The Effect of Bilateral Crossbreeding between Arkhamerino and Ghezel Sheep on the Quality of Wool of Their F1 Crosses
In order to study the effect of bilateral crossbreeding between Arkhamerino (Ar) and Ghezel (G) sheep on the quality of wool produced by their F1 crosses, 16 ArkhamerinoxGhezel (ArG) F1 sheep and 53 GhezelxArkhamerino (GAr) F1 sheep were sampled. Fiber Diameter (FD), Coefficient of variation of fiber diameter (CVf) and Staple Length (SL) were traits measured on wool samples. The variations between obtained data were analyzed for genotype, sex and birth type. The results showed that the FD was not affected by any of the factors in model. Genotype, had significant effect on CVf and SL (p<0.01) and the effect of sex on the SL was significant (p<0.01). Also twin F1s produced longer staples than single crosses (p<0.01). Bilateral crossbreeding between Ar and Gh sheep did not make considerable changes in FD of wool produced by their F1 crossbreds but CVf and SL of wool have been influenced.
In developing countries, raising sheep and goat due to their good adaptation
to the poor feeding conditions, has increased. This is why the sheep and goat
raising is an important branch of domestic industry (Odabasogluo
et al., 2009). As a result, the necessity of raising animals those
have the potential for higher production to be felt. Crossbreeding programs
are designed with the aim to increase livestock production capability through
the use of genetic potential of breeds and heterosis effects from their crossbreds
on important economic traits (Lupton et al., 2004).
In sheep and goat, many crossbreeding experiments have been conducted that typically
but not always are mainly focused on improving meat and lamb production. Since
milk and wool production are known as a product of interest in sheep and goat,
it is recommended that in crossbreeding programs factors such as wool production
and quality, should be considered (Lupton et al.,
2004). In the most of crossbreeding programs, having the highest hybrid
vigor in F1 crosses is very important. Also some traits may influenced
by the breed of mother or sire of crosses (Pitchford, 1992).
It seems that doing bilateral crossbreeding between parents may makes different
hybrid vaguer in offspring.
In this study, the objective was to see if bilateral crossbreeding between parents affected the quality of wool of F1 crosses and whether relocation parents, was able to create changes in wool traits.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
General experimental design: This study was conducted in Agriculture
Research Institute of Khalat Poushan (University of Tabriz, Iran) in 2002. Sheep
raised under semi-intensive breeding system with the same management conditions.
During the spring, summer and autumn sheep grazed in local pastures. During
winter they were fed Barley grain as extra food. Tow flock of Arkhamerino and
Ghezel sheep crossed.
Arkhamerino (Ar) is a fine wool breed that synthesized in Kurminitsky Research Institute of Kazakistan by crossing between Arkhar rames and Merino ewes. The fleece of this breed is a suitable material in textile industry.
Ghezel (G) is a native sheep from East Azebijan province of Iran that produces coarse and colorful wool but it is well adapted to the mountainous condition of this state.
Wool measurements: Wool samples collected from mid- side of 16 ArG F1
sheep (Ar as maternal and G as paternal) and 53 GAr F1 sheep (G as
maternal and Ar as paternal) at 15 month age (Tabbaa et
al., 2001). Samples sent to the Wool and Skin Research Laboratory (University
of Tabriz) and 3 staples removed from random positions in each sample and measured
using a standard method (ASTM, 1996). Mean values of
Subsequently samples washed. Clean samples were minicored to produce short
pieces of fiber, approximately 2 mm in length by using wool microtum and measured
for mean fiber diameter and SD (Lupton, 1995) using
a Projection Microscope (BK2 4014, with power zoom of 300X) and a standard method
(ASTM, 1989). For each sample CVf calculated (McGregor
and Butler, 2009).
Statistical analysis: Data collected on F1 crosses were analyzed
using the fix model of variance procedure in SAS version 6.12 (SAS,
1989; Soltani, 1996). Statistical model used was:
In this model Ai: effect of Genotype, Sj: effect of sex and Tk: effect of birth type.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In Table 1, the least square mean values of wool traits separated by factors in model are shown. ArG and GAr had same FD but GAr crosses produced longer staples with higher CVf. F1's had no significant difference in FD and CVf in both sexes but F1 ewes had higher SL. Also single and twine crosses produced fibers with similar diameter despite singles produced longer fibers.
|| Least square mean values of wool traits separated by the
factors in model
|**Significant probability at 0.01
Genotype: Genotype had no effect on FD of fibers produced by two crossbred
groups. Taherpour et al. (2000) in comparison
of wool of Iranian and Saffulk F1 crossbreds and Brash
et al. (1994) in their evaluation of direct and maternal genetic
effects on wool quality, reported that genotype had no effect on FD. Sidwel
et al. (1971) showed that FD did not influenced by genotype but Lupton
et al. (2004) compared wool of Dorset, Finnsheep, Romanov, Texel
and Montadal crossbreds and indicated the effect of genotype on FD. Chougulae
et al. (1988) reported that genotype significantly affected FD in
Deccani, Merino and Dorset crossbreds. Also they indicated MerinoxDeccani crossbreds
had finner wool than DeccanixDorset sheep. Ganai and Pandey
(1993) in their experiment, crossbreeding between Rambouillet and Australian
Merino with Indian breeds, showed that FD influenced by genotype and Merino
crossbreds had lower FD. Odabasogluo et al. (2009)
suggested that genotype had effect on FD of Angora goatxColored Mohair goat
Cvf influenced by genotype (p<0.01) and ArG crossbreds produced fibers with
lower CVf. Sidwel et al. (1971) crossed some
pure English breeds and showed that genotype significantly affected CVf in F1
Sl differed between tow F1 groups (p<0.01) and ArG sheep had
longer SL. Chougulae et al. (1988) indicated
that Deccanix Merino F1 crosses had longer SL than DeccanixDorset. Ganai
and Pandey (1993) and Lupton et al. (2004)
reported that genotype had effect on SL.
Sex: Sex had significant effect on SL (p<0.01) and F1 ewes had longer staples.
Kahyayi (2001) in his estimation of genetic and phenotypic
parameters of Moghani sheep and Tabbaa et al. (2001)
in evaluation of fleece characteristics of Awassi sheep, reported same results
but Odabasogluo et al. (2009) and
Taherpour and Salehi (2000) indicated no effect of sex on SL.
Birth type: Birth type affected SL (p<0.01) and single F1
crosses had longer staples. Aimone et al. (1999)
measured shorter SL in MerinoxRambouillet single F1 crosses. Sidwel
et al. (1971) and Ganai and Pandey (1993)
showed that birth type had no effect on FD.
As a general conclusion, it seems that bilateral crossbreeding between Arkhamerino and Ghezel sheep did not make considerable changes in FD of wool produced by their F1 crossbreds, but CVf and SL of tow crossbred groups influenced.
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