Evaluating the Effect of the Treatment of Doramectin on Some Biochemical Parameters in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes
The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of doramectin applied once in an optimum dose on stomach-intestine nematodes on goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Also to study the effect of the doramectin application on the clinically important biochemical parameters, electrolytes, minerals, vitamin B12 levels and enzyme activities of goats were affected or not after anthelmentic drug application. For this purpose, the stools in 45 goats between 1-3 years were chosen in Van province and subjected to Fulleborn saturated salt solution method. Thirty goats with gastrointestinal nematodes constituted treatment group and they were doramectin applied (group I). Other 15 goats with gastrointestinal nematodes chosen as control group (group II) was not Doramectine applied. Taking stool samples goats with Doramectin treatment and from control group on the 0, 7 and 14 days of application in gram stools, the number of eggs (EPG) were analyzed by modified McMaster method and treatment efficiency was investigated. After coprocultures, goats were determined to be infected with Trichostrongylus sp., Nematodirus sp., Ostertagia sp., Marshallagia sp., Haemonchus sp. and Oesophagostomum sp. The results demonstrated that Fe, Albumin and hemoglobin levels statistically increased in treatment group in comparison with control group (p<0.05); a significant change in IBP, Ferritin, ALT, AST, total protein, P, Ca, Na and K levels was not observed and minor increases along with the treatment related to time in vitamin B12, ALP and Mg levels occurred. It was concluded that in goats, one dose of 0.2 mg kg-1 of subcutaneous doramectin was efficient 100% and no side-effect was observed.
Gastrointestinal parasites are often observed among our countrys livestock
and it causes widespread infection leading to important economic losses (Altas
et al., 2006; Sarıozkan and Yalcın,
2009). Gastrointestinal nematodes sensitize animals to shortage of trace
elements and vitamins and lead to destruction of gastrointestinal mucosa (Oge
et al., 1996; Sykes and Coop, 2001; Koski
and Scott, 2003; Ayaz et al., 2007).
Doramectin is a member of lacton class and a new avermectin genetically developed
from Streptomyces avermitilis that naturally exists in the earth by using
recombinant DNA technique. The effect of doramectin on gastrointestinal nematodes
has been demonstrated in various species (Goudie et al.,
1993; Shoop et al., 1995; Ayaz
and Sahin, 2003).
Significant changes happen in the biochemical metabolism of hosts attacked
by parasites (Dede et al., 2002). The changes
in clinically important parameters and the activities of enzymes are important
findings to indicate pathological situations (Kaneko et
al., 1997; Karagul et al., 2000).
The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of doramectin
applied only once in an optimum dose level on stomach-intestine nematodes on
goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes and whether clinically
important biochemical parameters (albumin, total protein, iron binding protein,
ferritin, hemoglobin), electrolytes (Na, K), minerals (Ca, Mg, P, Fe), vitamin
B12 levels and enzyme (ALT, AST, ALP) activities in these goats were
affected after drug application.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Forty five goats, ranging between 35 and 50 kg, in a private farm in Van district,
infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were used in this study in the years
2006 and 2008. During the study all goats were kept in their winter care-house
and were nourished at their normal nourishment level. Any food additives did
not take place and water was given as ad libitum. Thirty of forty five
goats proven to be infected with gastrointestinal formed treatment group (group
I) and 15 were considered as control group (group II).
Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectums of the goats and examined
for the eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes by the Fulleborn saturated salt solution
method (Polozowski et al., 2006). Gastrointestinal
nematode-positive animals were allocated to two groups of (group I and II),
in a way of as homogeneous as possible taking into account the EPG numbers of
the McMaster method (MAFF, 1986). The first group was subcutaneously
administered 0.2 mg kg-1 of doramectine (Dectomax, Pfizer) (Molento
et al., 1999; Alka et al., 2004).
The second group was left as a control. Faecal samples from animals were analyzed
for EPG numbers on days 0, 7 and 14 of treatment and geometrical means of the
results taken. Coprocultures were performed to diagnose gastrointestinal nematodes
in infected animals (Bowman, 2008).
The blood samples were collected from all animals on 0, 7 and 14th days. Biochemical
parameters (albumin, total protein, iron binding protein, Ferritin, hemoglobin),
electrolytes (Na, K) minerals (Ca, Mg, P, Fe), enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP) and vitamin
B12 levels were analyzed in autoanalyzer (MODULAR PP, Roche/Hitachi,
The results were statistically assessed, averaged out as Mean±SD. The
difference which according to Duncan Test amounted to p<0.05 was considered
to be important.
Trichostrongylus sp., Oesophagostomum sp., Nematodirus
sp. and Ostertagia sp., Marshallagia sp., Haemonchus sp.,
parasite larvae were diagnosed in coprocultures prepared from excrement samples
of infected sheep before treatment.
The average number of eggs per gram in faeces (EPG) was determined with modified
McMaster method as 511 and 528 g-1 in control and treatment group,
respectively, before treatment. While no eggs were found in treatment group
on 7th and 14th days, there were 509 and 504 g-1 eggs on the same
days, respectively, in control group (Table 1).
||The effectiveness of doramectin in goats naturally infected
with gastrointestinal nematodes
||Blood biochemical parameters of goats naturally infected with
gastrointestinal nematodes before and after treatment
|a.b: The difference taking place in treatment group along
with time. *Difference between treated and untreated group
There were no differences in levels of Fe, albumin, hemoglobin, potassium in
blood samples on day 0 but along with the treatment there appeared statistically
significant difference (p<0.05) on day 7 and 14. The levels of vitamin B12,
ALP and Mg in treatment group (group I) presented a slight change along with
the treatment, but ALT, AST enzyme activities and IBP, ferritin, total protein,
P, Ca and Na concentration didnt suggest any differences between groups
Macro element shortage observed in parasitic diseases leads to clinical defectiveness,
loss of efficiency and death (Kaneko et al., 1997;
Dede et al., 2002). Being in avermectin group,
doramectin is one of the antiparasitic drugs used in fighting back gastrointestinal
nematodes that is common in ruminants and leads to significant loss of efficiency
(Goudie et al., 1993). Dorchies
et al. (2001) reported a decrease in the number of eggs in faeces
of sheep after the treatment of doramectin. Doramectin was very efficient against
most of the common gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep, i.e., T. circumcincta,
N. battus, N. filicollis, O. venulosum and Trichuris
sp. and first-stage larvae of O. ovis.
In a study (Umur and Arslan, 2000) on ewes and lambs
doramectin was reported to be effective on various nematodes such as Ostertagia
sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Haemonchus sp., Cooperia sp.,
Chabertia sp., Bunostomum sp., Oesophagostomum sp.,
Strongyloides sp. and Nematodirus sp. In the present study it was
confirmed that one dose of 0.2 mg kg-1 subcutaneous doramectine application
to goats was 100% effective on Trichostrongylus sp., Oesophagostomum
sp., Nematodirus sp., Ostertagia sp., Marshallagia sp.
and Haemonchus sp. In many studies it was reported that macro element
concentrations such as Ca, Na, Mg, K, P changed after doramectin application
(Kuzner et al., 2005; Kolar
et al., 2006). Kuzner et al., 2005
found that calcium concentrations decreased significantly in sheep on day 15
and 42 after doramectin treatment. Mbuh and Mbwaye (2005)
found that the levels of Na and Ca decreased because of disease but K levels
werent affected from disease. Ayaz et al. (2007)
reported that Na, K, Ca levels didnt change in infected animals but Mg
and P increased. In this study, it was observed that there were not any significant
changes in levels of Ca, Na, Mg, K between groups and docrametin treatment did
not cause any changes.
Because of pathological changes in intestine canal, changes in biochemical
parameters can be observed in animals infected with gastrointestinal nematodes
(Suttle and Jones, 1989; Sykes and
Coop, 2001; Koski and Scott, 2003; Ayaz
et al., 2007). Gastrointestinal parasites can lead to anemia as a
result of decrease in the number of hemoglobin and erythrocyte (Dede
et al., 2002). So, eliminating anemia is important for the treatment.
As a matter of fact in infected animals having low level of hemoglobin, it was
observed that, the number of hemoglobin was at its normal level after doramectin
usage (Skogerboe et al., 2000). It was also observed
in the present study that low levels of hemoglobin in parasite-infected group
increased along with the treatment. The level of iron in blood is a certain
parameter of diagnosis which indicates the conditions of diseases. The rise
of iron in blood, blood loss, an increase in hemolysis of red blood cells or
a decrease in life-span of blood cells can result from acute hepatitis, some
kinds of anemia, nourishment with diet rich in iron, problems stemming from
iron storage (pernisious anemia) and events like parasitic diseases (Kaneko
et al., 1997; Habel and Jung, 2006; Wu
et al., 2007; Raulfs et al., 2008).
Serum iron levels in parasite-infected animals were lower than the normal levels
(Kozat et al., 2006) but restored their normal
levels after doramectin treatment (Skogerboe et al.,
2000). It was observed in the present study that iron levels in treatment
group increased after treatment.
Despite the differences in iron levels, the levels of IBP and ferritin did
not show any changes.
Although, the total protein levels in some animals infected with different
parasites did not change much (Molento et al., 1999)
there were reports indicating their increases (Mbuh and
Mbwaye, 2005; Ayaz et al., 2007). In the
present study, the levels of total protein did not significantly change.
The activities of ALP, ALT and AST enzymes in serum significantly change because
of degeneration of cellular membrane, loss and collapse of diffuse tissue inflammation
(Kaneko et al., 1997; Karagul
et al., 2000). The AST and ALT enzyme activities in sheep infected
with gastrointestinal nematodes did not change ( Ayaz et
al., 2007). In the present study there were not any significant changes
between groups in the activities of these enzymes. This result suggested that
gastrointestinal nematodes in goats did not lead to significant damages in cells
or tissues. Besides, the insignificant changes in the relevant enzymes activities
are important indicators to show the safety of doramectin used in this study.
Vitamin B12 has an important duty in generating red blood cells
and its lack may result in anemia (Cecil et al., 2004).
Ayaz et al. (2007) reported that the level of
B12 did not change in animals infected with Trichostrongylidae
sp. and Dicrocelium dendriticum, but it increased in those infected with
Cyst hydatic, Fasciola sp. and Protostrongylidae sp. Similarly,
in the present study it was determined that B12 concentration in
goats infected with gastrointestinal nematodes did not change considerably.
In conclusion, parasites infections, especially gastrointestinal nematodosis
in animals, are a cause of considerable economic loss in Turkey (Umur
and Yukari, 2005; Ayaz and Sahin, 2003; Ayaz
et al., 2007) and the world (Skogerboe et
al., 2000). Turkey has a sub-tropical climate and therefore gastrointestinal
nematodes are prevalent in goats (Ayaz and Sahin, 2003).
These parasitological infections cause damage in tissues, this damage causes
loss of yield, leads to predisposition against secondary infections via weakening
the immune system and finally to deaths. Besides, it was confirmed that the
application of one dose of 0.2 mg kg-1 subcutaneous doramectin in
goats was 100% efficient against gastrointestinal nematodes without any obvious
The authors thank Dr. Yasar Goz for his technical support for parasitic analysis.
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