Response of Some Wheat Varieties to Bio and Mineral Nitrogen Fertilizers
U.A. Abd El-Razek
In order to study the effect of Microbin inoculation, different rates of nitrogen
fertilizer (45, 90, 135 and 180 kg ha-1) and their interaction on
yield and yield components and protein percentage of two wheat varieties (Sakha
93 and Gemmeiza 9) during the two successive growing winter seasons 2010/2011
and 2011/2012 seasons. The experimental design was split B split plot design
with three replications, Microbin inoculations were located in main plots and
four N rates fertilizers were allocated in the sup-plots and two wheat cultivars
were allocated in the sub-sub plots. The highest yield was produced due to application
of microbin, also the same trend was obtained with N rate of 180 kg ha-1.
Gemmeiza 9 recorded the highest yield compared with Sakha 93. The interaction
between bio-fertilizer and N rates proved to be significant for all studied
traits. The highest grain yield/ha was found with the interaction between MicrobinxGemmeiza
9. Also, the interaction between 180 kg N ha-1xGemmeiza 9 recorded
the highest grain yield ha-1. According to these results, rate of
180 kg N ha-1 and application of microbin as bio-fertilizer using
variety Gemmeiza 9 could be recommended for favorable wheat production under
the local environmental conditions of this study.
Received: October 24, 2012;
Accepted: December 18, 2012;
Published: February 02, 2013
Wheat is the major winter cereal grain crop and the third major crop in terms
of area planted. Recently, a great attention of several investigations has been
directed to increase the productivity of wheat to minimize the gap between the
Egyptian production and consumption by increasing the cultivated area and wheat
yield per unit area (Zaki et al., 2007).
Using bio-fertilizer may be supply plants with their need of nitrogen during
their growth by cheap means which in turn led to significant decrease in crop
production costs. In addition pollution rates in soil, water and air may be
reduction as a result of this practice. Emara (1994),
Sushila and Gajendra (2000) and El-Kalla
et al. (2002) indicated that, Bio-fertilizers increased yield and
yield components. Caballero et al. (1992) found
that inoculation of wheat with various strains of Azospirillum significantly
increased grain yield from 23-63% in 1986 and from 29-43% in 1987.
Yield and yield components increased by increasing nitrogen rates, they have
also been reported by Sharshar et al. (2000),
Sushila and Gajendra (2000) and Saleh
(2002). Sharief et al. (1998), Atta
and Swelam (2006) and Kandil et al. (2011)
increased nitrogen rates up to N level of 178.5 kg ha-1 recorded
the highest yield. The interaction between bio fertilizer and nitrogen levels
had significant effect on yield and yield components (Ali
et al., 2002). Kandil et al. (2011)
found that, the highest spike number/m2, grain weight/spike, 1000
grain weight, biological yield, straw yield, both N and protein contents of
grain were recorded with the interaction between bio-fertilizers and N levels.
Differences among the two bread wheat cultivars (Gammeiza 9 and Sakha 93) were
respecting with plant height at harvest, grain weight/spike, 1000 grain weight,
number of spikes/m2, grain yield (ardab/fad.) and straw yield (ton/fad.)
they stated that, Gemmeiza 9 significantly surpassed Sakha 93 cultivars in the
all studied characters, Atta and Swelam (2006). Sakha
94 recorded the highest values for all studied traits, except spike length,
grain weight/spike and 1000 grains weight compared with the other varieties,
Hafez et al. (2012).
The objectives of this study were aimed to study the effect of N bio and mineral
fertilizers on wheat productivity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study area: The present investigation was carried out at the Exp. Farm,
Fac. of Agric., Tanta Univ., Tanta, Egypt during the two successive growing
winter seasons 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 to study the effect of Microbin as bio-fertilizer
and nitrogen rates on yield and its components of two wheat varieties.
The experimental design and necessary management: The experimental design
was split-split plots with three replications; two Bio-fertilizer treatments;
without bio-fertilizer (B1) and with bio-fertilizer (B2)
were randomly allocated in the main plots. The sub-plots were designated to
rates of nitrogen; 45, 90, 135 and 180 kg ha-1. The sub-sub plots
randomly occupied by two wheat varieties; Sakha 93 (V1) and Gemmeiza
9 (V2). The treated bio-fertilizer containing N-free living bacteria
(Azotobacter and Azospirillum) and a phosphate dissolving bacteria
(Bacillus megaterium), under the trade name of Microbin. The source of
Microbin was the Unit of Biofertilizer Production, General Organization for
Agriculture Equalization Fund (GOAEF), Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation,
Egypt, (Abou El-Naga, 1993). The grain inoculation was
done before sowing directly. Nitrogen in the form of urea was added as follows:
1/5 at sowing, 2/5 at first irrigation and 2/5 at second irrigation. In the
two seasons, wheat crop was planted at 15th November. The unit area of experimental
plot was 12 m2 (3x4 m). The proceeding crop was maize in the two
seasons. Soil samples were taken and mechanically analyzed following the methods
described by Piper (1950) and chemically analyzed according
to Black (1965). The soil texture of experimental soil
is clay. The chemical analyses of soil were: pH (7.6), EC (1.31 dS m-1),
available P (9.5 mg kg-1), available K (194.2 mg kg-1)
and total nitrogen (0.08%).
Field sampling and data collection: At harvest one square meter was
taken randomly from each sub-sub plot for the last three replications to determine
yield and its components:
||Plant height (cm)
||Spike length (cm)
||No. of grains/spike
||No. of spikelets/spike
||No. of spikes/m2
||1000-kernel weight (g)
||Grain yield (t ha-1)
||Straw yield (t ha-1)
||Harvest index (seed yield/biological yield)
Total nitrogen of seeds was determined by the conventional micro-Kjeldahl method
(Varley, 1966). Crude protein content was calculated
by multiplied N value by 6.25 as reported by Pirie (1955).
Statistical analysis: Data were subjected to the proper statistical
analysis as the technique of analysis of variance (ANOVA) of split-split plot
design as mentioned by Gomez and Gomez (1984). Treatment
means were compared using the Least Significant Difference (LSD) test as outlined
by Waller and Duncan (1969). The error mean squares of
split-split plot design were homogenous (Bartletts test), the combined
analysis was calculated for all the studied characters in both seasons. Computations
were done using computer software.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Bio-fertilizer effects: Results presented in Table 1
indicate significant effects due to Bio-fertilizer for plant height, yield and
its components and protein percent, except spike length in combined analysis.
Microbin as bio-fertilizer treatment was significantly increased No. of spikes/m2
by 7.91%, plant height by 1.41%, No. of grains/spike by 3.52%, No. of spikelet's/spike
by 1.37%, 1000 kernels weight 1.04%, grain yield (t ha-1) by 7.89%,
straw yield (t ha-1) by 4.83%, harvest index by 1.82% and protein
percent by 5.46% than without bio-fertilizer treatment, as shown as in Table
1. Similar results found by Basha (2004). El-Moursy
(1998) and Ali et al. (2002) found that,
cerealin inoculation gave the highest grain nitrogen percentage and crude protein
percentage, as well. It seems that increasing nitrogen application had favorable
effect on grain quality since it builds up the protein content of grain.
Nitrogen fertilizer rate effects: Means of plant height, yield and its
components and protein percentage were significantly affected by nitrogen fertilizer
rates in the combined analysis, as shown in Table 1.
Increasing nitrogen fertilizer rate up to 180 kg k ha-1 significantly
increased plant height, yield and its components and protein percentage in the
combined analysis compared with 45 kg N and the other nitrogen rates. The grain
yield (t ha-1) due to increasing nitrogen fertilizer rate were 9.68
for 180 kg ha-1, followed by 8.82 for 135 kg N, 7.15 for 90 kg N
and 5.46 t ha-1 for 45 kg N in the combined analysis. However, increasing
nitrogen rate up to 180 kg N significantly increased protein percent in the
combined analysis. Similar results were found by Shalaby
et al. (1993), Atta and Swelam (2006) and
Hafez et al. (2012). El-Sayed
and Hammed (2007) studied the effect of nitrogen rates on agronomic quality
traits in three bread wheat cultivars, Sakha 93, Sakha 94 and Giza 168, the
results indicated that increasing nitrogen rate up to 238 kg N ha-1
resulted in significant gradual increase in plant height, number of spikes/m2,
number of kernels/spike, grain yield/fad. and crud protein.
|| Means of varietal differences for wheat plant height and
yield as affected by bio-fertilizer, nitrogen rates and their interaction
on in the combined analysis
Rahimi (2012) study the effect of nitrogen rates:
0, 40, 60 and 80 kg ha-1 as urea and showed that effect of nitrogen
on grain yield was highly significant. The grain yield was increased to 4800
kg ha-1 by the application of 80 kg ha-1 nitrogen. Gul
et al. (2012) found that, higher grain yield (2994.78 kg ha-1)
at 130 kg N ha-1. On the other hand, the lowest values of all the
studied traits were recorded from the treatment of 45 kg N ha-1.
Varietal differences: Results in Table 1 show that,
there are significant differences in the ten traits studied in the combined
From the same Table 1, it can be noticed also that, the plants
of Gemmeiza 9 variety produced the greatest values of all studied traits, except
plant height, spike length and 1000 kernels weight in the combined analysis.
The results clearly showed that, the highest grain yield (t ha-1)
found with Gemmeiza 9 in the combined analysis. The findings are in agreement
with Zeidan et al. (2005) pointed that, Gemmeiza
3 produced the highest grain yield compared to Sakha 69 and Sakha 8.
El-Gizawy (2005) tested wheat cultivars Gemmeiza 5,
7 and Gemmeiza 9 showed significant variation for all studied traits. Gemmeiza
9 surpassed the other two cultivars in plant height, number of spikes/m2,
number of grains/spike, 1000-kernel weight and grain yield.
Interaction effects: Wheat plant inoculated with microbinx180 kg N ha-1
significantly produced the highest values of all studied traits in the combined
analysis. Interaction Bio-fertilizerxnitrogen at 180 kg ha-1 were
increased grain yield (t ha-1) by 3.68% and protein percentage by
4.04% compared with the same dose without Bio-fertilizer Table
1. Similar results were reported by Omar et al.
(1996) who found that, the combination of microbin inoculation and highest
dose of nitrogen fertilizer of 214.2 kg N ha-1 gave the highest means
of both grain nitrogen percentage and crude protein content in the three seasons.
Bedaiwi et al. (1997) showed that, bio-fertilization
could increase grain yield as much as 116-128% over the control by using no
more than 70 or 80 kg N fad-1. which accounted for 60% of the recommended
mineral nitrogen (120 kg N fad-1.). Kotb (1998)
reported that, Sakha 69 variety showed increases of number of spikes/m2,
number of grains/spike, straw yield fad-1. with increasing nitrogen
fertilization level up to 75 kg N fad-1. or with inoculation.
Results in Table 2 showed that, the interaction between Sakha
93 and Microbin were recorded the highest values of plant height, spike length
and 1000-kernels weight while the highest values of the other traits where found
with Gemmeiza 9 and Microbin. Zaki et al. (2012)
found that, the highest values of plant height, number of grains/spike and number
of spikelets/spike were obtained from planting Gemmeiza 7 cultivar with all
biofertilizers inoculation Azos., yeast and (Azos.+yeast) in both seasons and
1000 grain weight only in the second season.
The interaction between nitrogen rates and wheat varieties recorded the highly
significant values for all studied traits in the combined analysis, as shown
as in Table 2. Increasing Nitrogen rates up to 180 kg ha-1
significantly increased all studied traits with variety Gemmeiza 9, except plant
height and 1000 kernels weight which were found with the same rate of nitrogen
and variety Sakha 93, as shown as in Table 2. Results were
in accordance with those obtained by Hassanein (2001),
who reported that there was a significant interaction between wheat cultivars
and nitrogen levels for yield and yield components i.e., plant height, number
of tillers/plant, number of spikes/plant, grain yield/plant, straw yield/plant,
biological yield/plant, grain yield/fed, straw yield/fed and biological yield/fed.
||Effect of bio-fertilizer (B)xwheat varieties (V) and nitrogen
rates (N)xwheat varieties (V) interaction on plant height and yield and
yield components in the combined analysis
Interaction of Microbinx180 kg N ha-1xGemmeiza 9 gave the highest
values for all studied traits in the combined analysis, except plant height,
1000 kernels weight and straw yield which found with the same interactions but
with the variety Sakha 93, as shown as in Table 3. Zaki
et al. (2012) reported that, the effective treatments for plant height,
weight of grains/spike, 1000 grains weight, straw yield and biological yield/fed.
were obtained from Gemmeiza-7 cultivar with Azos+yeast+50% NPK, as well as for
No. of grains/spike, spike length and grains yield/fed. was Sakha-93 with Azos+yeast+50%
||Bio-fertilizer (B)xnitrogen rates (N)xwheat varieties (V)
interaction effect on plant height and yield and yield components in the
Generally, it can be concluded that for the two cultivars the lowest values
were obtained by uninoculation. These results are in harmony with those obtained
by Hassanein and Gomaa (2001), Hosam
El-Din (2007) and Shoman et al. (2006).
From the present results under the same conditions we can recommended that,
the interaction between bio-fertilizer, Gemmeiza 9 and 180 kg N ha-1
obtained that highest grain yield ha-1.
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