tomato yield. In addition, Idowu
et al. (2013) report similar findings that P significantly increased
growth, yield and yield components that is number of leaves, number of flowers
length of main vine etc., of snake tomato at 15 kg ha-1 up to 30
kg P ha-1, beyond which there was a reduction.
Weight of marketable fruits: The results of the weight of marketable
tomato fruits showed that the highest weight (1668 g) was recorded for the fruits
from tomato plants which were treated with 40 kg NPK ha-1 and the
lowest weight (676 g) was recorded from tomato plants treated with 20 kg NPK
ha-1 but more than the absolute control (341 g) (Table
3). These findings suggest that productivity of tomato plants was positively
influenced by the treatments but more to poultry manure compost than it was
for the NPK fertilizer attributed probably to the high organic matter contents
and nutrient potential of poultry manure. Tonfack et
al. (2009) report similar findings in tomato var. Rio grande and Rossol
VFN. In respect to poultry manure compost, results showed that in marketable
tomato fruits the largest weight (2338 g) was recorded for the fruits harvested
from tomato plants which were treated with 8 t ha-1 and the smallest
weight (823 g) was recorded for fruits obtained from tomato plants which were
treated with 2 t ha-1, which was however, greater than the absolute
control (341 g) (Table 3). Similar findings are also reported
by Mehdizadeh et al. (2013) in tomato var. Rio
grande treated with municipal waste, compost, poultry, cow and sheep manures.
Based on the findings of this study, it was realized that fields with Chromic
Acrisols intended for tomato plants an application of 4 to 8 t ha-1
and 20 to 40 kg ha-1 poultry manure compost and NPK (23:10:5) fertilizer,
respectively, is practically feasible for optimum yield. However, poultry manure
compost is comparably better than NPK fertilizer in improving soil fertility
status for tomato plant.
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