A Study on Selection and Identification of Table Fig Types in East Edge of Firat River
The objectives of this study were select, define, preserve and disseminate the productions of fig types of good quality for fresh consumption. Turkey has a great variation and distribution with respect to both cultivar and wild fig forms. Although East Edge of Fırat River has a special importance in respect to the fig genetic resources, no studies have been made about selection and identification of them in the area by researchers up to now. This study was carried out according to the weighted ranked method during years 2006-2007. According to this ranked method, in 60 fig types, seven fig types which had higher scores were selected and they were identificated in detail according to descriptors for fig of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. In these types, it was determined that fruit weight was changed between 60.75 and 27.31 g, fruit width was changed between 54.41 and 35.12 mm and TSS ratio changed between 28.87 and 17.68%, titrable acidity was changed between 0.21 and 0.29%. These table fig types which had the higher scores were identificated as detail with respect to some properties such as tree growth habit, tree vigour, relative degree of branching, full maturity, ostiolum width, peeling of skin, scale size of scales around the ostiolum, fruit skin cracks, petiole color and pulp internal color.
Received: April 04, 2010;
Accepted: June 02, 2010;
Published: July 10, 2010
Fig is one of the most significant fruit species grown in the Mediterranean
countries (Condit, 1947). Some temperate fruit species
of horticultural as well as figs are also originated in Turkey (Kuden,
1995). West, North and South regions of Turkey contain rich fig germplasm
(Aksoy et al., 1992; Kuden
et al., 1995; Bostan et al., 1997;
Kuden and Tanriver, 1997). The fig is widely grown and
extended to the South East Anatolia, the Aegean and the Mediterranean regions
The total fig production of Turkey is 290.151 tons (Anonymous,
2006). In general, the fig has long been cultivated in Anatolia for dry
consumption. Therefore, a lot of the research has been directed toward to the
problems of dry fig culture. But, there has been a big demand for fresh figs
in the European markets recently. Therefore, the fresh figs from Turkey should
have a big market in the very near future (Polat and Ozkaya,
Bursa are the largest fresh fig region in Turkey with extensive fresh fig exports
(Ozeker and Isfandiyaroglu, 1998). However, Turkeys
fresh fig production has not yet fulfilled its export potential. Recently, the
fresh fig trade, confined primarily to local markets, has gained international
importance (Sahin, 1998). Bursa Siyahi is one of the
best quality fresh fig cultivar grown in Turkey and there is an increase in
its export (Caliskan, 2003). Therefore, the table fig
selection studies have begun since 1990s with the experiments of
Kaska et al. (1990) then continued Aksoy et
al. (1992). After than, the fig studies was carried by a few researchers
(Ilgin and Kuden, 1997; Polat and
Ozkaya, 2005; Alper, 2006; Caliskan
and Polat, 2008; Simsek and Kuden, 2008; Simsek,
In fig cultivars for fresh consumption, emphasis has been placed on such factors
as fruit shape, yellow or pink-red internal color, remaining fruit stalk attached
to the shoot and flawor (Ozbek, 1978). In a 100 g edible
portion, figs contain 80 calories, 20.3 g carbohydrates, 1.2 g proteins, 0.3
g fats and considerable amount of vitamin A and B (Westwood,
1978). As cultivars for fresh consumption possess less total soluble solid
content, they are consumed more than dried fruits (Kabasakal,
Although East Edge of Firat River o f Sanliurfa Province in the Southeast Anatolia
Region of Turkey has a special importance in respect to table fig types, no
studies have been made about selection and identification about them in this
area by researchers up to now. Therefore, the aims of this study were select,
define, preserve and disseminate the productions of fig types of good quality
for fresh consumption in this area. Then, these types were to make their adaptations
in the same ecological conditions with some fig types and varieties of domestic
and foreign. Afterwards, it was to determine the best fig types and/or cultivars
at the end of this adaptation study. Finally, it was to necessary to productions
and produces of them.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was carried out in East Edge of Firat River of Sanliurfa province
in Turkey during 2006-2007. Thirty fig trees were determined primarily from
about 80 trees as subjective. Then, in thirty types, seven fig types were selected
according to the weighted ranked method (Table 1). In this
study, thirty ruits were randomly selected from the each fig tree in each year.
Harvested fruits were immediately transferred to ice boxes and stored at 0°C.
Afterwards, they were analysed with 3 replication and 10 fruits in each replication
for the each year. The data were subjected to analysis of variance using JMP
5.0.1. The means were separated by Tukeys test at 0.05 level. Fruit weight
was measured with a scale sensitive to 0.01 g. The fruit length and width, neck
length, ostiole width were measured by a digital compass.
|| Quality evaluation of the selected fig types according to
the weighted ranked method (Aksoy, 1991)
Total soluble solids were determined with a hand-held refractometer. Titrable
acidity was determined by titrating with 0.1 N NaOH to an endpoint of pH 8.10.
The fruit shape index was calculated by dividing the width by length. In addition,
peeling of skin and fruit skin cracks also were evaluated. The coordinates and
altitudes of the types were determined with GPS tool. The fig types were identify
according to the fig descriptors of IPGRI (Anonymous, 2003).
Some properties of the types such as tree growth habit, tree vigour, relative
degree of branching, full maturity, ostiolum width, peeling of skin, scale size
of scales around the ostiolum, fruit skin cracks, petiole color and pulp internal
color were identificated as detail.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Pomological characteristics: During this study, seven fig types were selected
with special emphasis on the fruit quality characteristics. Considering two
years mean results (2006 and 2007), the fruit weight, the fruit width, the fruit
length, the ostiole width, the neck length, the fruit shape index, the TSS,
the titrable acidity and the fruit juice pH of the fig types were determined
statistically different from each other at 5% level (Table 2).
According to the averages in two years, the fruit weight was found to be lowest
at 27.31 g in FRE-8 and highest at 60.75 g in FRE-14. The fruit width was found
to be lowest at 35.12 mm in FRE-8 and highest at 50.41 mm in FRE-14. In addition,
no neck was observed in 2 types (FRE-1 and FRE-4) while the others had necks
and the their neck length was changed from 7.00 mm in FRE-3 to 4.31 mm in FRE-10.
The ostiolum width changed between 1.58 mm in FRE-3 and 3.91 mm in FRE-14. The
fruit shape index changed between 0.88 in FRE-8 and 1.41 in FRE-14. TSS ratio
of the types was found to be lowest at 17.68% in FRE-12 and highest at 28.87%
in FRE-1. The titrable acidity changed from 0.21 in FRE-8 to 0.29 in FRE-3.
In addition, the fruit juice pH changed from 4.62 in FRE-3 to 6.05 in FRE-10.
Morphological and phenological characteristics: The number of leaves
per shoot and the number of the lobes of selected fig types were shown (Fig.
1). According to the averages of the leaves in 10 shoots per the type in
2007, the number of leaves per shoot was found to be lowest at 5.7 in FRE-4
and highest at 13.5 in FRE-14. The number of the lobes of selected fig types
changed between 3 and 7. In the phenological characteristics, the beginning
of maturation was established in 1-15 August in 4 fig genotypes and 15-31 August
in 3 fig genotypes in 2007. In addition, some other phenological characteristics
of the selected fig types also were investigated during the this research (Table
|| Some pomological characteristics of the fig types (average
values in 2006-2007)
|Mean separation within columns by Tukeys test at 0.05
|| Average numbers of leaves per shoot and number of lobes of
the fig types in 2007
|| Some phenological characteristics of the selected fig types
|| The names, the origins, the coordinates, ages and yield of
the selected fig types in 2007
Names, origins, age, total points and coordinates: Names, origins, coordinates,
ages of trees and yields of the selected fig genotypes were showed (Table
4). During this study, the origins of all the fig genotypes were selected
in the East Edge of Fırat River of Sanliurfa in Turkey. Names of the fig
types were Mersin inciri, Siyah incir, Sari incir and Incir. Ages of the trees
of the fig types were changed between 23 and 25. Yields of the types were found
to be good efficiency (4) or medium efficiency (3). Coordinates of FRE-1 which
had the lowest accession number were found to be 37633277 E-4239171 N and coordinates
of FRE-14 which had the highest accession number were found to be 37495614 E-4167778
N. The altitudes of the fig types were changed from 591 m to 554 m (Fig.
2). According to averages in the two years, the total point was found to
be lowest at 512 in FRE-8 and highest at 914 in FRE-14.
Identifications: According to the 2006-2007 average values, some characteristics
of the fig genotypes were identificated as detail. In this study, it was determined
that all the fig types had short fruit length. Fruit width of FRE-8 was small
and fruit width of FRE-14 was large. Fruit width of the other types was medium.
Ostiole widths of types (FRE-10 and FRE-14) were large and ostiole widths of
the other types were medium.
|| Altitudes of the fig types in the 2007
TSS of the types was high and TSS of the other types were very high. No neck
had FRE-1 and FRE-4. But, the neck lengths of FRE-3 and FRE-14 were medium and
the neck lengths of the other types were short. Although fruit shape of FRE-3
was globose and fruit shape of FRE-8 was oblong, fruit shape of the other types
was oblate. Identification of other characteristics of the fig types were determined
in detail (Table 5).
Fig is grown in nearly all subtropical climates. In Turkey, a number of wild
and cultivated forms of fig can be primarily found with a great diversity of
shape, flavor and color for fresh consumption (Ozbek, 1978).
The east edge of Firat River has suitable conditions for fresh fig production.
Because of increasing demand for fresh consumption fig production would be of
value (Aksoy et al., 1 992). In this study, the
fruit weight is one of the most significant components for determining size
of the fruits. The results with respect to fruit weight in this study were found
partly lower than those of Simsek and Kuden (2008) and
Simsek (2009a). They and he determined the fruit weight
was ranked between 23.66 and 76.85 g and between 71.77 and 43.29 g, respectively.
The results with respect to fruit width in the study were higher than those
of Kuden et al. (2008). They determined the fruit
width was ranged between 49.97 and 32.97 mm. The results with respect to fruit
length in the study were found partly higher than those of Bostan
et al. (1997). They determined the fruit length was ranged from 62.00
to 38.50 mm. For precise quantification, the length, width and fruit size were
measured as well as the fruit weight (Eisen, 1901; Condit,
1941). The uniformities of the fig types in terms of the fruit size are
desirable because they can be sold with a good price in the market. In addition,
these results with respect to neck length were between those of Polat
and Ozkaya (2005). The fruits with neck that are too long one not desired
by the table fig industry. The neck length, width and length of fig types and
cultivars can change according to the characteristics, maintenance requirements
and the ecological conditions. In general, a large ostiole on fig types and
cultivars is an undesirable characteristic as pests and pathogens enter the
fruit (Can, 1993).
The fruit shape index (width/length) is of great importance in packing and
transportation (Condit, 1941). The results with respect
to fruit shape index were some different from those of all the Abbas types of
Ilgin (1995). The fruit shape index can change according
to the genetic characteristics. The results with respect to TSS ratio were found
the higher than those of Koyuncu (1997). High quality
table figs in term of the TSS contents are better if they are in between 13.0
and 25.1% (Aksoy, 1991). The TSS ratio of the types can
chance according to properties such as genetic characteristics, the maintenance
requirements and the ecological conditions. The results with respect to titrable
acidity were found lower than those of Kuden et al.
(2008). High quality table figs with respect to the titrable acidity are
best if they are between 0.226 and 0.300% (Aksoy, 1991).
The titrable acidity can change according to the charactetistics, harvested
early or later and the ecological conditions. Aksoy et
al. (1994) determined the fruit juice pH was changed between 2.00 and
5.50. Kuden et al. (2008) determined the fruit
juice pH was changed between 4.53 and 5.65 in 3 years experiment.
|| Identifications of the characteristics of the selected fig
The fruit juice pH can change according to the genetic charactetistics, harvested
early or later and the ecological conditions.
Kuden et al. (2008) determined the number of
leaves per shoot was changed between 6.7 and 10.5 and Simsek
(2009a) determined the number of leaves per shoot was changed between 4.50
and 11.37, respectively. The results with respect to number of the lobes of
selected fig types were similar to Simsek (2009a) but
were partly different from Simsek (2009b). Simsek
(2009a) determined the number of lobes was changed between 3 and 7. But,
Simsek (2009b) determined the number of lobes was changed
between 5 and 7. The number of leaves per shoot and the number of lobes of the
genotypes can change according to the genetic charactetistics and the ecological
conditions. Simsek (2009b) determined the beginning
of maturation of the fig types were changed between in 20-31 July and 1-15 August.
The beginning of maturation of the genotypes can change according to the genetic
characteristics and the ecological conditions.
Simsek (2009a, b) determined
the coordinates and the altitudes of fig types. Coordinates and altitudes of
fig types and cultivars is change according to their location grown. Simsek
and Kuden (2008) determined the total point was changed between 950 and
559 and Simsek (2009b) determined the total point was
changed between 754 and 634 in two years. The total point can say the fruit
quality characteristics, maintenance and environmental conditions.
Simsek (2009a, b) determined many identifications
about characteristics of fig types. Identification of fig types and cultivars
can change according to the genetic characteristics, maintenance and ecological
conditions. The abscission of stalk from the twig is an important feature for
table figs. During harvest, if the abscission of stalk from the twig is easy,
it is very good. The peeling skin is critical for local and global customer
preferences (Can, 1993; Ilgın,
1995). The fig types and cultivars of the fruit cavity and the abnormal
fruit formation are undesirable.
Turkey is the worlds largest fig producing country. The country represents
more than half of the world fig export. To increase in the fig export, in addition
to transportation and packaging, its quality should be good, too. East Edge
of Firat River in Turkey are one of the most important centres of fig types.
The fruit quality characteristics of the fig types in the country should be
determined and quality fig types in the region should be export to increase
revenue in Turkey. Additionally, the fig is a very important fruit species for
the world. It can be consumed in several ways, can easily be propagated, is
adaptable to various conditions and very nutritional for the consumers. If the
selected fig types are taken into conservation, the world will get the opportunity
to produce and consume this fruit and have their nutritional advantages, which
is especially advantages for poorer parts of the world.
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