Reno-protective Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Against PAN Induced Nephrosis in WKY Rats
Ismail Tamer Ahmed,
Mohamed Mohamed Soliman,
Hossam Fouad Attia,
Munoz Cuellar Lino,
Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) is an omega-3 fatty acid (polyunsaturated fatty acid) that has pleiotropic effects as hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory actions. Podocytes injury in the renal glomeruli has been proposed as the crucial mechanism in the development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis or nephrosis. The effect of EPA on Puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) induced nephrosis was tested. EPA was administered daily for 28 days at a dose of 1 g kg-1 b.wt. then PAN was injected intravenously at a dose of 6 mg/100 g of body weight followed by EPA for 6 days. PAN nephrosis induced increase in proteinuria, lipid profiles, podocytes proteins expression and immunolocalization. EPA induced decrease in proteinuria and lipid profiles induced by PAN nephrosis. Also, EPA induced significant down-regulation in expression of connexin 43 and synaptopodin. Moreover, EPA induced 50% decrease in glomerular cell adhesion induced by PAN nephrosis. Immunoflerusecnce shows expression of desmin and connexin 43 in rat glomeruli that increased by PAN and decreased by EPA. These findings collectively showed that EPA has reno-protective effect during inflammation.
to cite this article:
Ismail Tamer Ahmed, Mohamed Mohamed Soliman, Hossam Fouad Attia, Munoz Cuellar Lino, Xu Bo, Ying Zhang and Tadashi Yamamoto, 2012. Reno-protective Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Against PAN Induced Nephrosis in WKY Rats. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, 7: 16-26.
October 20, 2011; Accepted: October 31, 2011;
Published: January 10, 2012
Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) is one of the n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids
(PUFA) which are contained in fish oil (Calder, 2003).
EPA has many peliotropic effects among which is its anti-thrombotic (Alshatwi
and Alrefai, 2007), hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-mitogenic
actions (Hosseini et al., 2009; Rahbar
et al., 2007). Like nigella (Soliman et al.,
2009) and propolis (El-Kott and Owayss, 2008), EPA
ameliorates immune response and has hepato-protective functions and improve
insulin sensitivity (Alsaif, 2004). Recently, EPA has
been shown to acts as an antioxidant (Kojda and Harrison,
1999) parallel with those reported for Nigella sativa, a wildly used
medicinal plant (Abdelmeguid et al., 2011). That
peliotropic function of EPA is reported in humans, animals and birds (Fatahnia
et al., 2007; Al-Daraji et al., 2010).
Feeding of fish oil reduces in vivo production of interleukin-1 (IL-1),
IL-6, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) and IL-2 by peripheral blood mononuclear
cells and reduces the response to endotoxin and to pro-inflammatory cytokines,
resulting in increased survival rate (Endres et al.,
1989; Hagiwara et al., 2005). It has been
shown that dietary supplementation with EPA retards the disease progression
in human and experimental renal diseases and retards renal injury progression
in patients with IgA nephropathy (Donadio et al.,
1994). Fish oil containing EPA inhibited mesangial cell activation and proliferation,
reduced proteinuria and decreased histological glomerular injuries (Grande
et al., 2000) and improved albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients
(Shimizu et al., 1995).
As known the renal glomeruli contain visceral epithelial cells that known as
podocytes which are the most essential part to maintain stability of glomerular
structure in kidney (Ichimura et al., 2003; Omary
et al., 2004; Yaoita et al., 1995).
Podocytes are highly specialized epithelium that controls the bulk flow of filtrate
through the intracellular spaces. They are situated at the basement of glomeruli
as the terminal element in ultrafilteration barrier (Fries
et al., 1989). Once podocytes are injured, they cannot be replaced
by new ones and its injury is the staring of focal segmental glomerulo-sclerosis
and final glomerular tuft destruction and then chronic renal diseases (Kriz
et al., 1998). Moreover, podocytes in renal glomerulus express unusual
intermediate filament proteins (IFs) for visceral epithelial cells. IFs cytoskeleton
is mainly composed of vimentin, nestin, desmin, synaptopodin and connexin 43.
During infection or inflammation, tissues are injured and that is accompanied
by changes in the expressions of intermediate filament proteins (DePianto
and Coulombe, 2004). IFs proteins expression as desmin is increased during
renal injury or nephrosis induced by Puromycin Aminonucleoside (PAN) and their
expression is controlled by a fashion that is specific to each cell and stage
of cell differentiation (Yaoita et al., 2002;
Zou et al., 2006, 2007).
Vimentin is found in mesenchyme, desmin in muscle, glial fibrillary, connexin
43 in glomeruli at the gap junction, nestin in neuroepithelial stem cells and
synaptopodin in cytoskeleton. Synaptopodin is a protein that is essential for
the integrity of podocytes cytoskeleton because synaptopodin-deficient mice
showed impairment in recovery from LPS-induced renal nephritic syndrome (Yanagida-Asanuma
et al., 2007).
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is a model of nephritic syndrome that can
be induced by PAN (Diamond and Karnovsky, 1986; Kihara
et al., 1995). Oxygen radicals can be produced during PAN nephrosis
due to podocytes injury and is followed by proteinuria that occurred without
clear explanation (Nosaka et al., 1997). In recent
immuno-fluorescence staining studies, a striking change of a gap junctional
protein, connexin 43 in podocytes in PAN nephrosis was seen. Gap junctions mediate
cell-to-cell communication in various tissues (Goodenough
et al., 1996; White et al., 1995).
They contain channels that connect neighboring cells, allowing the movement
of molecules smaller than 1000 d such as ions, nutrients, metabolite and second
messengers and maintain cell stability and ultra-filtration barriers. Up till
now, little data are available about the correlation between EPA and PAN nephrosis.
The aim of this study was to test the effects of EPA during PAN nephrosis on
urinary protein levels, lipid profiles and expression of renal intermediate
filaments proteins expressed in podocytes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials: Male WKY rats 7 weeks age were purchased from Charles River
Japan (Atsugi, Japan) and were used for these experiments. The following murine
monoclonal antibodies were used: anti Connexin 43 ((Sigma), anti-vimentin antibody
(clone V9, Sigma, Saint Louis, MO, USA), anti-desmin antibody (clone D-33, Dako,
Cytomation, Glostrup, Denmark). Anti-synaptopodin (Progen, Heidelberg, Germany).
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA ethyl ester) was provided kindly by Mochida Pharmaceutical
Co. Ltd Tokyo, Japan. Puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) and Arabic gum was from
Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO, USA.
Experimental design and PAN nephrosis induction: A total of 12 rats were used in this experiment, the experimental design was conducted from January, 2010 to November, 2010. Rats were divided into 2 groups, first group received EPADEL (EPA ethyl ester dissolved in Arabic gum) in a dose of 1 g kg-1 body weight for 28 days by gavages. Second group was received Arabic gum 5% as control by gavages. At day 28, PAN nephrosis was induced in all groups by single intravenous injection of PAN (Sigma, USA) at a dose of 6 mg/100 g of body weight in phosphate-buffered saline. Following PAN injection, rats received EPA as treated group or Arabic gum as a control. Rats were housed in individual metabolic cages and their 24th urine specimens were collected at day 0, 2, 4 and 6 days after PAN injection. Rats were sacrificed under ether anesthesia. Blood samples were collected to extract serum and to measure changes in lipid profiles. Kidneys were removed and processed for western blotting, Immuno-fluorescence and histopathological examinations. Glomeruli were isolated from six rat kidneys and pooled and used as one sample of glomerular protein. The procedures for the present study were approved by the Animal Committee at Niigata, Zagazig and Benha Universities.
Proteinuria and lipid profiles measurements: Urinary protein excretion was measured using Bio-Rad Protein Assay (Bio-Rad Laboratories, CA, USA) according to manufactures instructions. Blood samples were collected to extract serum and to measure lipid profiles using commercially available kits for total cholesterol, Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) and High Density Lipoproteins (HDL).
Western blotting: Glomeruli were homogenized in lysis buffer (8 mol
L-1 urea, 1 mmol L-1 dithiothreitol, 1 mmol L-1
EDTA, 50 mmol L-1 Tris-HCl, pH 8.0) with a sonicator on ice. Protein
in sample was quantified by Lowrys method after precipitation by trichloroacetate
with sodium deoxycholate as described previously (Zou et
al., 2006) with little modifications. Aliquot of 20 μg protein
was resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (10%
SDS-PAGE) under reducing conditions and proteins were electroblotted onto PVDF
membrane (ImmobilonTM, Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA). The membrane was blocked
for 2 h at room temperature in 5%(w/v) skimmed milk in 20 mM Tris/HCl (pH 7.5),
0.15 M NaCl and 0.01% Tween 20, followed by incubation with primary antibody
(1:1000 dilution) of connexin 43, desmin, vimentin and synaptopodin overnight
at 4°C. The membrane was washed 3 times with 20 mM Tris/HCl (pH 7.5), 0.15
M NaCl and 0.01% Tween 20 and incubated with 1:2000 diluted horseradish peroxidase-conjugated
secondary goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody (Zymed laboratories, Inc. South San
Francisco, CA, USA) for 1 h at room temperature. Visualization was performed
using enhanced chemiluminescence detection system (Amersham Biosciences, Buckinghamshire,
Renal histopathology: Small pieces of the kidney were collected from
the WKY rats, kept overnight in methyl carnoa solution. The samples were cleared
in ascending grades of alcohols, cleared in xylene and embedded in soft paraffin.
Samples were cut at 5 μM thickness and then stained with PAS (Periodic
Acid Schief), according to Bancroft et al. (1994).
Immuno-fluorescence microscopy: The indirect immuno-fluorescence technique
was applied to frozen kidney sections and outgrowths from glomeruli as described
previously by Yaoita et al. (2002) with little
modification. In short, the rat kidneys were snap-frozen at -70°C, sectioned
at a thickness of 3 μm in a cryostat, fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde in PBS
for 5 min and processed for double-label immunostaining. Outgrowths from explants
cultured on eight-well glass chamber slides were fixed in methanol for 5 min,
or fixed in 2%paraformaldehyde in PBS for 5 min permeabilized with 0.3% Triton
x-100 in PBS for 3 min and stained with antibodies specific for connexin 43
and desmin. For double-label immuno-fluorescence microscopy, rabbit anti-connexin
43 and anti-desmin antibodies (Sigma) and murine monoclonal antibody against
ZO-1 (Zymed Laboratories, South San Francisco, CA) were mixed and applied as
primary antibodies simultaneously. After washing with PBS, the sections were
stained with fluoresce in isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG, rewashed
with PBS and subsequently reacted with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-conjugated
anti-mouse IgG. PBS, normal rabbit serum, or murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody
(against rotavirus), shown not to react with rat glomeruli, were used as negative
controls for the primary antibodies. Immunofluorescence of the sections and
cultured cells were observed with an Olympus microscope (BX50) equipped with
epi-illumination optics and appropriate filters, or with a laser scanning confocal
microscope (MRC-1024; Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA).
Statistical analysis: Results are expressed as Means±SE of 6
different rats. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and Fischers
post-hoc test using specific program (StatView Version-5; SAS Institute, Japan)
for Macintosh computer. Significance was reported as p<0.05.
Effect of EPA on urinary protein induced by PAN nephrosis: Measuring 24 h urinary protein secretion at day 0, 2, 4 and 6 revealed that PAN induced increase in urinary protein levels at day 4 and 6. Pretreatment of EPA to PAN injected rats significantly (p<0.05) decreased the increase in urinary protein levels compared to PAN injected rats (control) at day 4 and 6 (Fig. 1a).
Effect of EPA on PAN induced changes in lipid profiles in WKY rats:
To test the reno-protective effects of EPA on PAN induced alteration in serum
levels of cholesterol, LDL and HDL. Single injection of PAN induced significant
increase in serum levels of cholesterol and LDL while decreased HDL levels,
pretreatment of rats by EPA decreased PAN induced those changes, moreover, it
decreased cholesterol and LDL levels and increased the levels of HDL as shown
in Fig. 1b, d. Those findings are of biomedical
importance for the pathogenesis of nephrosis induced by PAN.
Effect of EPA on PAN induced intermediate filament proteins expression: Using western blot analysis, IFs proteins expression was tested. As seen in Fig. 2, PAN increased protein expression of connexin43, synaptopodin and vimentin. Administration of EPA to WKY rats decreased PAN induced connexin43 and synaptopodin expression but not vimentin. So, EPA induced protective effect on PAN up-regulated connexin 43 and synaptopodin expression to maintain stability of Gap junction and decrease the incidence of nephrosis.
Effect of EPA on histopatholgy of kidney in PAN nephrosis: PAN injection
induced massive intensive positive PAS materials outside capillary lumen and
increase in cell adhesion of glomerular capillaries and Bowman capsules (Fig.
|| Effect of EPA on PAN induced changes in proteinuria and lipid
profiles. EPA (mg kg-1 bw-1) or vehicle as control
was administered to WKY rats for 28 day then PAN was injected intravenously
(6 mg/100 g of body weight) and urine samples were collected at 0, 2, 4
and 6 days for changes in urinary proteinuria (a) WKY rats were killed at
day 6 post PAN injection and the changes in cholesterol (b) LDL (c) and
HDL (d) were tested Values are Means±SE of 5 different rats. *p<0.05
vs. PAN injected rats (control)
EPA tended to decrease the changes in histopathology of kidney induced by
PAN. It shows less adhesion in glomeruli and less intensive PAS materials outside
capillary lumen (Fig. 3b). When the percentage of cell adhesion
was counted, EPA significantly (p<0.05, 50%) decreases cell adhesion as seen
Effect of EPA on immunofluorescence expression of connexin43 and desmin
in PAN nephrosis: Connexin 43 and desmin distribution and localization in
the glomerulus were examined by double-label immunofluorescence microscopy using
rabbit anti-Connexin 43 and anti-demin antibodies (Fig. 4a,
b) in combination with murine mono clonal anti-ZO-1 antibody
(right pannel photo in (Fig. 4).
||Western blot analysis of intermediate filaments proteins expression
separated from EPA (1) and PAN (2) treated WKY rats. Bands specific to each
of the IF proteins are seen exclusively in renal glomeruli. Twenty milli
grams protein was elctrophoresed in 15% SDS-PAGE and electroblotted onto
nitrocellulose membrane and detected by electro-detection after incubation
with 1st and 2nd antibodies as written in materials. EPA induced inhibition
in protein expression of connexin43 and synaptopodin but not desmin. Lane
1 is PAN treated rats; lane 2 is EPA treated PAN rats
||Effect of EPA on PAN induced changes in renal histology. (a)
Photomicrograph of renal cortex from PAN treated rat groups showing intense
positive PAS materials outside the capillary lumen (arrow head) and cellular
adhesion between glomerular capillary pole and Bowman capsule (arrows) PAS
(X40); B (b) Photomicrograph of renal cortex from PAN pretreated with EPA
groups showing normal glomeruli with less intense PAS positive materials
outside the capillary lumen (arrow head) PAS (X40); (c) Percentage of cell
adhesion from different 5 rat glomeruli, *p<0.05 vs. PAN injected rats
Because the tight junction protein ZO-1 is concentrated in the intercellular
junctions of podocytes under both normal and pathological conditions ZO-1 staining
was used to locate the glomerular capillary wall. Normal kidney immunofluorescent
dots for connexin 43 and desmin were observed mainly in the extra-glomerular
mesangium and the neighboring intra- glomerular mesangium.
||Double labeled immunofluorescence photomicrographs of frozen
sections of rat kidneys incubated with antibodies against Connexin 43 (a)
desmin (b) Co-localization of connexin43 and desmin and merged and ZO-1
(internal standard) in rat glomeruli. Magnifications is X100. Rabbit anti-Cx43,
anti-desmin anti serum was detected with fluoresce in isothiocyanate-conjugated
goat anti-rabbit IgG; mouse monoclonal anti-ZO-1 antibody was detected with
tetramethylrhodam-ineisothiocyanate-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. EPA
induced decrease in localization of connexin43 and desmin expression was
Few but significant dots were also detected within glomeruli; most of them
were located along the glomerular capillary wall. Administration of EPA to PAN
injected rats induced significant decrease in connexin 43 and desmin expression
in glomeruli as seen in down left of Fig. 4a, b.
Those findings hypothesize a role for EPA during infection and inflammation
and acts as anti-inflammatory agent against some destructive diseases as nephrosis.
In the present study, results showed the importance of EPA as protecting factors
against inflammation in PAN nephrosis. Several relevant observations resulted
from this analysis. First, EPA improved the renal effect of PAN on urinary protein
secretion and in lipid profiles. Second, IFs proteins (Connexin 43, vimentin,
synaptopodin) were expressed exclusively in the glomerulus, especially in the
podocytes. Third, IF proteins were up-regulated in PAN nephrosis and inhibited
by EPA administration. Recent studies have shown that dietary supplementation
with n-3PUFA retards disease progression in non-diabetic renal diseases including
IgA nephropathy (Donadio et al., 1994) and EPA
has a direct renal effect on PAN nephrosis. in vitro studies supported
the assumption of direct renal effects of EPA (Hagiwara
et al., 2005). PAN nephrosis is widely used as a model of nephrotic
syndrome progressing to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (Doetsch
et al., 1999). A striking morphological feature in PAN nephrosis is
the focal detachment of podocytes and that is coinciding with the onset of massive
proteinuria (Ryan and Karnovsky 1975). Kim
et al. (2001) reported that PAN injection caused a marked decrease
in the podocyte number and an increase in the glomerular size. Because of the
lack of cell proliferation, podocytes adapt to the decrease in cell number and
glomerular growth by cell hypertrophy (Nagata and Kriz,
1992). As desmin staining in podocytes is either not detected in vivo
under physiological conditions or is only weakly detected, the intense signals
for desmin indicate the up-regulation of desmin in cultured podocytes (Yaoita
et al., 1995). These findings suggest the existence of an intimate
relationship between IF proteins up-regulation and podocytes hypertrophy. Podocytes
are generally attached to several capillaries by way of their foot and primary
processes. Therefore, cell hypertrophy on enlarged glomeruli itself increases
the mechanical stress to the entire cytoskeleton. The function of IFs is primarily
to increase the mechanical resistance of cells (Omary et
al., 2004). It is therefore tempting to speculate that the up-regulation
of IF proteins allow podocytes to progress to cell hypertrophy, which is suitable
for glomerular growth but pretreatment with EPA inhibited that IFs expression
induced by PAN to maintain renal barrier and normal renal function.
The timing of the up-regulation of IFs proteins in PAN nephrosis is differed
among nestin, vimentin, and desmin (Yaoita et al., 2002),
although it is likely that the three IF proteins co-assemble together into mixed
polymers. The transcriptional levels of connexin 43 and synaptopodin are already
increased 6 days after PAN injection but the desmin transcripts was less detective
and that is parallel with findings of Yaoita et al. (2002),
who stated that desmin expression is 10 days after PAN nephrosis. Unlike, desmin
is vimentin, its expression started at 3 days but in our study, its expression
at 6 days and that the cause of less significance. The early morphological changes
of podocytes in PAN nephrosis are mainly related with the foot processes, which
are equipped with a complete microfilament-based contractile apparatus (Ichimura
et al., 2003). The loss or retraction of the foot process structure
is noticeable by day 2 of PAN nephrosis (Ryan and Karnovsky,
1975) and that is clear in our findings as a decrease in cell adhesion was
seen (Fig. 3). Moreover, Connexin 43 in glomeruli increased
strikingly at both the protein and mRNA levels in PAN nephrosis, which is consistent
with an important role for transcriptional regulation in the synthesis of Connexin
43 gap junctions.
Nephrotic Syndrome (NS) is characterized by proteinuria, oxidative stress and
endogenous hyperlipidemia. Antioxidants and PUFA attenuate hypercholesterolemia
related disturbances mainly because of their ability to reduce Reactive Oxygen
Species (ROS) production and cholesterol, respectively (Kojda
and Harrison, 1999). Moreover, omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil can reduce
superoxide anion production by inflammatory cells. Free radical scavenging potential
of both EPA prevents ROS induced inflammation of hepatocytes in high cholesterol
fed rats (Kumar et al., 2006). The mechanism
of EPA action on PAN nephrosis is unknown. It has been shown that synthesis
of interleukin-1 and Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF), both potent inflammatory
factors, was suppressed by dietary supplementation with long-chain n-3 fatty
acids (Endres et al., 1989). Also, EPA suppressed
the expression of TNF-α, an activator of NF-κB, in human monocytes
and prevented NF-κB activation by preventing I κB-α phosphorylation
(Zhao et al., 2004). This inhibitory effect of
EPA on NF-κB activation is thought to be mediated by the peroxisome proliferators
activated receptors dependent pathway (Mishra et al.,
2004). As known, inflammation is the normal host response to infection or
injury that mediates immune elimination of pathogens and tissue repair (Calder,
2003). The capacity of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found
in fish oil to suppress inflammation-associated processes has made them attractive
candidates for both the prevention and amelioration of a variety of organ-specific
and systemic diseases (Calder, 2008; Yaqoob,
EPA has reno-protective effects against PAN induced changes in urinary protein, lipid profiles, IFs proteins expression and suggest that other studies are needed to examine the mechanism by which EPA inhibited PAN nephrosis at the transcriptional levels.
Abdelmeguid, N.E., R. Fakhoury, S.M. Kamal and R.J. Al-Wafai, 2011. Effect of Nigella sativa L. and thymoquinone on streptozotocin induced cellular damage in pancreatic islets of rats. Asian J. Cell Biol., 6: 1-21.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Al-Daraji, H.J., A.S. Al-Hassani, H.A. Al-Mashadani, W.K. Al-Hayani and H.A. Mirza, 2010. Effect of dietary supplementation with sources of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on certain blood characteristics of laying quail. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 9: 689-694.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Alsaif, M.A., 2004. Effect of dietary fats on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and membrane free fatty acid in rats. Pak. J. Nutr., 3: 56-63.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Alshatwi, A.A. and A. Noura Alrefai, 2007. A comparison of serum omega-3 fatty acid concentrations between patients with coronary heart disease and healthy subjects. Pak. J. Nutr., 6: 72-74.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Bancroft, J.D., H.C. Cook, R.W. Stirling and D.R. Turner, 1994. Manual of Histological Techniques and their Diagnostic Application. 2nd Edn., Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, London, New York, Pages: 192.
Calder, P.C., 2003. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation: From molecular biology to the clinic. Lipids, 38: 343-352.
Calder, P.C., 2008. The relationship between the fatty acid composition of immune cells and their function. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 79: 101-108.
DePianto, D. and P.A. Coulombe, 2004. Intermediate filaments and tissue repair. Exp. Cell Res., 301: 68-76.
CrossRef | PubMed |
Diamond, J.R. and M.J. Karnovsky, 1986. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis following a single intravenous dose of puromycin aminonucleoside. Am. J. Pathol., 122: 481-487.
Direct Link |
Doetsch, F., I. Caille, D.A. Lim, J.M. Garcia-Verdugo and A. Alvarez-Buylla, 1999. Subventricular zone astrocytes are neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain. Cell, 97: 703-716.
Donadio, J.V. Jr., E.J. Bergstralh, K.P. Offord, D.C. Spencer and K.E. Holley, 1994. A controlled trial of fish oil in IgA nephropathy. Mayo Nephrology Collaborative Group. N. Engl. J. Med., 331: 1194-1199.
El-Kott, A.F. and A.A. Owayss, 2008. Protective effects of propolis against the amitraz hepatotoxicity in mice. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 3: 402-408.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Endres, S., R. Ghorbani, V.E. Kelley, K. Georgilis and G. Lonnemann et al., 1989. The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the synthesis of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mononuclear cells. N. Engl. J. Med., 320: 265-271.
Fatahnia, F., A. Nikkhah and M.J. Zamiri, 2007. Effect of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids sources on milk production and composition of holstein cows in early lactation. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 10: 575-580.
CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Fries, J.W., D.J. Sandstrom, T.W. Meyer and H.G. Rennke, 1989. Glomerular hypertrophy and epithelial cell injury modulate progressive glomerulosclerosis in the rat. Lab. Invest., 60: 205-218.
Goodenough, D.A., J.A. Goliger and D.L. Paul, 1996. Connexins, connexons and intercellular communication. Annu. Rev. Biochem., 65: 475-502.
Grande, J.P., H.J. Walker, B.J. Holub, G.M. Warner and D.M. Keller, 2000. Suppressive effects of fish oil on mesangial cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Kidney Int., 57: 1027-1040.
Hagiwara, S., Y. Makita, L. Gu, M. Tanimoto and M. Zhang et al., 2005. Eicosapentaenoic acid ameliorates diabetic nephropathy of type 2 diabetic KKAy/Ta mice: Involvement of MCP-1 suppression and decreased ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant., 21: 605-615.
Hosseini, S.A., F. Rahim and K. Mola, 2009. Omega-3 induced change in clinical parameters of rheumatoid arthritis. J. Med. Sci., 9: 93-97.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Ichimura, K., H. Kurihara and T. Sakai, 2003. Actin filament organization of foot processes in rat podocytes. J. Histochem. Cytochem., 51: 1589-1600.
Kihara, I., E. Yatoita, K. Kawasaki and T. Yamamoto, 1995. Limitations of podocyte adaptation for glomerular injury in puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis. Pathol. Int., 45: 625-634.
Kim, Y.H., M. Goyal, D. Kurnit, B. Wharram and J. Wiggins et al., 2001. Podocyte depletion and glomerulosclerosis have a direct relationship in the PAN-treated rat. Kidney Int., 60: 957-968.
Kojda, G. and D. Harrison, 1999. Interactions between NO and reactive oxygen species: Pathophysiological importance in atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes and heart failure. Cardiovascular Res., 43: 652-671.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Kriz, W., N. Gretz and K.V. Lemley, 1998. Progression of glomerular diseases: Is the podocyte the culprit? Kidney Int., 54: 687-697.
Kumar, S.A., V. Sudhadar and P. Varalakshmi, 2006. Protective role of eicosapentaenoate-lipoate (EPA-LA) derivative in combating oxidative hepatocellular injury in hypercholesterolemic atherogenesis. Atherosclerosis, 189: 115-122.
Mishra, A., A. Chaudhary and S. Sethi, 2004. Oxidized ω-3 fatty acids inhibit NF-κB activation via a PPARα-dependent pathway. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 24: 1621-1627.
Nagata, M. and W. Kriz, 1992. Glomerular damage after uninephrectomy in young rats. II. Mechanical stress on podocytes as a pathway to sclerosis. Kidney Int., 42: 148-160.
Nosaka, K., T. Takahashi, T. Nishi, H. Imaki and T. Suzuki et al., 1997. An Adenosine deaminase inhibitor prevents puromycin aminonucleoside nephrotoxicity. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 22: 597-605.
Omary, M.B., P.A. Coulombe and W.H. McLean, 2004. Intermediate filament proteins and their associated diseases. N. Engl. J. Med., 351: 2087-2100.
Rahbar, A.R., I. Nabipour and Z. Amiri, 2007. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum lipids and high sensitivity C reactive protein in cigarette smokers. J. Boil. Sci., 7: 1368-1374.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Ryan, G.B. and M.J. Karnovsky, 1975. An ultrastructural study of the mechanisms of proteinuria in aminonucleoside nephrosis. Kidney Int., 8: 219-232.
Shimizu, H., K. Ohtani, Y. Tanaka, N. Sato, M. Mori and Y. Shimomura, 1995. Long-term effect of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl (EPA-E) on albuminuria of non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 28: 35-40.
Soliman, M.M., Y.A. El-Fattah El-Senosi, O.M.A. El-Hamid, A.El-Desouki Abd El-Mageed, R.S. Ismaeil and H.A. El-Maqsoud Ali, 2009. Nigella sativa modulates cytokines expression in mature bovine adipocytes. Asian J. Biochem., 4: 60-67.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
White, T.W., R. Bruzzone and D.L. Paul, 1995. The connexin family of intercellular channel forming proteins. Kidney Int., 48: 1148-1157.
Yanagida-Asanuma, E., K. Asanuma, K. Kim, M. Donnelly and H.Y. Choi et al., 2007. Synaptopodin protects against proteinuria by disrupting Cdc42:IRSp53: Mena signaling complexes in kidney podocytes. Am. J. Pathol., 171: 415-427.
Yaoita, E., J. Yao, Y. Yoshida, T. Morioka and M. Nameta et al., 2002. Up-regulation of connexin43 in glomerular podocytes in response to injury. Am. J. Pathol., 161: 1597-1606.
Yaoita, E., T. Yamamoto, N. Takashima, K. Kawasaki, H. Kawachi, F. Shimizu and I. Kihara, 1995. Visceral epithelial cells in rat glomerular cell culture. Eur. J. Cell Biol., 67: 136-144.
Yaqoob, P., 2004. Fatty acids and the immune system: From basic science to clinical applications. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 63: 89-104.
Direct Link |
Zhao, Y., S. Joshi-Barve, S. Barve and L.H. Chen, 2004. Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents LPS-induced TNF-α expression by preventing NF-κB activation. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 23: 71-78.
PubMed | Direct Link |
Zou, J., E. Yaoita, Y. Watanabe, Y. Yoshida and M. Nameta, 2006. Upregulation of nestin, vimentin and desmin in rat podocytes in response to injury. Virchows Arch., 448: 485-492.
Zou, J., T.H. Chang, H. Chang, E. Yaoita and Y. Yoshida et al., 2007. Time course of expression of intermediate filament protein vimentin, nestin and desmin in rat renal glomerular injury. Chin. Med. J. (Engl)., 120: 1203-1205.