The Polymorphisms of Goat THRSP Gene Associated with Ecological Factors in Chinese Indigenous Goat Breeds with Different Lipogenesis Ability
THRSP gene has been regarded as a candidate gene for lipogenesis in domestic animals. To understand the association of THRSP gene with habitats and fatty deposits in goat breeds, the polymorphisms of goat THRSP gene, the fat content of goat carcass and their association with the ecological factors were investigated. The Chinese indigenous goat breeds selected were Guishan, Yunling, Chuandong, Banjiao, Xiangdong, Matou and Anhui white goat. The polymorphisms in the 5 regulatory region and exon 1 of THRSP gene were analyzed using PCR-RFLP. The longissimus Muscle Fat Grade (MFG) and Carcass Fat Grade (CFG) of all goat breeds were estimated. The observed data of ecological factors were provided by the meteorological observatory in the goat habitats which included Average Daily Rainfall (ADR), Elevation (E), average Daily Sunshine Duration (DSD), Latitude (LAT) and longitude. E/LAT, ADRxDSD and SCxEC were regarded as Space Coefficient (SC), Energy Coefficient (EC) and Ecological Index (EI), respectively. The results showed that three mutational sites, C-233T, G113A and A138G, were detected. Nine genotypes in all goat breeds were only found, of which the frequencies of TCAAGG, TTGAAG and TTAAGG genotype were lower than 0.05. The EC significantly related to CAG haplotype frequency (0.8859, p<0.01) and the associations of EI with TGA haplotype frequency was significant (-0.8377, p<0.025). In the four haplotype frequencies, the relationship between CAG haplotype frequency and MFG was significant (-0.8633, p<0.025). The results suggest that the polymorphism of goat THRSP gene may be associated with the ecological factors and affect the goat lipogenesis ability.
to cite this article:
Hong-Quan Chen, Jie Qin, Yin-Jian Zhu, Zhong-Ting Pan, Ya-Nan Xie, Ming-Hui Jiao, Gong-Wei Chen, Hua Chen and Ming-Xing Chu, 2012. The Polymorphisms of Goat THRSP Gene Associated with Ecological Factors in Chinese Indigenous Goat Breeds with Different Lipogenesis Ability. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 7: 802-811.
Received: February 26, 2012;
Accepted: April 09, 2012;
Published: May 10, 2012
The domestic goats originated in the wild goat ancestor inhabiting in mountainous
area and being constantly domesticated (Zeder and Hesse,
2000). There are more than 150 goat breeds in the world which can be divided
into the milk, fiber, skins, meat and dual-purpose categories depending on their
use (Coffey et al., 2004; Pal
et al., 2011; Fang et al., 2010).
China has vast land with complex terrain and climate from north to south across
the frigid, temperate and torrid zones and the Chinese indigenous goat breeds
nearly 50, according to Tu et al., (1989). With
the need of the consumers to mutton in China, the proportion of goat meat rosed
up from 40% in 2000 to 45% in 2010. The consumption of goat meat is changing
from the quantity to the quality. However, the goat breeds from different habitats
differ significantly in the meat quality, business grades, taste, flavor and
juiciness which result in the problems in the prices of goat meat and the economic
profits of the producers (Sebsibe, 2008). Seven Chinese
indigenous goat populations were investigated with different meat quality in
this study: these goat breeds distributed among the Central China, East China
and Southwest region (Zhang, 1994), of which some goat
breeds have a strong adaptability to the habitats with high mountains, forest
and abundant rainfall while others prefer the hilly land on the lower slopes
of mountains and the habitats with cool and relatively dry climate (Liu
and Feng, 1993).
The key factors affecting the meat quality are environmental factors and genetic
factors (Hardini and Djunaidi, 2010; Askari-Hemmat,
2006; Orhan and Kaygisiz, 2009). In the investigation
of the genetic mechanism of animal fat metabolism, the genes of some enzymes
(Wakil and Abu-Elheiga, 2009) and hormones (Etherton,
2000; Paracchini et al., 2005) in fat metabolism
and physiological regulation were analyzed and some molecular markers associated
with meat fat content were found which provided the scientific basis in the
improvement of important economic characters of goat breeds (Esmaeelkhanian
et al., 2007). Recently, the role of thyroid hormone responsive spot
14 (THRSP) in lipogenesis caused the attention of researchers (Zhou
et al., 2011). THRSP gene is localized to human chromosome 11 q13.5
region implicated in obesity. The mutation of THRSP gene can cause the obstacles
of fat metabolism and disorders of lipogenesis in the body which affect meat
quality of animals. At present, the research of THRSP gene was mainly on people,
rats and mice and changed to chicken, duck, pig and cattle (Chou
et al., 2007; Chen, 2010) but the reports
were very few in goat. In ecological environment, some reports showed that the
diversity of animal breeds was influenced by the space factors such as elevation
and latitude and the energy factors, for example, sunshine duration, average
rainfall and temperature (Whittaker, 1977; Rohde,
1992). The ecological factors play an important role in the cultivated process
of animal breed via affecting the metabolic and physical regulation of the body.
However, the association of ecological factors with goat THRSP gene yet remains
Based on goat breeds with special habitats, this paper analyzed the polymorphisms of goat THRSP gene and their distribution patterns with ecological factors and investigated the association of the THRSP gene polymorphism with goat fatty deposits and ecological factors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Animal sample collection: Seven native goat breeds selected derived from their habitats in China, respectively which are Guishan goat (GS) from Wanjiahuan goat breeding farm of Shilin Yi Nationality Autonomous County (Yunnan, n = 47), Yunling black goat (YL) from Yunnan goat breeding farm of Xundian County (Yunnan, n = 47), Chuandong white goat (CD) from Yikouxian goat breeding farm of Yunyang County (Chongqing, n = 48), Banjiao goat (BJ) from Banjiao goat breeding farm of Wuxi County (Chongqing, n = 44), Xiangdong black goat (XD) from Xiangdong black goat sheep stud of Changsha (Hunan, n = 51), Matou goat (MT) from Matou goat breed conservation field of Shimen County (Hunan, n = 93) and Anhui white goat (AW) from Boda Feidong sheep stud (Anhui, n = 122). Genomic DNA samples from the ears tissues of all goats were extracted using DNA extraction reagent box (Beijing Tiangen Biotechnology, China) and stored at 4°C.
Data collection of ecological factors: The observed data of ecological factors were provided by the meteorological observatory in the habitats of seven native goat breeds in 2001 to 2011 which include Average Daily Rainfall (ADR), Elevation (E), average Daily Sunshine Duration (DSD), Latitude (LAT) and Longitude (LON). LAT and E are the space factors in animal diversity. ADR and DSD are the energy factors. Given: E/LAT was regarded as Space Coefficient (SC), ADRxDSD was regarded as Energy Coefficient (EC) and SCxEC was regarded as Ecological Index (EI).
Assessment of goat meat grade: The Muscle Fat Grade (MFG) of goat breed
was estimated according to the fat content of goat longissimus muscle and less
than 1.0% in the muscle as level 1, then each additional 0.5% to improve a grade,
respectively. The Carcass Fat Grade (CFG) was assessed based on the fat content
of goat carcass and less than 10.0% in the carcass as level 1, then each additional
1.0% to improve a grade, respectively (Jin et al.,
Detection of polymorphisms
Primers: Based on the sequence of cattle THRSP gene (GenBank AY 656814),
two pairs of primers, S1 and S2, were designed using the Primer Premier 5.0
program which were employed for amplifying the fragments containing the 5
partial regulatory region and the exon 1 of goat THRSP gene, respectively. Then
two pairs of primers, TP1 and TP2, were designed for analyzing the Restriction
Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of PCR products of S1 and S2, respectively.
All primers were synthesized by Shanghai Bioengineering Inc. (Shanghai, China).
The sequences of four pairs of primers were as follows:
||Sense 5- GGGTCAATGGTGAAGACGAAGCT-3,
Anti-sense 5- GCCAAGTACCGGTCCATGACG-3
||Sense 5- ATTGGCCTAAAAGAGGGCTATGT -3,
Anti-sense 5- CTCAATACTCAAAAGCGAGGGTG -3
||Sense 5- CTCTAAATGGCTCTGCAAGCTGATG-3,
Anti-sense 5- TAGCCCTCTTTTAGGCCAATCCTAG-3
||Sense 5- CTCTAAATGGCTCTGCAAGCTGATG-3,
Anti-sense 5- GCCCCAATACCCTCTCTTCCT-3
PCR-RFLP: PCR was carried out using 25 μL, PCR amplification kits: 1.0 μL (10 μM) of each primer, 2.5 μL of 10xbuffer with Mg2+, 2.0 μL dNTP (2.5 mM), 0.5 μL (5 units μL-1) Taq DNA polymerase (Beijing TransGen Biotech Co., Ltd. China), 1.0 μL of genomic DNA (50 ng μL-1) and 17.0 μL double-distilled H2O. Amplification conditions were: initial denaturation of 5 min at 94°C; 35 cycles of 94°C for 30 sec., 30 sec. at 58°C for TP1 (at 57°C for TP2) and 72°C for 50 sec., followed by 72°C extension for 10 min. The PCR products were detected using 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR products of mixed samples of goat DNA were submitted to the Shanghai Invitrogen Biological Company for sequencing. According to sequencing results, three restriction enzymes, NIa III, Pst I and Kpn I (MBI), were selected for RFLP analysis.
Statistical analysis: A pair of allele frequencies were calculated by
p = D+0.5 H and q = 1-p in which D is the homozygous frequency and H is the
heterozygous frequency (Chen et al., 2011a; Zhou
et al., 2011). The linkage disequilibrium between two loci, the coefficients
of linkage disequilibrium (D and r2) and the haplotype frequencies
were analyzed via http://www.oege.org/software/cubex/.
The sequence alignment was analyzed via http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/.
The promoter and transcription factors binding loci were predicted using Signal
The correlation coefficients between the gene frequencies and the MFG, CFG and
ecological factors were calculated and evaluated for p = 0.05 significant relationship
using students t-test.
Sequence analysis: The fragment lengths of the products with S1 and
S2 primers were 1105 bp and 715 bp, respectively and the sequences were published
in GenBank (No. JN684754). Comparing the nucleotide sequences in the 5' regulatory
region of goat THRSP gene with cattle and human, the homologies were 97% and
80%, respectively and 88% and 95% in the exon 1 with pig and cattle. The potential
promoter region predicted located in -81~-32 bp upstream of the Start Codon
(USC) of the THRSP gene in Fig. 1.
||Sequence characters of promoter region and exon 1 of goat
THRSP gene. The primers with same names in the arrow on the right (upstream
primer) or left side (downstream primer) are a pair of primers and the region
between upstream and down stream primers is the DNA sequence. The sequence
with capital letters is the promoter predicted. The AGGCAGTCAC sequence
was binding motif for NF-κB transcription factors in which the GTCAC
was R-box for bHLH-H-lcucine (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors binding site.
The CDS length of THRSP gene is 453 bp, The C/T (C-233T), G/A (G113A) and
A/G (A138G) are the polymorphic loci. C to T at C-233T results in the binding
site disappeared and G° A at G113A leads to the arginine replaced by
glutamine at 38th of THRSP protein but there was no amino acid change at
||The distribution of seven native goat breeds in China.
is provincial capital in China. The positions of GS, YL, CD, BJ, MT, XD
and AW are the habitats of Guishan goat, Yunling black goat, Chuandong white
goat, Banjiao goat, Matou goat Xiangdong black goat and Anhui white goat,
respectively. The river is Yangtzi river
||The frequencies of genotype and haplotype and the coefficients
of linkage disequilibrium of C-233T, G113A and A138G sites and their distribution
in seven goat breeds
|GS: Guishan goat, YL: Yunling black goat, CD: Chuandong white
goat, BJ: Banjiao goat, XD: Xiangdong black goat, MT: Matou goat and AW:
Anhui white goat
In the 5' regulatory region, there are nine E-boxes for basic Helix-loop-helix
(bHLH) transcription factor binding site, one CCAAT box and two ATTGG boxes.
AGGCAGTCAC sequence located in -242 bp~-233 bp USC was NF-κB transcription
factors binding site and contained one R-box (GTCAC) for bHLH-leucine zipper
(bHLH-Zip) transcription factor binding site that regulated lipid synthesis
in Eukaryotic cells. In the seven goat breeds, a mutation site was detected
in the 5 regulatory region located at -233 bp USC (C-233T).
|| The correlation coefficients between the ecological factors
and the haplotype frequencies
|SC: LOG/LAT, EC: ADRxDSD, EI: SCxEC, *0.05<p<0.1, **0.025<p<0.05,
According to the sequence of exon 1, goat THRSP protein was composed of 150 amino acids and contained three protein kinase C phosphorylation sites and one casein kinase II phosphorylation site. Two mutations were founded in coding region. One was located at 113 bp of the CDS of THRSP gene (G113A) and another was located at 138 bp (A138 G). The former, nucleotide changed from G to A, led to amino acid substitute at 38th of THRSP protein from arginine to glutamine but there was no amino acid change in the later. Theory isoelectric point and unstability coefficient of THRSP protein with arginine were 5.88 and 32.45, respectively while those with glutamine were 5.72 and 34.62.
Polymorphism distribution: After the PCR products digested with NIa III, Pst I and Kpn I for C-233T, G113A and A138G sites, respectively, the linkage genotype frequencies of all goat breeds were calculated in Table 1. Nine genotypes were only found in seven goat breeds, of which the frequencies of TCAAGG, TTGAAG and TTAAGG genotype were lower than 0.05. The genotypic frequency of TCGAAG in XD was higher, 0.4510 and gradually reduced to 0.1489 from MT, AW, YL, CD, GS to BJ. However, the frequency distribution of TCGGAA genotype in seven goat breeds was contrary to that of TCGAAG genotype. The genotypic frequencies, moreover, of TTGGAA in CD and AW were higher than 0.30. The TAG haplotype frequencies were lower than 0.036 in all goat breeds while the TGA haplotype frequencies in CD, AW and MT were 0.6667, 0.5793 and 0.5079, respectively. From the coefficients of linkage disequilibrium among C-233T, G113A and A138G sites, CD, YL and XD were in complete linkage disequilibrium and AW, MT, BJ and GS in the some degree linkage disequilibrium.
Association of haplotype frequencies with ecological factors: Seven goat breeds were distributed between 24 to 36°0' north latitude and 103 to 117°50' longitude east (Fig. 2). The correlation coefficients between the ecological factors and the haplotype frequencies were listed in Table 2. The CAG haplotype frequency rose with the increase of ADR and EC and the relationship (0.8859) between EC and CAG haplotype frequency achieved at the significant level of 0.01. In the negative effects of E, SC and EI on TGA haplotype frequency, the association of EI with TGA haplotype frequency was significant (-0.8377, p<0.025).
From Table 2, the association of the ecological factors with
CFG was stronger than that with MFG in which the increase of CFG was with the
increase of LAT and the decrease of EI (-0.7669, p<0.05), EC, SC and E. In
the association of four haplotype frequencies with CFG and MFG, the association
of CAG haplotype frequency with MFG (-0.8633) was significant (p<0.025) while
that with CFG (-0.7390) at p<0.1.
The differences of meat quality among goat breeds are the results of the long-term
natural and artificial selection, the essence of which is the differences of
the gene frequencies among the breeds (Chen et al.,
2011b). The adaptability of fat metabolism to ecological environment in
different goat breeds may be due to the compliant changes of THRSP gene under
the double selection pressures whose expression is limited to liver and adipose
tissue and is controlled by nutritional and hormonal factors. These conclusions
were in agreement with the THRSP gene frequency distribution in this paper.
The THRSP interacting with Mid1-interacting protein 1 (Kim
et al., 2010a) interferes with Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha
binding (Brownsey et al., 1997) for the regulation
of lipogenesis. Obviously, THRSP was suggested as a transcription factor to
regulate gene expression of rate-limiting enzymes in lipogenesis (Decuypere
et al., 2005). The polymorphisms of THRSP gene result in the diversity
of fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis in animal tissue. For example, the marbling
of longissimus dorsi (Wang et al., 2005) and
the muscle fat content were proportional to the expression level of THRSP gene
in cattle (Wang et al., 2009; Graugnard
et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2011;
Chen, 2010) found the association of pigs fatty
deposit with THRSP gene polymorphism. The fat traits of chicken were related
to the polymorphisms of chicken THRSP α gene (DAndre
Hirwa et al., 2009).
The three polymorphism sites of goat THRSP gene in this paper, C-233T, G113A
and A138G, might result from the meaningful response of goat to ecological factors
and directional selection in body's physiological and biochemical function.
The AGGCAGTCAC sequence of C-233T containing an R-box is the binding site of
the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) transcription factor that is found in
almost all animal cell types and is involved in cellular responses to stimuli
such as stress, ultraviolet irradiation (Wu et al.,
2004; Kim et al., 2010b), free radicals (Xu
et al., 1999; Baranisrinivasan et al.,
2009; Kriete et al., 2010) and cytokines (Salari
and Abdollahi, 2011). When C→T at C-233T site, the binding motif of
NF-κB changed to AGGCAGTCAT and the R-box disappeared. It might imply that
the expresses of THRSP gene relate to the resistance to the stress from the
ecological factors. From the haplotype distribution in different goat breeds,
the goat breeds with higher EC had higher frequency of CAG haplotype (r = 0.8859,
p<0.01) containing NF-κB binding site for the responses to stimuli in
habitat such as the increase of ultraviolet irradiation duration while the goat
breeds with higher EI had lower frequency of TAG haplotype (r = -0.8377, p<0.025).
In the association, moreover, of the CAG haplotype frequency with MFG (r = -0.8633,
p<0.025) and CFG (r = -0.7390, p<0.1), the goat breeds with lower frequencies
of NF-κB binding sites had more fat in the muscle and carcass. The results
in this investigation indicated that the adaptability of goat to ecological
environment in habitat depended on the change of THRSP gene in fat metabolism
regulation for reducing fatty deposits in muscle and carcass of goat.
According to the results of this study, the SC, EC and EI are three ecological
factors affecting the frequencies of CAG and TGA haplotypes of goat THRSP gene
associated with MFG and CFG levels of goats. EC was significantly proportional
to the frequency of CAG haplotype while EI was inversely proportional to the
frequency of TGA haplotype. The results suggest that the polymorphism of goat
THRSP gene may be associated with the ecological factors and affect the goat
fatty deposits ability.
The work was supported by The Modern Technology System of National Sheep Industry (nycytx-39), The Modern Technology System of Sheep Industry of Anhui Province and New Varieties of GMO Cultivation of Major Projects of the Ministry of Agriculture (2009ZX08008-007B).
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