The Efficacy of Moxidectin Against Gastrointestinal Nematode Infections in Goats
The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of moxidectin treatment on goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes in Van region, Turkey. Two hundred and forty goats infected with gasterointestinal parasites were treated with 0.2 mg kg-1 moxidectin (Cydectin, Abfar), subcutaneously. Ten randomly selected goats were not treated and allocated as a control group. Faecal samples were examined for gastrointestinal parasites qualitatively and quantitatively (EPG) in 0th, 7th and 14th days of treatment. Larvae of the parasite species of Ostertagia, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichostrongylus were detected in the coprocultures of the infected animals performed before treatment. It was observed that moxidectin was 100% effective against the gastrointestinal nematodes.
Animal breeding is an important economical element for villagers in Van region.
Parasitic infections, particularly gastrointestinal nematodosis causes of considerable
economic loss in Turkey and the world (Gulanber et al.,
1998; Myers, 2002; Cirak et
al., 2005; Rahmann and Seip, 2007). In several
studies conducted internationally and in Turkey, moxidectin have been found
to be highly effective against a wide variety of external and internal parasites
in different species of animals and many formulations (pour-on, oral and parenteral)
(Kerboeuf et al., 1995; Torres-Acosta
and Jacobs, 1999). Moxidectin is very effective in goats than the other
drugs. Since, moxidectin formulation is aqueous based solution significantly
absorption comes out in domestic animals including goats. Moxidectin plasma
concentrations which applied subcutaneously at 1 mg kg-1 dose is
64% longer than doramectin plasma concentrations at the same dose (Escuredo
et al., 1999). The mechanism of effect of moxidectin, in treatment
of endo and ecto parasites of cattle, sheep and horses has not been exactly
known; it leads to loosening of terminal presynaptic nerves and activation similar
to GABA stimulation of avermectins advances. Thus, GABA binds next to the postsynaptic
receptors and as a result causes blockage of interneuronal transmission and
eventually leads to paralyses and deaths (Lonneux and Losson,
The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of moxidectin in treating goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes in Van region.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was carried out on goats from three private farms in Van.
All goats in these farms were naturally infected with gastrointestinal (GI)
nematodes. Goats aged between 1-3 years and weighted between 35-50 kg. During
the study period, all animals were housed in their usual winter housing facility
and fed according to their regular feeding regimen with approximately 2 kg of
hay and 1 kg of concentrate feed per goat. They had no limitation for access
to drinking water.
In this study, 240 of the 250 goats naturally infected with Trichostrongylidae
sp. were allocated to treated group and 10 goats were allocated to control group
and identified with ear tags. Two hundred and forty goats in the treated group
were administered 0.2 mg kg-1 moxidectin (Cydectin, Abfar), subcutaneously
(Lonneux and Losson, 1994). The other group remained
as an untreated control group.
Sample Collection and Analysis
Individual fecal samples were taken directly from the rectums of the goats
on days 0 (pre-treatment) and 7, 14, (posttreatment) and brought to the Parasitology
Laboratory in Faculty of Medicine, University of Yuzuncu Yil and examined for
the eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes by the Fulleborn saturated salt solution
method. Fecal egg-counts (EPG) (eggs g-1) were determined using the
modified McMaster technique (MAFF, 1986) and geometrical
means of the results taken. Moreover, faecal cultures were done, to differentiate
at genus level of trichostrongylid nematodes.
Percent efficacy of moxidectin, based on reduction in fecal egg counts was
calculated for the undifferentiated trichostrongyle eggs described by Morin
et al. (1996).
In other words, the eggs of the parasites in these animals were not encountered
on the 7th and 14th days after treatment. Larvae of the parasite species of
Ostertagia, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichostrongylus
were detected in the coprocultures of the infected animals performed before
treatment (Table 1).
|| Geometric average of parasites EPG in samples before, 7 and
14 days post treatment
Gastrointestinal nematodes in goats cause regional economic losses in the world
and Turkey. To decrease harmful effects of parasites, animal transportation
should be provided under controlled conditions. Epidemiological control and
eradication studies should be performed and animals with the parasite should
be treated with appropriate anthelmentic drugs. Hoste and
Chartier (1993) reported that subclinical and clinical gastrointestinal
nematodiasis in goats led to loss of body weight and a constant decrease in
milk productivity ranging from 2.5 to 10% and 13 to 25.1%, respectively.
Usage of moxidectin 1% solution at a dose of 0.2 mg kg-1 was decreased
weight loss and productivity of milk and wool. Bauer and
Conraths (1994) performed a study in lambs which were experimentally infected
with H. contortus, Ostertagia sp., Trichostrongylus colubriformis,
Cooperia curticei and Oesophagostomum sp. and Chabertia ovina,
moxidectin at a dose of 0.2 mg kg-1, both as oral and parenteral
formulations, have been found to be 100% effective and with no side effects.
Torres-Acosta and Jacobs (1999) performed a study
in goats which were experimentally infected with nematodes (H. contortus,
T. circumcincta and T. colubriformis) 15, 22 or 29 days after
treatment, moxidectin 0.1% oral drench at 0.2 mg kg-1, have been
found to be effective for goats treated 15, 22 and 29 days before infection
with H. contortus were 100, 100 and 99.7%, respectively and corresponding
values for T. circumcincta were 95.7, 99.9 and 94.9% with easy to use
and no side effects. The other study was investigated effects of the single
and pair applications of 1% of injectable moxidectin solution in 14 sheep aged
between 2 and 6 infected with Psoroptes ovis and moxidectin was found
to be effective 100% all of the sheep (Coles et al.,
1994). Moxidectin was used for the treatment of Strongylus sp. infection
in horses and it was determined to be effective 100% (Xiao
et al., 1994). Some researchers have used moxidectin at doses of
0.3 and 0.5 mg kg-1 in calves with naturally infected with gastrointestinal
and lung nematodes, pour-on formulation. They have been found 100% effective
on adult forms of D. viviparus, Trichostrongylus axei, Ostertagia
sp. and Nematodirus helvetianus (Hubert and et
al., 1995). Tuzer et al. (1999) found
successful results in lambs on the 7th (100%), 14th day (99.9%) and 28th day
(100%) and in calves on the 7th (100%), 14th day (99.9%) and 28th day (98.9%)
after treatment. In the present study, larvae of the parasite species of Haemonchus,
Ostertagia, Nematodirus and Trichostrongylus were determined
in the coprocultures of the infected animals prior treatment. Use of moxidectin
in this study proved a high efficacy (100%) against above mentioned gastrointestinal
nematodes when administered subcutaneously 0.2 mg kg-1 on goats.
We obtained successful results after the 7 and 14 days of the moxidectin treatment
on goats. During and after the treatment of moxidectin, no adverse effects were
observed in the goats.
Development of resistance for many antiparasitary drugs requires careful usage
of these drugs worldwide (Kieran, 1994; Kulda,
1999). The risk of resistance development may be reduced to minimum by preventing
the sales without prescription and by using the drug carefully. Although moxidectin
is a novel drug, there are many forms in which resistance development are reported
and local usage of moxidectin is required carefully (Besier
and Love, 2003; Kaplan et al., 2007). No
development of resistance has been come across in present study. These results
indicate that the moxidectin should be preferred for treatment of animals having
This study was supported by a grant from the Scientific Research Projects Fund of Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey with a grant number 2006- MYOB31. Thanks to Prof. Dr. Hasan Yilmaz for diagnosing of parasites, at the Department of Parasitology in Faculty of Medicine.
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