Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Perspective
 

Fate of Culex pipiens: Vector of Many Pathogenic Viruses



Muhammad Nouman Sohail and Saba Munir
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Not available

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Muhammad Nouman Sohail and Saba Munir, 2011. Fate of Culex pipiens: Vector of Many Pathogenic Viruses. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 6: 1031-1033.

DOI: 10.3923/ajava.2011.1031.1033

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajava.2011.1031.1033
 
Received: May 25, 2011; Accepted: August 23, 2011; Published: September 28, 2011



Culex pipiens mosquito has a large distribution that is affected by availability of water and temperature (Barker et al., 2010; Azari-Hamidian et al., 2011). The phytotelmata (water body with plants) having high water volumes with high solid contents and large canopy favors its growth (Adebote et al., 2008; Jacob et al., 2009). C. pipiens mosquito is a vector for many animals and human disease causing viruses e.g., Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV), West Nile Virus (WNV), Batai virus, Sindbis virus etc. (Reusken et al., 2011). The distribution of these viruses is increasing day by day due the raise in temperature, rainfall and dispersal patterns (Gould and Higgs, 2009) and all these parameters favors’ the growth of C. pipiens. Mandell and Flick (2011) while reviewing the occurrence and distribution of RVFV declared it an important potential threat to the human and livestock health. The food and temperature provided to insect posses a significant impact on virus infection and dissemination (Moutailler et al., 2007; Anderson et al., 2010). At temperature (30°C) the dissemination infection of WNV in C. pipiens was more than 90% (Dohm et al., 2002a). WNV cause fever and neural epidemiology in birds, humans, horses and other mammals, its infection rate is high in already suffering organisms (Ulbert, 2011). It is also known that C. pipiens infected with virus in late summer, act as a carrier of virus in next spring (Dohm et al., 2002b). Thus to stop the invasion of viruses the population of their vectors like C. pipiens should be diminish. Many studies have been conducted that were aiming to identify such pesticide which can effectively control C. pipiens adults and larvae (Hussein et al., 2005; Khoobdel et al., 2007; Reza and Abbas, 2007; Shonouda and Mehanney, 2000). But in some cases external application of pesticide is not so much effective due to the hard cuticle of insect (Ikbal et al., 2007). Altalhi (2005) found the Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti, a bacterium) and duck weed (aquatic plant) as important biological controls of C. pipiens. According to him the presence of Bti in water cause toxic effect on the third and forth instars larvae in concentration dependant manner but Bti is expensive. Moreover he found that duck weed has cytochemical toxic effects on C. pipiens population, which lessened the need of high Bti concentrations. A more effective and economical biological control against C. pipiens is required.

Wolbachia are intercellular bacteria, infecting almost 66% of the pest (arthropods and nematodes), so it has great potential as biological control (Hilgenboecker et al., 2008). Wolbachia inherit maternally; it shortens the life span of its host and can efficiently cause Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI) (McMeniman et al., 2009). Wolbachia also cause infection in common house mosquito C. pipiens but rarely cause infertility, which is due to the presence of compatible Wolbachia strains (Duron et al., 2011; Walker et al., 2009). Atyame et al. (2011) conducted the PCR study of Wolbachia (wPip) strains in Culex pipiens mosquitoes, which sort out the reasons of compatibility and incompatibility caused by Wolbachia. The incompatible Wolbachia strains cause CI in mosquitoes and vice versa. According to them this CI property of Wolbachia depends upon mod and resc (lock and key) model and to evaluate its properties a total of 360 C. pipiens from 15 natural breeding sites of La Reunion Island were examined. From these mosquitoes 11 wPip strains were isolated; mobile genetic elements markers differentiate these strains on the basis of 1-4 genetic markers. These strains were genetically very similar as they contain the same sequence of different ank2, pk1, pk2, GP12 and GP15 alleles. Moreover these strains were mutually bidirectionally compatible. They also introduce the 4 new genetically distinct (w5, w10, w1 and w31) wPip strains from 4 different C. pipiens of different geographical areas. The sequence analysis showed the La Reunion Island’s wPip strains were extremely different from these 4 newly introduced strains. All the strains have different mod/resc functions having 11 compatible/incompatible crossing types out of which 5 compatible crossing types were identified in La Reunion Island. These different crossing types results due to the multiple mod and resc abilities i.e., one resc key would be compatible to more than one mod lock. These crossing types determine the viability and non-viability of C. pipiens eggs. The mating between C. pipiens with incompatible wPip strains would result in non-viable eggs with 0% egg Hatching Rate (HR). But the mosquitoes with compatible strains can produce viable eggs with HR more than 90%. Moreover, mating of infected males with uninfected females results in CI. These all mod and resc events occurring in host body are independent to the host genome. Thus this can be said that the mating compatibility of mosquitoes depends upon the Wolbachia strain present in them. If new genetically different Wolbachia strains are introduced in the La Reunion Island there will be more crossing types. Moreover the CI property of Wolbachia strains depends upon their crossing type and not on the host nuclear machinery.

C. pipiens is the potential vector of many viruses which infect both animals and humans. Wolbachia can be used as biological control of this insect as it causes the Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI) in C. pipiens. The C. pipiens of La Reunion Island has only genetically similar and compatible strains of Wolbachia therefore no CI was observed. But if the genetically different and incompatible strains of Wolbachia are introduced in this area then the CI can be increased in the mosquitoes. Thus the invasion of mosquitoes’ population may be stopped by the intrusions of incompatible Wolbachia strains. This study conducted by Atyame et al. (2011) provides more detailed understanding of Wolbachia mode of action at molecular level, in future more research is required in order to use this bacteria more effectively against pathogens.

REFERENCES

  1. Adebote, D.A., D.S. Abolude, S.J. Oniye and O.S. Wayas, 2008. Studies on some physicochemical factors affecting the breeding and abundance of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in phytotelmata on Delonix regia (Leguminosae: Caesalpinoidea). J. Biol. Sci., 8: 1304-1309.
    Direct Link  |  


  2. Azari-Hamidian, S., M.R. Abai, K. Arzamani, H. Bakhshi, H. Karami, H. Ladonni and R.E. Harbach, 2011. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of North Khorasan province, Northeastern Iran and the zoogeographic affinities of the Iranian and middle Asian mosquito fauna. J. Entomol., 8: 204-217.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  3. Ikbal, C., B.H. Mounia and B.H. Habib, 2007. Toxicity experiments of the saponic extract of Cestrum Parqui (Solanaceae) on some insect spices. J. Entomol., 4: 113-120.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  4. Reza, V.R.M. and H. Abbas, 2007. Chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Polylophium involvucratum (Pall.) Boiss (Apiaceae). J. Plant Sci., 2: 575-578.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  5. Altalhi, A.D., 2005. Investigation of mosquito survival associated with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and aquatic plant, Lemna minor. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 8: 314-317.
    Direct Link  |  


  6. Khoobdel, M., M.A. Oshaghi, N. Jonaidi, M. Shayeghi and M.R. Abaei et al., 2007. Laboratory evaluation of dimethyl phthalate against Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 10: 745-750.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  


  7. Hussein, H.I., D. Al-Rajhy and M. Al-Assiry, 2005. Toxicity of four pyrethroid-based insecticides and kerosene to a laboratory population of Culex pipiens. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 8: 751-753.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  8. Shonouda, M.L. and S.M. Mehanney, 2000. New botanical derivatives, used in medicinal preparations, showing bioactive action on insect pests II: Effect on the vectors Culex pipiens and Musca domestica larvae. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 3: 1039-1041.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  9. Dohm, D.J., M.R. Sardelis and M.J. Turell, 2002. Experimental vertical transmission of West Nile virus by Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol., 39: 640-644.
    PubMed  |  


  10. Ulbert, S., 2011. West Nile virus: The complex biology of an emerging pathogen. Intervirology, 54: 171-184.
    CrossRef  |  


  11. Anderson, S.L., S.L. Richards, W.J. Tabachnick and C.T. Smartt, 2010. Effects of West Nile virus dose and extrinsic incubation temperature on temporal progression of vector competence in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 26: 103-107.
    PubMed  |  


  12. Moutailler, S., M. Bouloy and A.B. Failloux, 2007. Efficient oral infection of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus by Rift Valley fever virus using a cotton stick support. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 76: 827-829.
    Direct Link  |  


  13. Atyame, C.M., O. Duron, P. Tortosa, N. Pasteur, P. Fort and M. Weill, 2011. Multiple Wolbachia determinants control the evolution of cytoplasmic incompatibilities in Culex pipiens mosquito populations. Mol. Ecol., 20: 286-298.
    CrossRef  |  


  14. Dohm, D.J., M.L. O'Guinn, M.J. Turell, 2002. Effect of environmental temperature on the ability of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile virus. J. Med. Entomol., 39: 221-225.
    PubMed  |  


  15. Reusken, C., A. de Vries, E. Ceelen, J. Beeuwkes and E.J. Scholte, 2011. A study of the circulation of West Nile virus, Sindbis virus, Batai virus and Usutu virus in mosquitoes in a potential high-risk area for arbovirus circulation in the Netherlands De Oostvaardersplassen. Eur. Mosquito Bull., 29: 66-81.


  16. Barker, C.M., B.F. Eldridge and W.K. Reisen, 2010. Seasonal abundance of Culex tarsalis and Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in California. J. Med. Entomol., 47: 759-768.
    PubMed  |  


  17. Jacob, B.G., R.L. Lampman, M.P. Ward, E.J. Muturi, J.A. Morris, E.X. Caamano, R.J. Novak, 2009. Geospatial variability in the egg raft distribution and abundance of Culex pipiens and Culex restuans in Urbana-Champaign, Illinois. Int. J. Remote Sensing, 8: 2005-2019.


  18. Gould, E.A. and S. Higgs, 2009. Impact of climate change and other factors on emerging arbovirus diseases. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 103: 109-121.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  


  19. Mandell, R.B. and R. Flick, 2011. Rift Valley fever virus: A real bioterror threat. J. Bioterr. Biodef. Vol., 2., (In Prees).
    Direct Link  |  


  20. Hilgenboecker, K., P. Hammerstein, P. Schlattmann, A. Telschow and J.H. Werren, 2008. How many species are infected with Wolbachia: A statistical analysis of current data. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 281: 215-220.
    Direct Link  |  


  21. McMeniman, C.J., R.V. Lane, B.N. Cass, A.W.C. Fong, M. Sidhu, Y.F. Wang and S.L. O'Neill, 2009. Stable introduction of a life-shortening Wolbachia infection into the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Science, 323: 141-144.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  22. Walker, T., S. Song and S.P. Sinkins, 2009. Wolbachia in the Culex pipiens group mosquitoes: Introgression and superinfection. J. Heredity, 100: 192-196.
    PubMed  |  


  23. Duron, O., M. Raymond and M. Weill, 2011. Many compatible Wolbachia strains coexist within natural populations of Culex pipiens mosquito. Heredity, 106: 986-993.
    PubMed  |  


©  2022 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved