Evaluation of 25 Safflower Genotypes for Seed and Oil Yields Under Arid Environment in Upper Egypt
E.A. Abd El-Lattief
Seed and oil yields, their components and the relationships among yield and related
traits were measured in 25 safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes,
under arid conditions. The studies were conducted in sandy-loam soil at the experimental
farm of Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt, during two
seasons, 2009-10 and 2010-11. The trials were laid out in randomized complete
block design with three replications. Significant differences were observed at
1% probability level in plant height, number of branches and capitula per plant,
1000-seed weight, weight of seed per plant, oil content and seed and oil yields
among the genotypes. The Line-1682 produced the highest plant height (199.7 cm),
number of branches plant-1 (9.000), number of capitula plant-1
(25.69), weight of seed plant-1 (39.46 g), seed yield (2846 kg
ha-1), seed oil content (36.50%) and oil yield (1039 kg ha-1),
while Line-1687 produced the highest 1000-seed weight (49.13 g). The lowest values
for above mentioned traits were obtained from Line-1679 except the lowest 1000-seed
weight and oil content were resulted from Line-1671 and Line-1668, respectively.
Oil yield expressed firm correlation with, plant height (r = 0.566**), branches
per plant (r = 0.591**), capitula per plant (r = 0.625**), seed weight per plant
(r = 0.863**), seed yield (r = 0.990**) and seed oil content (r = 0.711**).
August 12, 2011; Accepted: November 29, 2011;
Published: January 21, 2012
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) belongs to the family Compositae
or Asteracea. The crop was initially grown to produce dyes for food and fabric
and for medicinal use, but is currently cultivated for edible oil and birdseed
(McPherson et al., 2004). For human nutrition,
safflower oil has a nutritional value that similar to olive oil; moreover, the
high oleic type is very suitable for hypo-cholesterol diets, for frying and
in the preparation of frozen food (Ekin, 2005). Safflower
is a temperate zone plant grown in arid and semiarid regions of world. This
plant is considered as a drought tolerant crop which is capable of obtaining
moisture from levels not available to the majority of crops (Weiss,
2000). Development of oil seeds cultivation has an important role to provide
the requisite edible oils for human beings (Eslam, 2004).
The germplasm resources of safflower have so far been characterized entirely
on the basis of morphological traits, agronomic characters, biotic and (or)
abiotic stress and (or) biochemical characters (Han and
Li, 1992; Aslam and Hazara, 1993; Fernandez
et al., 1993). In a study of 199 safflower genotypes collected from
37 different countries, Deharo et al. (1997)
found that the oil percent varied by genotype and environmental conditions.
Number of capitula, seed weight and seed oil content varies considerably in
the safflower population (Parameshwarappa and Meghannavar,
2001). Safflower genotypes varied significantly in seed yield and its attributes,
oil percent and oil yield per unit area (El-Gayar et
al., 1990; Mundel et al., 1999; Omidi
Tabrizi, 2006; Camas et al., 2007). Safflower
seed yield is affected cultivar was found by several workers (Alizadeh
and Carapetian, 2006; Mahasi et al., 2006).
Evaluation of relationships among traits in safflower indicated that positive
and significant relationships among grain yield with plant height, number of
head per plant, 100-seed weight, seed oil content and oil yield (Tuncturk
and Ciftci, 2004). In a research with 23 accessions of Carthamus tinctorius
Pascual-Villalobos and Alburquerque (1996) found
positive correlation coefficients between seed yield and number of capitula/plant,
number of branches/plant and plant height. Negative correlations were found
between 1000-seed weight and number of seeds/capitulum in their research. A
positive correlation was found among grain yield and, number of capitula per
plant (Bagavan and Ravikumar, 2011), seed weight and
plant height (Johnson et al., 2001). Also, positive
correlations among seed oil and seed and oil yields were obtained (Eslam
et al., 2010).
In recent years, there has been a proliferation of safflower cultivars and many excellent genotypes with superior properties are now available. This demonstrates a need for additional research examining the agronomic performances of newly released safflower genotypes in diverse regions. This study was initiated to evaluate the agronomic performance of new safflower genotypes under arid environment in Upper Egypt.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A field study of 25 safflower genotypes was conducted at the experimental farm of Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University (latitude 26°10' N, longitude 32°43' E, Altitude 79 m above sea level) in Qena, Egypt, during two seasons, 2009-10 and 2010-11. The weather is very hot and dry from May to October where temperatures can reach up to 40 °C. On the other hand, the weather is usually warm during winter months and rainfall is rare. The soil of the experimental site is sandy-loam throughout its profile (74.5% sand, 16.2% silt and 9.3% clay). Its pH value of 7.89, EC is 1.98 dS m-1, organic matter content is 0.44%, total N 0.35% and available P and K of 8.55, 186 ppm, respectively. The trials were laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental unit measured 3.6 m in width and 5 m in length.
Genotypes seeds were sown by hand (30 kg ha-1) on November 7th and 10th in the first and second seasons, respectively as the usual dry method of sowing on one side of ridges (60x15 cm). The preceding crop was sunflower in both seasons. The N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizers were applied at 140, 55 and 60 kg ha-1, respectively. The other agronomic practices were kept normal and uniform for all plots. The origin of genotypes was shown in Table 1.
Hand harvesting was performed about 150 days after sowing. At harvest time,
ten guarded plants were taken at random from each plot to measure plant height,
number of branches and capitula per plant and weight of seeds per plant. Also,
1000-seed weight was determined for each experimental unit. Seed yield was estimated
on plot basis. Seed oil content was determined using Soxhlet apparatus, according
to AOAC (1990). Oil yield was calculated by multiplying
seed yield by seed oil content (%).
Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using MSTAT-C software. Homogeneity of error variance was tested before combining data over years. The least significant differences (LSD at p<0.05 level) used to compare the genotypes means.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results of the combined analysis of variance, after homogeneity test for error variances, are summarized in Table 2. F-test of different sources of variation revealed that there were no significant differences of the year or genotypexyear interaction effects, while genotypes were significant (p<0.01) on all studied traits.
|| The origin safflower genotypes
||Combined analysis of variance of safflower traits across varying
genotypes during 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons
|**Significant at p<0.01
Yield components performance: The plant height ranged from 151.5 cm
(Line-1679) to 199.7 cm (Line-1682) and Line-1678 (186.6 cm) ranked second in
plant height (Table 3). Plant height is a trait under genetic
control but its manifestation depends on prevailing environmental factors. These
results concur with the results of others (El-Gayar et
al., 1990; Pascual-Villalobos and Alburquerque,
1996). Koutroubas et al. (2004) found that
safflower genotypes differed in plant height. Overall, higher plant heights
in the current study were probably caused by low altitude. This agrees with
the study of Kofidis et al. (2003), who found
that oregano plants grown at high altitude were shorter than those grown at
In average of seasons, the highest branches (9.000) and capitula (25.69) number
per plant were obtained from the genotype Line-1682. The lowest values for branches
(5.333) and capitula (12.84) number were measured in Line-1679 (Table
|| Means of traits measured in winter safflower genotypes
The results are supported by the findings of Narkhede and
Patil (1990) and Mane et al. (1990), may
have reported varietal differences in their respective studies.
The 1000-seed weight maximum (49.13 g) was recorded from Line-1687, followed
by Line-1697 (48.75 g) and Line-1675 (47.07 g). Line-1671 produced the minimum
(30.17 g) thousand seed weight. Variation in 1000-seed weight between genotypes
of safflower has reported by Narkhede and Patil (1990),
Mane et al. (1990) and Mahasi
et al. (2005).
Line-1682 had higher seed weight per plant (39.46 g) relative to others, whereas
lower seed weight per plant (6.09 g) was obtained from genotype Line-1679. A
similar result was found in a previous study in Kenya evaluating 36 exotic safflower
accessions for agro-morphological characters such as yield per plant (Mahasi
et al., 2005).
Yield performance: Data in Table 3 showed that Line-1682
gave the highest value of seed yield (2846 kg ha-1). Seed yield of
Line-1679 (512 kg ha-1) was the lowest as compared with the other
genotypes under study. In general, the superiority of Line-1682 on others genotypes
in theses characteristics may be attributed inherently to the greater ability
of such genotype in synthesizing more assimilates that partitioned to the final
economical yields of safflower plants and the consequent dry matter accumulation.
Also, this genotype gave the more branches and capitula per plant and seed per
plant compared with others genotypes (Table 3). The results
are supported by the findings of El-Gayar et al.
(1990), Narkhede and Patil (1990), Mundel
et al. (1999), Mahasi et al. (2005),
Omidi Tabrizi (2006), Camas et
al. (2007), El-Lattief et al. (2009)
and Eslam et al. (2010), may have reported varietal
differences in their, respective studies.
Seed oil concentration and oil yield: Line-1682 produced the highest
oil content of 36.50%, followed by Line-1690 (36.36%) without differences significant
between them. Line-1668 produced the minimum oil content of 26.36%, followed
by Line-143 (27.12%), Line-1679 (27.40%) and Line-153 (27.95%) without any differences
significant among them. Similar results were reported by Narkhede
and Patil (1990), Camas et al. (2007) and
El-Lattief et al. (2009).
The effect of safflower genotypes on the oil yield was significant at 1% level
(Table 2). Means in Table 3 indicates that
superiority of oil yield was achieved by genotype Line-1682 (1039 kg ha-1).
Like seed yield, oil yield of Line-1679 (141 kg ha-1) was the lowest
as compared with the other genotypes. The superiority of genotype Line-1682
in oil yields is evident as it also caused highly significant values for seed
yield ha-1 and seed oil concentration (Table 3).
These results are agreement with Camas et al. (2007)
and El-Lattief et al. (2009).
Correlation and regression analyses: Correlation coefficients among
the studied traits are shown in Table 4. There were positive
and significant correlations between seed yield and plant height (r = 0.551**),
branches per plant (r = 0.581**), capitula per plant (r = 0.620**), 1000-seed
weight (r = 0.175*), seed weight per plant (r = 0.837**), seed oil content (r
= 0.643**). Also, oil yield was positively and significantly correlated with,
plant height (r = 0.566**), branches per plant (r = 0.591**), capitula per plant
(r = 0.625**), 1000-seed weight (r = 0.172*), seed weight per plant (r = 0.863**),
seed yield (r = 0.990**) and seed oil content (r = 0.711**). It is quotable,
the reported results by Omidi Tabrizi (2006), Bagavan
and Ravikumar (2011), Johnson et al. (2001)
and Eslam et al. (2010) have supported the present
results. These results showed that any positive increase in such characters
will suffice the boost in seed and oil yields.
|| Simple correlation coefficients among traits measured in
|* and ** Significant at p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively
ns: Non-significant p>0.05
Seed yield increased linearly with, plant height (R2 = 30.3%**), branches per plant (R2 = 33.8%**), capitula per plant (R2 = 38.4%**), 1000-seed weight (R2 = 3.0%*), seed weight per plant (R2 = 70.0%**), seed oil content (R2 = 41.3%**, Table 5). Also, oil yield increased linearly with, plant height (R2 = 32.1%**), branches per plant (R2 = 34.9%**), capitula per plant (R2 = 39.0%**), 1000-seed weight (R2 = 3.0%*), seed weight per plant (R2 = 74.5%**), seed oil content (R2 = 50.5%**). Meanwhile, a positive quadratic response in oil yield occurred as the seed yield was increased (R2 = 98.1%**, Table 5).
||Regression equation and relative contribution (R2)
for response of dependence variables (Y) for independence variables (X)
of safflower genotypes (data over seasons and genotypes)
|* and **: Significant at 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels,
According to the results obtained, there were significant differences of genotypes
(p<0.01) on all studied traits. Line-1682 gave the highest values for all
studied traits except the highest 1000-seed weight was obtained from Line-1687.
On the other hand, Line-1679 gave the lowest values for all studied traits except
the lowest 1000-seed weight and oil content were obtained from Line-1671 and
Line-1668, respectivly. Positive and significant relationships between oil yield
and all studied traits were found. Oil yield increased linearly with all studied
traits, but there was a positive quadratic response in a safflower oil yield
as the seed yield increased.
AOAC., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC., USA.
Alizadeh, K. and J. Carapetian, 2006. Genetic variation in a safflower germplasm grown in rainfed cold drylands. J. Agron., 5: 50-52.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Aslam, M. and G.R. Hazara, 1993. Evaluation of World Collection of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) for Yield and Other Agronomic Characters. In: Third International Safflower Conference, Dajue, Dajue, L. and H. Yuanzhou (Eds.). Beijing Botanical Garden, Beijing, China, pp: 238-238.
Bagavan, I. and R.L. Ravikumar, 2011. Strong undesirable linkages between seed yield and oil and path analysis for grain and oil yield in spring safflower. Proceedings of the 5th International Safflower Conference, July 23-27, 2011, America, pp: 95-98.
Camas, N., C. Cirak and E. Esendal, 2007. Seed yield, oil content and fatty acids composition of safflower Carthamus tintorius grown in Northern Turkey condition. J. Fac. Agric., 22: 98-104.
Direct Link |
Deharo, A., R.M. Del, J.C. Lopez, M.A. Garcia, M.J. Palomares and J.F. Martines, 1997. Evaluation of the world collection of safflower for oil quality and other seed characters. Sesame Safflower Newsl., 6: 94-99.
Ekin, Z., 2005. Resurgence of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) utilization: A global view. J. Agron., 4: 83-87.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
El-Gayar, M.A., A. El-Gawad and M.S. Barsoum, 1990. Differential behavior of some promising safflower mutant lines as affected by potassium fertilizer under calcareous soil conditions in Egypt. Proceedings of 4th Conference agronomy, September 15-16, 1990, Cairo, Egypt, pp: 13-28.
El-Lattief, E.A.A., F.S. Seedek and H.K.A. Rehab, 2009. Effect of irrigation and plant population density on productivity and water use efficiency of some genotypes of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius, L.) under southern Egypt conditions. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Uni., 34: 257-267.
Eslam, B.P., 2004. Evaluation of yield and yield components in new spring genotypes of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Proceedings of the Joint Agriculture and Natural Resources Symposium, May 14-16, 2004, Tabrez-Ganja -.
Eslam, B.P., H. Monirifar and M.T. Ghassemi, 2010. Evaluation of late season drought effects on seed and oil yields in spring safflower genotypes. Turk. J. Agric. For., 34: 373-380.
Direct Link |
Fernandez-Martinez, J., M. Del Rio and A. De Haro, 1993. Survey of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) germplasm for variants in fatty acid composition and other seed characters. Euphytica, 69: 115-122.
Direct Link |
Han, Y. and D. Li, 1992. Evaluation of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) germplasm-analysis in fatty acid composition of seeds of domestic and exotic safflower varieties. Bot. Res., 6: 28-35.
Johnson, R.C., P.B. Ghorpade and V.C. Bradley, 2001. Evaluation of the USDA core safflower collection for seven quantitative traits. Proceedings of the 5th International Safflower Conference, July 23-27, 2001, USA., pp: 143-149.
Kofidis, G., A.M. Bosabalidis and M. Moustakas, 2003. Contemporary seasonal and altitudinal variations of leaf structural features in oregano (Origanum vulgare L.). Ann. Bot., 92: 635-645.
CrossRef | PubMed |
Koutroubas, S.D., D.K. Papakosta and A. Doitsinis, 2004. Cultivar and seasonal effects on the contribution of pre-anthesis assimilates to safflower yield. Field Crops Res., 90: 263-274.
Mahasi, M.J., R.S. Pathak, F.N. Wachira, T.C. Riungu, M.G. Kinyua and J.W. Kamundia, 2006. Correlations and path coefficient analysis in exotic safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) genotypes tested in the arid and semi arid lands (Asals) of Kenya. Asian J. Plant Sci., 5: 1035-1038.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Mahasi, M.J., R.S. Pathak, F.N. Wachira, T.C. Riungu, and J.W. Kamundia, 2005. Development and evaluation of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars for the marginal rainfall areas of Kenya: Morphological characterization, genetic diversity and adaptation studies. Sesame Safflower Newsletter, 20: 68-75.
Direct Link |
Mane, V.S., A.S. Jadhav and A.T. Powar, 1990. Effect of fertilizers and plant densities on the growth and yield of safflower. J. Maharashtra Agric. Univ., 15: 254-256.
McPherson, M.A., A.G. Good, Topinka and L.M. Hall, 2004. Theoretical hybridization potential of transgenic safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) with weedy relatives in the New World. Can. J. Plant Sci., 84: 923-934.
Direct Link |
Mundel, H.H., H.C. Huang and J.P. Braun, 1999. Registration of lesaf 414, an early-maturing safflower germplasm line. Crop Sci., 39: 300-301.
Narkhede, B.N. and A.M. Patil, 1990. Phenotypic stability in safflower. J. Maharashtra Agric. Univ., 15: 95-96.
Omidi Tabrizi, A.H., 2006. Stability and adaptability estimates of some safflower cultivars and lins in different environmental conditions. J. Agric. Sci. Technol., 8: 141-151.
Direct Link |
Parameshwarappa, K.G. and R.D. Meghannavar, 2001. Combining hybridization and irradiation for enhancing genetic variability in early segregating generations of safflower crosses. Proceedings of the 5th International Safflower Conference, July 23-27, 2001, North Dakota and Sidney,Williston, pp: 179-184.
Pascual-Villalobos, M.J. and N. Alburquerque, 1996. Genetic variation of a safflower germplasm collection grown as a winter crop in southern Spain. Euphytica, 92: 327-332.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Tuncturk, M. and V. Ciftci, 2004. Relationships among traits using correlation and path coefficient analysis in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) sown different fertilization levels and row spacing. Asian J. Plant Sci., 3: 683-686.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Weiss, E.A., 2000. Oilseed Crops. Blackwell Science, London, Pages: 364.