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Research Article
 

Effect of Racing on Blood Gases Components and Selected Biochemical Variables in Racing Camels (Camelus dromedarius)



Magdy Elgioushy, Enas Noseer, Mohamed Abdo Rizk and Mohamed El-Adl
 
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ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Measurement of blood gas analysis and acid-base balance may be a useful tool for detecting the effect of the exercises on metabolic and respiratory conditions of the animals. This study aimed to investigate the effect of racing on blood gas components and hemato-biochemical variables in racing camels (Camelus dromedarius) with highlighting the correlation between the assessed blood gas components and selected biochemical variables. Materials and Methods: Ten female racing camels aged 3-5 years and weighing 250-300 kg scheduled for a 7 km race were investigated in the present study. Blood samples were collected at 24 h pre-racing (T0), 1 h post-racing (T1) and 24 h post-racing (T2). Results: A significant decrease (p<0.05) in venous bicarbonate (HCO3) concentration, total carbon dioxide (TCO2), oxygen saturation (%) and base excess (BE) levels were observed in camels after racing. Racing in camels exhibited a significant increase (p<0.05) in the serum levels of urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and cortisol. On the other hand, a significant decrease (p<0.05) in iron (Fe), glucose, phosphorus (P) and copper (Cu) sera levels was determined in camels after racing. A strong positive correlations were observed between either blood pH or TCO2 and glucose, between partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and calcium (Ca) and Cu, between HCO3 and glucose and Fe, between BE and glucose, Fe and P and between O2 (%) saturation and Ca. Conclusion: The obtained results revealed that healthy camels subjected to racing are suffered from a condition of metabolic acidosis as well as alterations in hemato-biochemical parameters. Besides, the attained findings helped for the first time to discover the correlation between blood gas components and different biochemical variables in healthy camels.

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  How to cite this article:

Magdy Elgioushy, Enas Noseer, Mohamed Abdo Rizk and Mohamed El-Adl, 2020. Effect of Racing on Blood Gases Components and Selected Biochemical Variables in Racing Camels (Camelus dromedarius). Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 15: 38-44.

DOI: 10.3923/ajava.2020.38.44

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajava.2020.38.44
 
Received: November 29, 2019; Accepted: December 26, 2019; Published: January 31, 2020



INTRODUCTION

Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is one of the oldest multipurpose animal domesticates in arid and semi-arid areas of the world and has an extra ordinary power to withstand thirst and hunger for long duration in the most in hospitable ecological conditions1. Exercise tests represent a tool to assess the physical condition of animals through the analysis of the physiological changes which occur in response to the performed exercise2. The effect of exercise on the animal physiological parameters is depend on the exercise intensity and duration3. Tharwat et al.4 demonstrated that this particular exercise can induce variations in some plasma biochemical constituents and physiological parameters in camels.

Measurement of blood gas analysis and acid-base balance may be a useful tool for detecting the effect of the exercises on metabolic and respiratory conditions of the animals5. Indeed, few researchers had investigated the blood gas analysis in normal female camels and their calves6. However, no study has evaluated the effect of racing on blood gas components and oxygen percent saturation in the venous blood of racing camels. During exercise, the cardiovascular system is exposed to modifications essential to ensure efficient transfer of oxygen and substrates to the muscles and allowing removal of metabolites from muscles5. Therefore, the aim of this study was conducted to evaluate the changes in biochemical parameters including urea, creatinine, total protein (TP), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), creatinine kinase (CK), cardiac tropinine (cTnI), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cortisol, glucose, iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and copper (Cu),with special concern to the blood gas analysis [partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), bicarbonate concentration (HCO3), total carbon dioxide (TCO2), oxygen saturation (%) (O2 (%) saturation) and base excess (BE)] and blood pH in response to intense exercise in camels with determination for the first time the correlation between the assessed blood gas components and selected biochemical variables in racing camels.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area: The current study was performed in Srabioum desert of Ismailia province in Egypt during March, 2018.

Animals and clinical examination: Ten healthy female racing camels (Camelus dromedarius), aged, 3-5 years and weighing 250-300 kg, participated in a 7 km race in free racetrack in Ismailia province in Egypt were used in the current study. The animals used in the study were fed on concentrate feed mixture on the morning and rice straw forage in the afternoon.

All the racing camels received a full clinical examination at 24 h pre-racing as well as at 1 and 24 h post-racing.

Blood sampling: Blood samples were collected from all camels anaerobically through the jugular vein puncture. Ten milliliters of venous blood were collected from each animal at three occasions at 24 h before racing (T0), 1 h after racing (T1) and 24 h after racing (T2). Then, the collected sample was divided as follows, 2 mL were added to a heparinized tube used directly for blood gas analysis, 2 mL were added to a tube with EDTA for hematological examination, 1 mL was added to a tube with sodium fluoride for determination of plasma glucose and 5 mL were placed in a tube without anticoagulant for serum separation. Serum and plasma were separated within 2 h from blood collection and serum was stored at -20°C until biochemical analysis.

Blood gas analysis: Blood gas analysis was carried out using (ABL80 FLEX CO-OX analyze, Radiometer, USA) following the instructions of the manufacturer.

Hematological analysis: Hematological parameters analysis were performed using an automatic cell counter using Exigo vet (Boule Medical AB, Sweden). The measured hematological parameters were, total and differential leucocyte count, red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (HGB) concentration, hematocrit (HCT) value, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).

Biochemical analysis: Urea was colorimetrically determined according to Chaney and Marbach7 where a blue color was formed as a result of the producing indophenol derivatives. Jaffe test was used for the determination of serum creatinine concentration8. Serum liver GPT and GOT were estimated according to the protocol previously described by Reitman and Frankel9. Serum GGT and LDH activities were colorimetrically detected using the techniques earlier described by Szasz10 and Amador et al.11, respectively. The activity of CK was determined spectrophotometrically12 at 340 nm. Plasma glucose was determined with the action of glucose oxidase enzymatic activity13. Serum Fe, Ca, P and Cu were determined spectrophotometrically14-16, respectively. Serum cTnI and cortisol were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent reagent kits (I-stat, cTnI, Abaxis, CA, USA) and (Diagnostic biochem Canada, Canada) according to the manufacturer’s instructions, respectively.

Statistical analysis: For statistical evaluation of pre and post-racing parameters, data were subjected to repeated measures ANOVA to determine the main effect of time. Data are presented as mean±standard error of the mean (SEM). Pearson correlation test coefficient was used to test the relation between the blood gas components and biochemical variables in racing camels (Camelus dromedarius). Differences between means at (p<0.05) were considered significant. All statistical analysis was performed using the statistical software (JMP for Windows Version 5.1, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA)17.

RESULTS

In the present study, the impact of racing on clinical parameters, blood gas components, hematological and biochemical variables were estimated in racing camels pre-racing as well as at 1 and 24 h post-racing. The results revealed a significant elevation (p<0.05) in rectal temperature, respiratory rate and heart rate at 1 h post-racing in comparison with those pre-racing (Table 1). The impact of racing on venous blood gas components in camels showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in HCO3, TCO2, O2 (%) saturation and BE at 1 h and 24 h post-racing in comparison with those pre-racing (Table 2). Furthermore, a significant decrease (p<0.05) was observed in pCO2 level in the venous blood of camels at 1 h post-racing in comparison with those pre-racing (Table 2). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and pH levels in the venous blood of camels pre- and post- racing (Table 2).

For hematological variables, 1 h post-racing showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in neutrophil count and MCHC (Table 3). On the contrary, no significant differences (p>0.05) were detected in the other selected hematological parameters (leukocytic count, lymphocytes count, RBCs count, HGB, HCT, MCV and MCH) in camels pre and post-racing (Table 3).

For biochemical variables, 1 and 24 h post-racing exhibited a significant increase (p<0.05) in the serum levels of urea, GOT, CK and LDH (Table 4). Moreover, a significant increase (p<0.05) in cortisol serum levels was observed at 1 h post-racing in compared with pre-racing (Table 4). On the other hand, racing in camels leading to a significant decrease (p<0.05) in Fe, glucose, P and Cu serum levels (Table 4). Non-significant differences (p>0.05) in serum creatinine (Table 4), total protein, GPT, GGT (Table 4), cTnI (Table 4) and Ca (Table 4) levels were perceived in camels before and after racing.

Table 1:
Physiological parameters in camels exposed to pre and post-racing
Variables with different superscript letters in the same row are significantly different at p<0.05, the obtained values represent the mean and SEM in each group, T0: Pre-racing, T1: 1 h post-racing, T2: 24 h post-racing

Table 2:
Blood gas analysis in camels exposed to pre- and post-racing
Variables with different superscript letters in the same row are significantly different at p<0.05, the obtained values represent the mean and SEM in each group, T0: Pre-racing, T1: 1 h post-racing, T2: 24 h post-racing, pCO2: Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, HCO3: Bicarbonate concentration, TCO2: Total carbon dioxide, O2 (%) saturation: Oxygen saturation (%), BE: Base excess

Table 3:
Haematological parameters in camels exposed to pre and post-racing
Variables with different superscript letters in the same row are significantly different at p<0.05, the obtained values represent the mean and SEM in each group, T0: Pre-racing, T1: 1 h post-racing, T2: 24 h post-racing, RBCs: Red blood cells, HGB: Hemoglobin concentration, HCT: Hematocrit value, MCV: Mean corpuscular volume, MCH: Mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC: Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration

The correlation between assessed blood gas components and biochemical variables in racing camels (Camelus dromedarius) revealed significant positive correlations (p<0.05) between either blood pH or TCO2 with glucose, between pCO2 with Ca and Cu, between either HCO3 or BE with glucose, Fe and P and between O2 (%) saturation with Ca (Table 5). On the contrary, significant negative correlations (p<0.05) between blood pH with cortisol, between pCO2 with GOT, CK and LDH, between HCO3, with urea, creatinine, GOT, CK, LDH and cortisol, betweenTCO2 with urea, creatinine, GPT, GGT, cTnI and cortisol, between O2 (%) saturation with urea, creatinine, TP, GOT, CK and between BE with creatinine and GOT (Table 5) were determined. The strongest positive correlations (r>0.70) were observed between either blood pH or TCO2 and glucose, between pCO2 and Ca and Cu, between HCO3, glucose and Fe, between BE with glucose, Fe and P and between O2 (%) saturation and Ca (Table 5).

Table 4:
Biochemical variables in camels exposed to pre and post-racing
Variables with different superscript letters in the same row are significantly different at p<0.05, the obtained values represent the mean and SEM in each group, T0: Pre-racing, T1: 1 h post-racing, T2: 24 h post-racing, GPT: Glutamic pyruvic transaminase, GGT: Gamma-glutamyltransferase, GOT: Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, LDH: Lactate dehydrogenase, Fe: Iron, Ca: Calcium, P: Phosphorus, Cu: Copper

Table 5:
Correlation between blood gas components and biochemical variables in racing camels (Camelus dromedarius)
ra: Pearson correlation test coefficient between the blood gas components and the selected biochemical variables in racing camels (Camelus dromedarius), pb: p<0.05 is considered statistically significant differences

DISCUSSION

In the present study, the effect of racing on hemato-biochemical parameters with special concern for the blood gas analysis and blood pH in response to intense exercise in camels was investigated. There is paucity on the effect of exercise on the changes in blood gas analysis in the racing camels. Therefore, this study monitored the effect of racing on the pCO2, HCO3, pH in the blood of racing camels. Our results revealed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in HCO3, pCO2, TCO2, O2 (%) saturation and BE in camels after exercise. These results are in harmony with the findings previously reported by Aguilera-Tejero et al.18, Fazio et al.19 and Robergs20 in racing horses.

In fact, severe exercise is usually associated with heavy muscle contraction and anaerobic oxidation21 with hyperventilation22. Such two events that associated with severe exercise might explain the significant decrease (p<0.05) in HCO3, pCO2, TCO2 and BE that observed in the present study. The anaerobic oxidation in the muscle of camels under study was confirmed by the significant elevation (p<0.05) in the serum level of LDH.

It is well known that, the oxygen consumption is simultaneously increase with the increase in the exercise severity23. Such fact might explain the significant decrease (p<0.05) in O2 (%) saturation level that observed in this study.

The significant increase (p<0.05) in MCHC at 1 h post-racing is in harmony with that previously reported by Coenen et al.24, who reported a significant increase (p<0.05) in MCHC level with light exercise in Thoroughbred horses. In general, HCT and TP serum concentrations are often used as indicators for the presence of dehydration25,26. Therefore, the non-significant decrease (p> 0.05) in HCT and TP levels are an indicator to that the camels enrolled in this study are not suffering from dehydration.

Creatine kinase activity in the blood is a good indicator of exercise-induced muscle damage26. Subsequently, the significant increase (p<0.05) in CK, GOT and LDH levels that detected in the present study in camel serum post racing confirmed the muscle damage associated with exercise in camels. These findings are nearly similar to those observed by Kanter et al.27 in human after the marathon and in pigs post-racing28. The insignificant increase (p>0.05) in serum cTnI concentrations at 1 h post-racing in camels that detected in this study is similar to that previously observed in racing horses by Durando et al.29. On the contrary, Tharwat et al.4 observed a significant increase (p<0.05) in cTnI in post-racing camel as compared with 24 h pre-racing in a race for 5 km. Such discrepancy indicates further studies are required to elucidate the effect of racing on the cardiac function in camels.

The significant increase (p<0.05) in the plasma cortisol level at 1h post-racing in camels under study is similar to those previously reported in sports horses after physical exercise30,31. Such increase in the cortisol level could be explained as follows, during exercise, both the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are activated to improve oxygen delivery to the working muscles. The activation of these systems is demonstrated by rapid increases in the circulating levels of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline, permitting these hormones to be utilized in the evaluation of exercise-induced stress32,33.

In the current study, a significant decrease (p<0.05) in glucose and copper levels was observed in camels after exercise. Such findings are in harmony with previous studies by Savas34 and Snow et al.35 evaluated the effect of racing on in horses. The decrease in plasma glucose levels which is related to endurance exercises might be attributed to the depletion of total body glycogen stores as previously proven by Rapoport et al.36. The decrease in serum copper level might be attributed to the large increase in excretion of copper in urine, sweat and feces due to the exercise37.

The significant decrease (p<0.05) in serum iron level after exercise that observed in our study might be attributed to the iron loss due to the excessive sweating during the exercise. Moreover, plasma volume expansion as a result of exercise may induce a decrease in serum iron level in the horse38. The significant decrease (p<0.05) in serum p level that detected in camels in the study might be attributed to the utilization of P in the production of ATP as previously clarified in study performed in horses by Shahsavar et al.39.

It should be noted that there are some limitations to the present study. The interpretations of the results that obtained in the current study is depending on theories previous established in racing horses. Therefore, future studies are required to confirm all of these assumptions in racing camels which help in obtaining a concrete conclusion. Also, the obtained findings revealed significant correlations (p<0.05) between the assessed blood gas components and the selected biochemical variables. While, the explanations of such correlation are still unknown. Subsequently, further studies are warranted to understand these relationships in camels.

CONCLUSION

For the first time the impact of racing on blood gas components in racing camels was determined in the present study. The obtained findings revealed that similar to horses, exercise in camels has a great impact on blood gas components and oxygen percent saturation in venous blood in racing camels, where, metabolic acidosis and more severe stress were observed after racing in camels. Additionally, the correlation between blood gas components and selected biochemical parameters revealed a strong positive correlations between either blood pH or TCO2 with glucose, between pCO2 with Ca and Cu, between HCO3 with glucose and Fe, between BE with glucose, Fe and P and between O2 (%) saturation with Ca.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

No study has evaluated the effect of racing on blood gas components and oxygen percent saturation in the venous blood of racing camels. The obtained results revealed that healthy camels subjected to racing are suffered from a condition of metabolic acidosis as well as alterations in hemato-biochemical parameters. Besides, the attained findings helped for the first time to discover the correlation between blood gas components and different biochemical variables in healthy camels.

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