Response of Different Tomato Cultivars to Diluted Seawater Salinity
Pot experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of saline irrigations on five varieties of tomato (4, 22, 38, 46 and 54). Plants were irrigated with diluted seawater adjusted to three levels of electrical conductivity; freshwater (control), 3 and 6 dS m-1. The results of the experiment showed that saline water remarkably affected the evapo-transpiration rate, soil moisture, salts accumulation and plant biomass production. Saline irrigation had the ability to keep much water in the soil with higher value of salt content. Low salinity treatment exhibited highest plant growth and lowest soil moisture and salts deposition. Varieties number 38 and 46 gave the highest values for fruits number and weight. Whereas, variety number 22 got the lowest values. However, variety No. 4 was the tallest and had the highest value for green matter even under high salinity treatment. Overall, under saline condition it was observed that all plant parameters of different varieties were reduced compared to the control except for the number of fruits of some varieties such as 38, 46 and 54. However, fruit fresh weight for variety number 38 was enhanced by saline irrigation which could be a good sign for salt tolerance in saline conditions.
Conventional water resources of good quality are scarce especially in arid
and semiarid regions. The salinization of soil and water at these places is
a substantial constraint of crop productivity. It is well documented that the
amount and quality of irrigation water available in many of the arid and semiarid
regions of the world are the main limiting factors to the extension of agriculture
(Munns, 2002). Saline-sodic irrigation water, coupled
with the low annual rainfall and high evaporation and transpiration in the arid
and semi-arid regions, have resulted in accumulation of soluble salts in the
soil solution, which can alter the structure and consequently, affect the soil
hydraulic conductivity (Sameni and Morshedi, 2000).
The build up of salts in irrigated regions is of particular concern since 14%
of cultivated land that is irrigated supplies approximately half of the worlds
food (Ben-Hur et al., 2001). This has prompted
researchers to study the impact of salinity on plant. Several studies showed
external signs of salt toxicity due to irrigation with saline water such as
sclerosis, leaf burning and poor vegetative growth (Munns,
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a major food plant and it is moderately
sensitive to salinity (Peralta et al., 2005).
Extensive research is necessary to develop growing conditions in moderate salinity
to produce good vegetative growth. The effect of salinity concentration on plant
growth has been studied in different tomato cultivars. Adler
and Wilcor (1987) found that salinity adversely affected the vegetative
growth of tomato and it reduced plant length and dry weight. Salinity also reduced
the fresh and dry shoot and root weight of tomato (Shannon
et al., 1987). Increased salinity over 4000 ppm led to reduction
in dry weight, leaf area, plant stem and roots of tomatoes (Li
et al., 2001). The reduction of dry weights due to increased salinity
may be a result of a combination of osmotic and specific ion effects of Cl and
Na (Al-Rwahy, 1989). The leaf and stem dry weights of
tomato were also reduced significantly in plants irrigated with saline nutrient
solution in contrast with control plants (Satti and Al-Yahyai,
1995). Byari and Al-Maghrabi (1991) found that tomato
cultivars varied greatly in their response to different salinity levels. Increasing
NaCl concentration in nutrient solution adversely affected tomato shoot and
roots, plant height, K concentration and K/Na ratio (Al-Karaki,
Tomato is a major vegetable crop that has achieved tremendous popularity over
the last century. It is grown in practically every country in the world, in
outdoor fields, greenhouses and net houses (Peralta et
al., 2005). The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability
of five different varieties of tomato for growing under different saline condition
and screen them for salt tolerance. Moreover, this study will help Omani farmers
in selecting the right variety for growing in salt affected soil.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The pots experiments were carried out in Agricultural Experiment Station at the College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman. The study was conducted in glasshouse. Air temperature (°C) and relative humidity (%) were measured continuously by relative humidity and temperature meter (HOBO, Pro Series, onset, Japan) and Pyranometer (EKO, MS-601F) for solar radiation (mV/kw/m2). In all treatments, seeds of five varieties of tomato (4, 22, 38, 46 and 54) were sown in plastic trays and later transferred to plastic pots (depth = 30 cm, diameter = 25 cm) filled with a low salinity sandy soil. Irrigation with diluted seawater in different concentrations was started after 21 days from sowing. Treatments were made of three levels of water salinities (control, 3 and 6 dS m-1). The three saline water treatments were factorially combined with the five varieties of tomato and arranged into a completely randomized design with four replications. Irrigation frequency was every two days and in amount depending on crop evapotranspiration (ETc). The ETc was measured gravimetrically in the pots by weighing some treatments before and after irrigation and the required quantity of water was added plus extra water for leaching. Saline water for each treatment was prepared by mixing tap water with seawater at appropriate ratios to obtain the desired Electrical Conductivity (EC). In addition, solid fertilizer was added to the irrigation water as recommended. Plant growth (height and leaf area) was monitored and at the end of the experiment, plant height, leaf area (using a portable area meter LI-3000A), number and weight of fruits and plant fresh weight were recorded. Soil samples at a depth of 15 cm were taken from each treatment.
Stress factor was calculated by using the formula:
Stress factor (Ks) = 1 [(b/100 Ky)
where, b is the percentage reduction in crop yield per 1 dS m-1
which is equal to 9, Ky is the yield response factor equal to 1,
ECe is the soil salinity. The threshold EC value for tomato is considered
as 2.5 dS m-1 (FAO, 1998).
Statistical analysis of the data (ANOVA) was performed and the means compared at 5% probability level.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Irrigation Water Quality
Irrigation water is the most important parameter controlling plant life. Water
shortage problem could stress plant and reduce its productivity. All over the
world, different irrigation water are used for agriculture purposes but applications
depend on soil, plant and quality of the irrigation water.
|| Chemical properties of different water
|| Mean value of the meteorological data during study
Analysis of some irrigation water similar to the treatments of this experiment
have been presented in Table 1 that were used by Daoud
et al. (2001), Yamamoto et al. (1988)
and FAO (1998). Freshwater is the best option for optimum
plant growth but the shortage of fresh water is compelling researchers to investigate
the use of saline irrigation. Using saline or diluted seawater for agriculture
could add soil salinity. Under sodic conditions, saline water may improve soil
physical conditions. Saline water, especially seawater could also contain some
beneficial plant nutrients (Table 1). The inability of sandy
soil to hold much salt as compared to clayey soil supports the idea of saline
irrigation. The plant response to salt stress is complex, since it varies with
the salt concentration, the type of ions, other environmental factors and the
stage of plant development depending on the growth conditions. Nutrient availability
and uptake by plants in saline environments is related to (1) the activity of
nutrient ion in the solution, which depends upon pH, pE, concentration and composition,
(2) the concentration and ratios of accompanying elements that influence the
uptake and transport of this nutrient by roots and (3) numerous environmental
factors (Pessarakli, 1999).
Tomato plants are widely grown in sub-tropical regions where they often
experience high temperatures during fruit setting. It has been reported that
heat stress can occur at temperatures just a few degrees above the optimal mean
daily temperatures of 27 and 29°C (Peet et al.,
1998). Climatic conditions in the glasshouse were varied during the study
with average temperature of 29°C and relative humidity of 60%. In Fig.
1, air temperature remained within the suitable conditions (21-32°C)
for tomato growth for the most of the days. Moreover, the relative humidity
was also good indicating that plant was growing without any environmental stress
conditions. Berry and Uddin (1988) demonstrated that
the periods of high temperature during the reproductive stage cause interruption
in fruit set and spilt of fruit, resulting in losses of yield in the temperate
growing areas of the world.
|| Evapotranspiration of different varieties under saline irrigation
|| Salts concentration and water loss as affected by saline
They also indicated a highly significant negative correlation between the
number of flowers pollinated and the percentage of flowers that had set fruit
when plants were exposed to 35/26°C day/night temperature.
Evapo-Transpiration (ET) remained as the function of growing conditions and
salinity treatments. Water lost by evapotranspiration was directly related to
the prevailing environmental conditions in the glasshouse. Figure
2 shows evapotranspiration variation with time (2-12 mm day-1)
with an average value of 6 mm day-1. At the beginning of the study
when the plant was small, the value of ET between different varieties was almost
same but due to salt tolerance of some varieties and other physical properties
of the plants such as leaf area and plant height the variation started to increase.
It could be seen that variety number 4 gave the highest ET value whereas 22
was assessed as the lowest. Air temperature and salt stress led to several changes
in the plant growth parameters. Plant substantially enhanced the evapo-transpiration
at the peak growth stage. Environmental condition along with the growing stage
of plants tremendously affected the evapo-transpiration and salt accumulation
in the soil irrespective of the salt treatments (Al-Busaidi
et al., 2007).
The evapotranspiration values were generally higher under low salt treatment
regardless of the weather conditions (Fig. 3). In other words
evapotranspiration was negatively related to the quality of irrigation water.
A reduced water loss under high saline treatment was measured as compared to
low saline water. Reduced bioavailability of water and retarded plant growth
under saline irrigation produced poor evapotranspiration in the system. The
depressing effects of salinity on plant growth have been reported by various
researchers (Heakal et al., 1990; Abdul
et al., 1988). Saline soil inhibit plant growth through reduced water
absorption, reduced metabolic activities due to salt toxicity and nutrient deficiency
caused by ionic interferences (Yeo, 1983).
|| Soil water content and salt accumulation as affected by saline
Salt concentrations in irrigation water inhibited evaporation from the soil
surface (Fig. 3). This phenomenon could be related to the
enhanced water density, viscosity and chemical bonds in the soil-salt system.
High concentrations of salts also form salt crusts, which could reduce soil
evaporation. Richards et al. (1998) reported that
density, temperature and salinity affected several water characteristics e.g.,
evaporation etc. Al-Busaidi and Cookson (2005) reported
salt crust formation on the soil surface due to saline irrigation, which inhibited
evaporation and reduced leaching efficiency.
Salts accumulation in soil was highly affected by the saline irrigation water. Moreover, the data showed that soil water was apparently affected by the quality of irrigation water and salt accumulation (Fig. 4). The amount of water in each treatment was following same sequence as indicated in Fig. 3. When salinity of soil and water increase, the ability of plant to absorb more water will decrease and the rate of evapotranspiration will decrease. This phenomenon can be seen clearly in Fig. 4 with the positive relationship between soil water content and salinity. The trend shown between lowest (0 dS m-1) and highest (6 dS m-1) salinity treatments is the best example for that.
Water uptake by plants and evaporation from the soil surface were reported
the main factors for salts accumulation in the root zone (Ben-Hur
et al., 2001; Bresler et al., 1982).
This phenomenon can be seen clearly even with fresh water. Moreover, Blanco
and Folegatti (2002) found linear values of soil salinity through application
of saline water down the soil profile with higher salts contents near the surface
and this is why treatment of highest salinity (6 dS m-1) got the
highest value for salt accumulation. However, leaching soil is one of the ways
to reduce salt accumulation and salinity stress problem. Petersen
(1996) reported low soil salinity with increased volume of irrigation water
due to salt transportation below the root zone.
Soil salinity is one of the principal abiotic factors affecting crop yields
in the arid and semi-arid irrigated areas. Plant growth was significantly affected
by different varieties as well as saline irrigation (Table 2).
Treatment with lower salinity gave the higher values of most plant parameters
as compared to the high salinity (Table 3). Among different
varieties and with higher salinity treatment, varieties number 38 and 46 got
the highest values for fruits number and weight (33, 17, 555.23 and 344.34 g,
respectively). Whereas, variety number 22 got the lowest values. The biomass
yield was reduced typically due to higher amount of salt depositions in the
rhizosphere. However, variety number 4 was the tallest and got the highest value
for green matter even under high salinity treatment and this is why the fruits
production in this variety was low. Generally, the incorporation of salinity
stress and weakness to tolerate salinity could lead to higher loss of plant
production (Daoud et al., 2001).
|| Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for plant parameters
|*Level of significance at p<0.05
|| Plant growth parameters as affected by saline irrigation
|*Mean values in the column with same letter(s) indicate no
difference at Duncans multiple range test at p<0.05
|| Reduction in plant growth parameters due to salinity treatments
Comparing the response of different varieties to saline irrigation, it could be seen that all plant parameters of different varieties were reduced compared to control except number of fruits of some varieties such as 38, 46 and 54 (Fig. 5). Moreover, the fruit fresh weight for variety number 38 was enhanced by saline irrigation. This evidence could be a good sign for positive response of plants to saline irrigation.
Generally soil salinity affects the plant growth by producing an ionic imbalance
or water deficit state in the expanded leaves. Shani and
Dudley (2001) related the yield loss to reduced photosynthesis, high energy
and carbohydrate expenses in osmoregulation and interference with cell functions
under saline conditions. Heakal et al. (1990)
reported that dry matter yield of plant shoots decreased with increasing salinity
of water. The incorporation of some salts with high temperature could lead to
higher loss of plant production (Daoud et al., 2001).
The effect of NaCl stress on the growth of tomato plants is reflected in lower
dry weights. The reduction of the dry weights due to increased salinity may
be a result of a combination of osmotic and specific ion effects of Cl and Na
(Al-Rwahy, 1989). The results indicated that the stem,
leaves and root dry weights decreased in saline condition, due to the exposure
to seawater stress. Similar outcome were obtained earlier by Mohammad
et al. (1998) in other tomato cultivars. Saline stress leads to changes
in growth, morphology and physiology of the roots that will in turn change water
and ion uptake. The whole plants are then affected when roots are growing in
saline medium. The results also indicate that salt tolerance of tomato plants
tends to increase with age. The same trend was observed on the leaves and roots
as also documented by Al-Rawahy (1989), Pessarakli
and Tucker (1988) and Munns (2002). Finally, in this
study, salinity stress resulted in a clear stunting of plant growth, which results
in a considerable decrease in the fresh weight of leaves and stems. Increasing
salinity is accompanied also by significant reductions in shoot weight and plant
There are inconsistencies in the literature regarding the contribution of fruit
number to EC-induced reductions in tomato fruit yield. Li
et al. (2001) and Eltez et al. (2002)
reported that the number of fruits was unaffected by moderate salinity and that
reduced yield was entirely due to smaller fruit. Results of this study are consistent
with Adams and Ho (1989) and Van
-Ieperen (1996) who observed that the number of harvested fruits per plant
decreased with salinity and was a contributing factor to reduced fruit yield.
The decrease of fruit number in the present study was affected by EC and the
duration of the harvesting period. The differences in fruit number were larger
with increasing duration of the harvesting period as reported by Adams
and Ho (1989) and Van Ieperen (1996). The reduction
in fruit number observed in the present study appeared to be related to a reduction
in the average number of flowers per truss and per plant observed with increasing
salinity (Magan, 2005). This is consistent with the hypothesis
of Cuartero and Fernandez-Munoz (1999) that stress restricts
the number of flowers per truss.
Stress factor (Ks) is an additional parameter to determine crop
evapotranspiration. It is an indicator of unusual plants stress such as salinity,
deficit water, disease or nutrient imbalance. It implies when its value decreases
by less than 1 and smaller Ks value means higher stress. The stress
co-efficient was found in the order of highest saline treatment > medium
> control (Fig. 6). The Ks values greatly decreased
under high level of salinity and heat conditions. Control plants irrigated with
fresh water produced more biomass which did not decline Ks values
and as salinity increased the Ks values decreased. It was reported
that increased evaporation from the soil surface can counteract the reductions
in crop coefficient factor (Kc) and Ks caused by high
ECe of the root zone (FAO, 1998). Letey
et al. (1985) and Shalhevert (1994) reported
that the effects of soil salinity and water stress were interactive to crop
|| Stress coefficient as affected by saline treatments
The water deficit conditions under high salinity treatments could be directly
attributed to the impaired water flow from soil to plant. Yeo
(1999) reported that root selectivity and transpirational water flow provide
the net uptake of salts whereas the salt concentration develops with the growth
rate. The greater mass flow of solution through the soil-root interface or higher
magnitude of evapotranspiration would increase the salt transport in plants.
Thus, there is a potential risk of higher salt damages in hot climate. Ghadiri
et al. (2005) reported restricted water uptake by salinity due to
the high osmotic potential in the soil and high concentrations of specific ions
that may cause physiological disorders in the plant tissues and reduce yields.
Whereas, Hajer et al. (2006) and Reina-Sanchez
et al. (2005) reported that plants irrigated with saline water reached
maximum daily water uptake earlier than control plants because salinity enhanced
Management of soil and water salinity in Oman is direly needed if agriculture of the country has to be kept alive and the ever increasing decertification is to be mitigated at all. A comprehensive research project in the management of saline soil is required to generate data under agro-climatic conditions of Oman, preparation of economically useful techniques and formulation of recommendations to the farmers.
Soil salinity is a major constraint to economic use of land for agriculture especially in the arid and semiarid regions. The results of the present pot study showed that the fresh fruit yield of tomato grown in glasshouse was reduced by increasing salinity. Saline irrigation added much salts to the soil and inhibited plant growth. Treatment of less salinity gave higher values for most plant parameters and as salinity increased there was a reduction in plant growth and final yield. Some varieties (No. 38) showed an optimistic response to saline agriculture by producing more yield under saline conditions. Hence, there is further need for more study under higher salinity condition to evaluate which variety can survive and produce good yield in arid and semi arid fields.
Abdul, K.S., F.M. Alkam and M.A. Jamal, 1988.
Effects of different salinity levels on vegetative growth, yield and its components in barley. ZANCO, 1: 21-32.
Adams, P. and L.C. Ho, 1989.
Effects of constant and fluctuating salinity on the yield, quality and calcium status of tomatoes. J. Hort. Sci., 64: 725-732.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Adler, P.R. and G.E. Wilcor, 1987.
Salt stress, mechanical stress, or chlormequat chloride effects on morphology and growth recovery of hydroponic tomato transplants. J. Am. Hort. Sci., 112: 22-25.Direct Link |
Al-Busaidi, A. and P. Cookson, 2005.
Leaching potential of sea water. J. Scientific Res: Agricult. Mar. Sci. (SQU), 9: 27-30.
Al-Busaidi, A., T. Yamamoto, M. Inoue, M. Irshad, Y. Mori and T. Satoshi, 2007.
Effects of seawater salinity on salt accumulation and barley (Hordeum vulgare
L.) growth under different metrological conditions. J. Food Agric. Environ., 5: 270-279.Direct Link |
Al-Karaki, G.N., 2000.
Growth, water use efficiency and sodium and potassium acquisition by tomato cultivars grown under salt stress. J. Plant. Nutr., 23: 1-8.Direct Link |
Al-Rwahy, S.A., 1989.
Nitrogen uptake, growth rate and yield of tomatoes under saline condition. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson, pp: 118.
Ben-Hur, M., F.H. Li, R. Keren, I. Ravina and G. Shalit, 2001.
Water and salt distribution in a field irrigated with marginal water under high water table conditions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 65: 191-198.Direct Link |
Berry, S. and M. Rafique Uddin, 1988.
Effect of high temperature on fruit set in tomato cultivars and selected germplasm. HortScience, 23: 606-608.Direct Link |
Blanco, F.F. and M.V. Folegatti, 2002.
Salt accumulation and distribution in a greenhouse soil as affected by salinity of irrigation water and leaching management. Revista Brasileira De Engenharia Agricola E Ambiental, 6: 414-419.Direct Link |
Bresler, E., B.L. McNeal and D.L. Carter, 1982.
Saline and Sodic Soils: Principles-Dynamics-Modeling. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp: 236
Byari, S.H. and A. A. Al-Maghrabi, 1991.
Effect of salt concentration on morphological and physiological traits of tomato cultivar. Agric. Res., 14: 91-111.
Cuartero, J. and R. Fernandez-Munoz, 1998.
Tomato and salinity. Sci. Hortic., 78: 83-125.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Daoud, S., M.C. Harrouni and R. Bengueddour, 2001.
Biomass production and ion composition of some halophytes irrigated with different seawater dilutions. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Saltwater Intrusion and Coastal Aquifers: Monitoring, Modeling and Management, April 23-25, 2001, Essaouira, Morocco, pp: 1-15
Eltez, R.Z., Y. Tuzel, l.A. Gu, I.H. Tu-zel and H. Duyar, 2002.
Effects of different EC levels of nutrient solution on greenhouse tomato growing. Acta Hortic., 573: 443-448.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Crop evapo-transpiration. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Papers No. 56. Rome.
Ghadiri, H., I. Dordipour, M. Bybordi and M.J. Malakouti, 2005.
Potential use of caspian sea water for supplementary irrigation in Northern Iran. Agric. Water Manage., 79: 209-224.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Hajer, A.S., A.A. Malibari, H.S. Al-Zahrani and O.A. Almaghrabi, 2006.
Responses of three tomato cultivars to seawater salinity 1. Effect of salinity on the seedling growth. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 5: 855-861.Direct Link |
Heakal, M.S., A.S. Modaihsh, A.S. Mashhady and A.I. Metwally, 1990.
Combined effects of leaching fraction salinity and potassium content of waters on growth and water use efficiency of wheat and barley. Plant Soil, 125: 177-184.Direct Link |
Letey, J., A. Dinar and K.C. Knapp, 1985.
Crop-water production function model for saline irrigation waters. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 49: 1005-1009.Direct Link |
Li, Y.L., C. Stanghellini and H. Challa, 2001.
Effect of electrical conductivity and transpiration on production of greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum
L.). Sci. Hort., 88: 11-29.Direct Link |
Magan, J.J., 2005.
Respuesta a la salinidad del tomate larga vida en cultivo sin suelo recirculante en el sureste espan˜ ol. Ph.D. Thesis, Almeria University, Almeria, Spain, pp: 171.
Mohammad, M., R. Shibli, M. Ajouni and L. Nimri, 1998.
Tomato root and shoot responses to salt stress under different levels of phosphorus nutrition. J. Plant Nutr., 21: 1667-1680.Direct Link |
Munns, R., 2002.
Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ., 25: 239-250.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Peet, M.M., S. Sato and R.G. Gardner, 1998.
Comparing heat stress affects on male-fertile and male-sterile tomatoes. Plant Cell Environ., 21: 225-231.Direct Link |
Peralta, E., S. Knapp and D.M. Spooner, 2005.
New species of wild tomato (Solanum
: Solanaceae) from Northern Peru. Systematic Bot., 30: 424-434.Direct Link |
Pessarakli, M., 1999.
Handbook of Plant and Crop Stress. 2nd EDn., CRC Pres, USA., ISBN-13: 9780824746728, Pages: 1254
Pessarakli, M. and T.C. Tucker, 1988.
Dry matter yield and nitrogen-15 uptake by tomatoes under sodium chloride stress. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 52: 698-700.Direct Link |
Petersen, F.H., 1996.
Water Testing and Interpretation. In: Water, Media and Nutrition for Greenhouse Crops, Reed, D.W. (Ed.). Ball Publication, Batavia, pp: 31-49
Reina-Sanchez, A., R. Romero-Aranda and J. Cuartero, 2005.
Plant water uptake and water use efficiency of greenhouse tomato cultivars irrigated with saline water. Agric. Water Manage., 78: 54-66.Direct Link |
Richards, G.A., L.S. Pereira, D. Raes and M. Smith, 1998.
Crop evapo-transpiration: Guidelines for computer crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 65, pp: 5.
Sameni, A.M. and A. Morshedi, 2000.
Hydraulic conductivity of calcareous soils as affected by salinity and sodicity. II. Effect of gypsum application and flow rate of leaching solution carbohydrate pol. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 31: 69-80.Direct Link |
Satti, S.M.E. and R.A. Al-Yahyai, 1995.
Salinity tolerance in tomato: Implications of potassium, calcium and phosphorus. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 26: 2749-2760.Direct Link |
Shalhevet, J., 1994.
Using water of marginal quality for crop production: Major issues. Agric. Water Manage., 25: 233-269.Direct Link |
Shani, U. and L.M. Dudley, 2001.
Field studies of crop response to water and salt stress. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 65: 1522-1528.Direct Link |
Shannon, M.C., J.W. Gronwald and M. Tal, 1987.
Effect of salinity on growth and accumulation of organic and inorganic ions in cultivated and wild tomato species. J. Am. Hort. Sci., 112: 516-523.
Van Ieperen, W., 1996.
Effects of different day and night salinity levels on vegetative growth, yield and quality of tomato. J. Hort. Sci., 71: 99-111.Direct Link |
Yamamoto, T., H. Fujiyama, P. Li, Y. Gao and Z. Yang, 1988.
Studies on irrigation utilization of ground water in the Mu Us Shamo of China: A few characteristics of leaching from lysimeters grown with grass. Sand Dune J., 27: 29-36.
Yeo, A., 1999.
Prediction of the interaction between the effects of salinity and climate change on crop plants. Scientia Hort., 78: 159-174.Direct Link |
Yeo, A.R., 1983.
Salinity resistance: Physiologies and prices. Physiologia Plantarum, 58: 214-222.CrossRef | Direct Link |