Changing of Cell Wall Fractions of Kermes Oak (Quercus coccifera L.) in a Vegetation Period and theirs Importance for Pure Hair Goat (Capra hircus L.) Breeding in West Mediterranean Region of Turkey
This study was investigated the change occurring depending
on the vegetation period in the Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent
Fiber (ADF), Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL), cellulose (CE) and hemicellulose
(HEM) of feed fiber characteristics in samples taken in five periods from
kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.). According to the results of
the research, the values obtained in the analysis conducted on the dry
matter based the samples taken on May 15, June 15, July 15, August 15
and September 15, 2008 have been as follows: NDF values - 44.36, 56.05,
58.58, 59.83 and 60.71%; ADF values - 31.14, 39.94, 43.24, 47.49 and 48.03%;
ADL values - 14.07, 19.37, 20.02, 24.33 and 24.35%; CE values - 17.06,
20.57, 23.22, 23.16 and 23.68% and HEM values - 13.22, 16.10, 15.33, 12.67
and 12.67% (p<0.05). The period when the kermes oak is best in terms
of the quality of the feed is the month of June because the quality of
the feed increases along with the increase in the NDF value.
to cite this article:
Ahmet Tolunay, Veysel Ayhan and Elif Adiyaman, 2009. Changing of Cell Wall Fractions of Kermes Oak (Quercus coccifera L.) in a Vegetation Period and theirs Importance for Pure Hair Goat (Capra hircus L.) Breeding in West Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 4: 22-27.
The forestry policies applied in Turkey aim to reduce and even eliminate breeding
pure hair goats on the grounds that this harms forests (GFD,
1984). This policy has achieved its purpose up to a certain degree and the
number of pure hair goats which was 15 million in 1975, was reduced to 6 million
in 2008 (TUIK, 2008).
The areas in Turkey where pure hair goat breeding is most widely conducted
are the Aegean, Mediterranean and Southeast Anatolian Regions. Nomads who live
in these areas have been breeding pure hair goats in the upper basins of that
region for centuries (Boyazoglu et al., 2005;
Ocak et al., 2007). Pure hair goat breeding symbolizes
a cultural value for nomads, in addition to being a breeding system (Guney
and Darcan, 2005).
There are similarities between the borders of the regions where pure
hair goats are bred and natural distribution borders of some types of
trees and shrubs within the Mediterranean scrub vegetation. Shrub vegetation
occupies a great part of the territory of the country and the kermes oak
(Quercus coccifera L.) which is a sclerophyllous shrub, is the
dominant species in these shrublands. The kermes oak shrublands are browse
range-lands, covering more than 2.4 million ha. Although the forest law
bans the entry of goats into the forests, the villagers use these areas
for grazing purposes. Goat husbandry and to some extent sheep husbandry,
depends on both browse and herbage produced by kermes oak scrubland.
The Ministry of Environment and Forestry has prepared the action plan for reducing
damage caused by goats in 2008. The government has adopted a very radical decision
with this action plan. According to the referred decision, in areas with no
erosion risk, that are not suitable for forestation and the breeding of productive
forests, with no risk for floods and inundation and are suitable for raising
goats due the vegetation, villagers will be allowed to raise pure hair goats
Various researches have been conducted regarding grazing at in-forest meadows
and forage yield in Turkey (Defne, 1955; Alpay,
1972). Furthermore, there are also researches regarding utilization of leaf
fodders of forest trees (Mol, 1982; Sevimsoy
and Sun, 1987). In these researches, the damage made by pure hair goats
on the forest and the trees have been highlighted and request has been made
for keeping them away from forests. Yet, in the countries located in the Mediterranean
Region have noticed the importance of the kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.),
boz pirnal oak (Quercus aucheri Jaub. and Spach.) and holm oak (Quercus
ilex L.) in goat breeding and tried to develop their breeding system
(Papachristou, 1997; Aldezabal and
Garin, 2000; Boyazoglu and Morand-Fehr, 2001; Ainalis
and Tsiouvaras, 2004; Ainalis et al., 2006;
Zarovali et al., 2007; Boubaker
et al., 2007).
In Turkey, kermes oak is a type of shrub to which no value is placed
by foresters on the grounds that it cannot form a productive forest. Therefore,
this type of shrub is only known by academia due to its general botanical
characteristics. Although shoots and leaves provide a major feed input
in breeding pure hair goat (Capra hircus L.), their nutrient composition
and quality are not known.
This study was investigated the change in the vegetation period of Neutral
Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Acid Detergent Lignin
(ADL), Cellulose (CE) and Hemicellulose (HEM) as cell wall fractions of
the kermes oak.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was conducted at Süleyman Demirel University, Research
and Implementation Forest Areas, in Isparta Province, Western Mediterranean
Region of Turkey. The study area is located between 37°83`50„-37°83`31„
north latitude and 30°51`72-30°51`94„ east longitude and
has an elevation of 1250 m. Its slope is to the southwest.
According to data provided by Isparta Meteorology Station, the long-term average
annual rainfall is 600.4 mm and the average air temperature is 12.1°C. During
the winter (December-March) and summer (June-September) seasons, the average
air temperature ranges from 1.7-5.8°C and 19.7-23.1°C and the average rainfall
ranges from 90.0-100.0 mm and 9.6-36.6 mm, respectively. The climate of the
area is characterized as semi-arid and cold winters. The soil texture is clay
to wet clay, derived from conglomerates of the mesozoic period and colluvials
from river or torrent bank deposits (Atalay, 2006). A range
of organic matter content between 2.60-3.20% and a pH (7.5) are both considered
The shrub variety that shows a native range within the study area is
kermes oak. The land coverage rate of kermes oak ranges between 70 and
90% and the shrub height ranges between 50 and 150 cm.
An area of 3 ha was selected within the university research forest with
the same growth environment and site characteristics (aspect, elevation, slope,
soil, etc.). Within this area, kermes oak shrubs that have spread over an area
of at least 6 m2 were identified and 30 shrubs with this characteristic
were selected at random. A sampling quadron of 1x1 m was created by using wooden
slats. Representative, hand-plucked forage samples (Cook,
1964) similar to those consumed by animals were collected. Samples from
the study area were collected on May 15, June 15, July 15, August 15 and September
In order to determine the dry matter content ratios, 30 herbage samples
obtained at each period were mixed into a single sample and were grounded
in a hummer mill with a sieve hole diameter of 3 mm. All samples were
oven-dried at 105°C for 24 h and weighed. Therefore, the dry matter
contents of the samples were determined as a percentage ratio.
Dry matter samples were used in designating cell wall fractions. Neutral Detergent
Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) analysis
were conducted according to the method reported by Van Soest
et al. (1991). Cellulose (CE) and Hemicellulose (HEM) values were
calculated according to the results of this analysis. (Cellulose = ADF-ADL and
Hemicellulose = NDF-ADF). These procedures were conducted in the laboratory
separately at each period as 3 parallel and 4 recurrent analysis.
All data sets were subjected to repeated measurements ANOVA in order to
test statistical significance across the five periods. The Tukey test was applied
in order to test statistical differences between means (Steel
and Torrie, 1980). The statistical analysis were carried out using SPSS
16.0 software for Windows. All tests were performed at the level of significance
Results of ANOVA on Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber
(ADF), Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL), Cellulose (CE) and Hemicellulose (CE)
are shown in Table 1. Differences between period means
as a result of variance analysis are statistically significant.
Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF)
After the beginning of the vegetation period (vegetation period begun
in mid of March) the first biomass sample from the kermes oak was taken
in May 15. In the samples taken on this date, the NDF value was 44.36%.
In the period June 15, a severe increase took place in the NDF figure,
reaching 56.05%. The increase in the NDF rate continued until July 15
and the NDF value was found as 58.58% as a result of the analysis conducted.
The NDF value for the period August 15 was 59.83% (p<0.05). No significant
increase occurred in the NDF figure on September 15, which followed the
period August 15 (p>0.05).
|| Changing of cell wall fractions of kermes oak (Quercus
coccifera L.) in a vegetation period
|DM: Dry Matter, NDF: Neutral Detergent Fiber, ADF: Acid
Detergent Fiber, ADL: Acid Detergent Lignin, CE: Cellulose, HEM: Hemicellulose,
SD: Standard Deviation. 1Means in the same column followed
by the same letter(s) are not significantly different at the 0.05
Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF)
The ADF value of the dry matter obtained from herbage samples taken
on May 15 in the measurements conducted in the first period as of the
beginning of the vegetation period was found as 31.14%. On June 15, the
biggest increase was achieved in 1-month periods, reaching the value 39.94%.
In the next sample taking period, which was July 15, the ADF value was
43.24%. In the analysis conducted in the period August 15, the ADF value
47.49% (p<0.05). In the analysis conducted on September 15, the no
considerable increase was achieved in the ADF value (p>0.05).
Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL)
The ADL value in the samples taken on May 15 was found as 14.07%.
On June 15, this figure achieved its increase reaching 19.37%. The ADL
value on July 15 was 20.02%, whereas the ADL value on August 15 was 24.33%
(p<0.05). The results of the analysis conducted on September 15, did
not display any statistical difference compared to August 15 (p>0.05).
In the dry matter obtained from the biomass samples taken on May 15,
the cellulose value was found as 17.06%. This rate increased on June 15
and July 15, reaching the values 20.57% and 23.22% respectively (p<0.05).
The results of the analysis conducted on the samples taken on August 15
and September 15 were 23.16% and 23.68%, respectively, with no difference
between these two periods compared to July 15 (p>0.05).
On May 15, the hemicellulose value on the dry matter basis was found
as 13.22%. This value reached the figure 16.10% by achieving its highest
rate among different periods on June 15. In the analysis conducted on
the samples taken on July 15, the hemicellulose rate was found as 15.33%.
In the analysis conducted on August 15, the hemicellulose value was found
as 12.67%, the hemicellulose value began to drop compared to last periods
(p<0.05). As a result of the analysis conducted on September 15, did
not display any difference compared to August 15 (p>0.05).
The Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) refers to the amount of hemicellulose, cellulose,
lignin, cutine and insoluble protein contained within the structure of the plant
cell wall. The NDF rate is an indicator of the growth status or maturity of
the plant. The NDF value is a key indicator in the nutrition of the animals
and the high NDF value means the low quality of the feed. The Acid Detergent
Fiber (ADF) refers to the amount of cellulose, lignin and insoluble protein
contained within the structure of the plant cell wall. The high rate of ADF
in a feed is the low digestibility (Gorgulu, 2002). Ruminants
may break down the hemicellulose and cellulose which are insoluble carbohydrate
parts contained within the plant cell wall but they cannot break down acid detergent
lignin (Erga, 2008). When these remarks are considered
in respect of the results of the survey, it may be observed that the months
May and June are the periods when the quality of the feed is at the highest
degree in the kermes oak. The month of May is the period when the growth of
the leaves and shoots of this type of shrub takes place at the highest rate
and blooming and pollination also occur. Therefore, they should not be used
during this period. The month of June is the period when maximum benefit may
be obtained from the kermes oak both qualitatively and quantitatively.
The authors extend their gratitude to the Turkish Scientific and Technical
Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) for the financial support provided
to this study.
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