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Research Article

Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Glossines, Tabanids and Stomoxyids in the Dodéo Plain, Adamawa, Cameroon

Sieumeni Djonguep Andre, Kohagne Tongue Lisette, Abah Samuel, Fako Hendji Christian, Sevidzem Silas Lendzele, Mamoudou Abdoulmoumini and Nukenine Elias Nchiwan
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Background and Objective: The Dodéo plain is a bovine trypanosomosis foci, but no information exists on its vectors. The present survey aimed at studying the dynamics of vectors of trypanosomosis to fill the gap. Materials and Methods: Two sites were identified: an open grass savanna with the presence of a stream bordered by a gallery forest and the other consisted of trees and shrub savanna. In each site, a cattle pen was built and Nzi and Biconical traps pitched beside. Fly collection was carried out in four consecutive days of the collection months [October 2012 (end rainy season) to January 2013 (dry season)]. Results: Three genera of fly-vectors were captured with apparent trap densities: Glossina (0.25 f/td), Tabanus (1.09 f/td) and Stomoxys (5.59 f/td). Three species of tsetse flies (Glossina morsitans, Glossina fusca and Glossina nashi ), three species of tabanids (Tabanus taeniola, Tabanus biguttatus and Tabanus gratus ) and two species of stomoxyids (Stomoxys calcitrans and Stomoxys niger niger ) were identified. Only Tabanus differed significantly with capture sites. Populations of all the three genera showed significant difference between months. Conclusion: Three species of glossines, three species of tabanids and two species of Stomoxys were identified as vectors of trypanosomosis in the Dodéo plain.

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Sieumeni Djonguep Andre, Kohagne Tongue Lisette, Abah Samuel, Fako Hendji Christian, Sevidzem Silas Lendzele, Mamoudou Abdoulmoumini and Nukenine Elias Nchiwan, 2019. Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Glossines, Tabanids and Stomoxyids in the Dodéo Plain, Adamawa, Cameroon. Asian Journal of Biological Sciences, 12: 898-904.

DOI: 10.3923/ajbs.2019.898.904

Received: December 04, 2018; Accepted: January 29, 2019; Published: August 10, 2019


In most African countries, animal production in general and cattle breeding are the main activities of several populations1,2, as they represent an important sector that cannot be ignored in poverty reduction and economic growth. The development of this sector faces several constraints and one of them is bovine trypanosomosis which remains in the veterinary field, one of the major pathological constraints for the development of livestock in sub-saharan Africa3. It hampers animal production4 in nearly 7-8 million km2, which nevertheless offers strong fodder and agricultural potential. One quarter of the economic losses due to all animal diseases in Africa south of the Sahara are attributed to trypanosomosis5.

In Cameroon, the Adamawa region, which accounts for one-third of the national herd population, is not free from bovine trypanosomosis2. The appearance of tsetse flies (Glossina morsitans sub morsitans, Glossina tachinoides, etc.) on the Adamawa plateau occurred6 in the 1950s. To fight against this disease, the Special Mission for the Eradication of Glossines (MSEG) was created in 1974 for this purpose. The tsetse control unit carried out a massive aerial spraying with insecticides since 1976, which allowed the freeing-up of up to 32 000 km² of pasture land2. After the 1994 tsetse eradication activities, the Adamawa plateau was sub-divided into three zones notably infested zone, non-infested and buffer by the MSEG to ease intervention activities. However, the Faro and Deo where the locality of Dodéo was situated, consisted of a pasture area with highest glossines infestation7,8 as well as trypanosomosis infection rate (61.1%)2. The major sources of tsetse and other vectors re-infestation of the Dodéo plain were the two parks (Gashaka and Faro) that bordered it. The present study seeks to provide current information on the fauna of the vectors of bovine trypanosomosis in the infested zone of Dodéo, more than 20 years after the tsetse eradication campaign by focusing on their abundance and population dynamics.


Study area: The entomological prospection was carried out in the Dodéo basin, located 60 km from the Mayo Baléo district in the Faro and Deo division of the Adamawa region (Fig. 1). The Faro and Deo division was located between Latitude 7° and 8° North and between Longitude 12° and 13° East, surface area9 of 11,000 km2 and shared boundary with Nigeria (250 km). It was bordered to the north by the Faro game reserve, to the south by Djérem and Mayo-Banyo, to the east by Vina and to the west by the Nigerian forest reserve (Gashaka).

Image for - Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Glossines, Tabanids and Stomoxyids in the Dodéo Plain, Adamawa, Cameroon
Fig. 1:
Location of the study area
Source: Special mission for the eradication of glossines, 2015

Image for - Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Glossines, Tabanids and Stomoxyids in the Dodéo Plain, Adamawa, Cameroon
Fig. 2(a-b):
Display of trapsin the sampling sites

It was characterized by two seasons: a dry season from November-March (marked by intense pastoral activity with herds from the Adamawa Plateau and neighboring Nigeria that spent the transhumance period) and a rainy season from April-October. The climate was of mild Sudanese-Guinean type in the mountainous areas and Sudano-Sahelian in the plain areas, with an average annual temperature of 28°C and average rainfall10 of about 1200 mm year1. The vegetation cover consisted of a shrub, grass savanna punctuated by gallery forests and dominated by Daniellia oliveri and Lophira lanceolata11. There was a herbaceous part with Hyparrhenia and Panicum conditioned by anthropogenic factors (grazing, bush fires and clearing), edaphic and climatic. Agriculture and livestock breeding are the important activities of the indigenes of the region.

Entomological prospection: The study was carried out from October 2012 (late rainy season) to January 2013 (dry season). Two sites, 1 km from each other were considered for trapping with characteristics: site 1 (low vegetation cover, closer to a stream and bordered by a gallery forest) and site 2 (tree and shrub savanna). In each site, a pen was constructed and cattle kept inside (Fig. 2a, b). At the four corners of the pen (5 m apart), two Nzi traps12 and two Biconical traps13 all georeferenced (GPS) were diagonally pitched North West-South East and North East-South West. Hematophagous flies were captured for 4 consecutive days per month. Traps were set and activated on the eve of catch days before 10 am and removed after the 4th collection day. Collection of fly-vectors was between 9 am and 11 am.

Fly identification: Daily identification of the flies was carried out at the laboratory of the special mission for the eradication of glossines (MSEG) under a binocular microscope, according to the morphological criteria defined by Pollock14 for tsetse flies and by Desquesnes et al.15 for stomoxyids and tabanids.

Data analysis: Abundance data was transformed by the square root formula and then subjected to the analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) using a statistical software that enabled the execution of statistical tests. The Student-Newman-Keuls test was used to compare trap apparent densities (level of significance p<0.05) and the Student's test was used to compare populations of different vectors between sites and traps. The abundance of captured flies was defined by trap apparent density (ADT), which represented the number of specimens of each species caught per trap and day:

Image for - Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Glossines, Tabanids and Stomoxyids in the Dodéo Plain, Adamawa, Cameroon


Genus composition: Three genera were identified notably Stomoxys that was most abundant with a mean catch density of 5.59±0.56, followed by Tabanus (1.09±0.25) and by the genus Glossina (0.25±0.00) (Table 1).

Species composition: The genus Glossina comprised of three species: Glossina nashi (56%), Glossina morsitans (40%) and Glossina fusca (4%).

Table 1:
Fly-vectors composition (October, 2012 to January, 2013)
Image for - Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Glossines, Tabanids and Stomoxyids in the Dodéo Plain, Adamawa, Cameroon
ADT(f/t/d): Trap apparent density (fly per trap per day)

Table 2:
Fly-vectors composition with site (October 2012-January, 2013)
Image for - Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Glossines, Tabanids and Stomoxyids in the Dodéo Plain, Adamawa, Cameroon
Density±standard error, ns: Non significant = p>0.05, *p<0.05

For tabanids, three species were identified: Tabanus taeniola, Tabanus biguttatus and Tabanus gratus. Of the stomoxyids collected, Stomoxys niger and Stomoxys calcitrans were identified (Table 1).

Vector collection with site
Genus composition with site: The overall density of Glossina and Tabanus differed statistically (p<0.05) with sites. Tabanids were statistically significantly higher in site 1 (low-wood savanna vegetation, near a stream bordered by a gallery forest) with ADT of 1.69 tabanids/trap/day as compared to site 2 (woody savanna and shrub). Stomoxys was most abundant in site 1 (6.19 stomoxyids/trap/day) and site 2 (4.93 stomoxyids/trap/day) whereas, the genus Glossina was rare in both sites (Table 2).

Collection based on trap-type: There was a statistical significant difference (p<0.05, t = 2.91) in the abundance of glossines caught with traps, where the Nzi trap (0.20±0.060) caught more glossines than its Biconical (0.10±0.039) counterpart. The genus Tabanus was highly caught using the Nzi trap (2.12±0.456) than the Biconical (0.04±0.026) with a statistical significant difference (p<0.001, t = 4.54) (Table 3).

Monthly dynamics of collected flies: The maximum abundance was observed during the month of November and minimum in January. The genus Stomoxys was the most frequent during prospection months and the genus Glossina was rare (Fig. 3). Tsetse fly densities were significantly higher in October and November than in other months. Tabanids were significantly higher in November, but stomoxyids were significantly lower in January (Fig. 3).

The monthly distribution of glossines revealed that Glossina nashi showed a statistically significant difference in its abundance as compared to others in the month of October (Fig. 4a). It was interesting to know that all the Glossina spp. (Glossina morsitans, Glossina fusca and Glossina nashi) reported in this study occurred only in October. But in November, December and January only two species (Glossina morsitans and Glossina nashi) were represented (Fig. 4a).

Table 3:
Fly-vectors composition with respect to trap-types (October, 2012 to January, 2013)
Image for - Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Glossines, Tabanids and Stomoxyids in the Dodéo Plain, Adamawa, Cameroon
Density±standard error, ns: Non significant = p>0.05,*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001, t: Student t- test, P: Probability level

Image for - Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Glossines, Tabanids and Stomoxyids in the Dodéo Plain, Adamawa, Cameroon
Fig. 3:
ADT of different genera caught (October, 2012 to January, 2013)

The Tabanus spp. showed a statistically significant difference in abundance, when compared to other Tabanus in October, November and December (Fig. 4b). For stomoxyids, it was interesting to observe that highest species occurrence was in October and dwindled across the other collection months (Fig. 4c).


The results obtained in this study constitute vital in formation on animal trypanosomosis vectors in Dodéo in the Faro and Deo division. It confirmed the presence of tsetse flies, but above all, the presence of mechanical vectors whose high density relative to tsetse flies indicates their contribution to the mechanical transmission of trypanosomes in the Faro and Deo division15,16. The Nzi trap was more effective in the capture of tabanids17,18 and savanna tsetse than biconical trap.

The low record of flies with sites can be explained by the relative short prospection period, limited number of sites (two sites) and survey period. In November, the dry season began with the absence of rains necessary for the emergence of adults and intense heat that inhibited the activity of flies. These results are like those obtained by Mavoungou et al.19,20 in Gabon, that showed that rainfall provoked the emergence of hematophagous Diptera. Similarly, the phenomenon of transhumance observed in Dodéo from December with herds previously treated with insecticides could explain why an overall low catch was recorded.

The non-significant difference in the abundance with sites can be explained by the small distance between the sites. Indeed, according to Bailey et al.21 and Bouyer22, flies can travel for several kilometers in search of food and more favorable conditions. This ubiquitous distribution could be explained by the presence of a fixed food source (cattle in pens) in each site.

Tabanids were significantly more abundant in site 1. This could be explained by an ecological preference due to its location closer to gallery forest and a watercourse that provided suitable environmental conditions (temperature and relative humidity) for their activity and survival. Acapovi et al.17 reported the high occurrence of tabanids in gallery forest in a similar study in Ivory Coast. This difference could be explained by the differences in landscape. Indeed, site 2 consisted of trees, that limited the illumination of the site as well as the visibility of the traps therefore, hindering their effectiveness23.

Some species were present and dominant in both sites like G. nashi, G. morsitans and T. taeniola. Their presence in both sites could be explained by the ecological and behavioral adaptation of these species. Ovazza et al.24 and Acapovi et al.17 showed that T. taeniola was a species found in all biotopes. The presence of certain species such as G. fusca in one site (site 1) was thought to be due to an ecological preference. However, Sevidzem et al.8 showed their preference for wetlands in the Faro and Deo division.

Image for - Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Glossines, Tabanids and Stomoxyids in the Dodéo Plain, Adamawa, Cameroon
Fig. 4(a-c):
Number (ADT±standard error) of different species: (a) Glossina, (b) Tabanus and (c) Stomoxys (October, 2012-January, 2013)

The maximum catch was observed during the month of November (early dry season). This peak catch in November could be related to the recent cessation of rainfall that created favorable climatic conditions for the emergence of adults (relatively high temperature, humidity and absence of precipitation). The tsetse fly-catch turnover was significantly high in October and November (late rainy season and early dry season) and low during the dry season. These results were like those obtained by Arthur et al.25 in south-Cameroon, where they showed that a very low hygrometry stressed tsetse flies and limited their activity.


This inventory recorded different vectors (biological and mechanical) of bovine trypanosomosis in Dodéo and their spatio-temporal dynamics. In total, three genera of vectors of trypanosomosis namely Glossina, Tabanus and Stomoxys were recorded and 8 species identified. Only members of the genus Tabanus differed significantly with sites. The abundance of these genera witnessed significant monthly fluctuations with high representation during the month of November. Given these results and the important pastoral potential of Dodéo, vector control should be put in place in this locality.


Authors thank the indigenes of Dodéo for providing field assistance in the transportation of traps and personnels.


This study discovered Glossina nashi and Glossina fusca which are important vectors of human and bovine trypanosomosis. Also, the mechanical vectors of bovine trypanosomosis such as Tabanus (T. taeniola, T. biguttatus and T. gratus) and Stomoxys (S. niger niger and S. calcitrans) were identified. Their distribution differed with site, season and trap-types. This study will help the researchers to uncover the critical areas in the epizootiology of bovine trypanosomosis, that many researchers were not able to explore. Thus a new theory on the mechanical transmission of bovine trypanosomosis and control may be arrived at.


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