Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Growth Performance and Haematological Parameters of Cockerel Fed House Fly Larvae as a Substitute to Fish Meal



Cyrille d’Alex Tadondjou Tchingo, Roger Ponka, Samuel Babissi, Mamoudou Oumarou, Ferdinand Ngoula and Alexis Teguia
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Maggots seem to be one of the promising alternatives of animal protein for livestock. One of the characteristics of the Far-North Region, Cameroon, is the abundance of house flies during the hot ambient periods of the year. The present work aims to produce maggots and assess the growth performance and physiological status of cockerel-fed maggot meal as a protein substitute for fish meal. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 40 cockerels (6 weeks), weighing 151.08±35.27 g, all from a producer of layer chicks, were used. Birds were randomly allocated to 4 treatments, each containing 10 cockerels. The 4 treatment groups were respectively fed different diets from the beginning to the end of a 5th week experiment. Formulated diets contained maggot meal (MM) and substituting fishmeal (FM) at graded levels, 0, 25, 50 and 75%. Throughout the experiment, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. At the end of the experiment, haematological parameters and production costs were evaluated. Results: The daily feed intake, the daily energy intake, the daily protein intake and the feed conversion ratio were not significantly (p>0.05) different between treatments. As compared to a diet containing only fish meal (R0), the daily body weight gain of cockerels fed on a diet containing 75% maggot meal was significantly lower (p<0.01). As compared to a diet containing only fish meal, the feed cost per kg of body weight gain, obtained in cockerels fed a 75% maggot meal diet, increased by 14.5%. Haematological parameters were not affected by treatments (p>0.05). Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the house fly maggot meal can be used safely in cockerel nutrition but fish meal replacement by house maggot meal should not exceed 50% in cockerel.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Cyrille d’Alex Tadondjou Tchingo, Roger Ponka, Samuel Babissi, Mamoudou Oumarou, Ferdinand Ngoula and Alexis Teguia, 2022. Growth Performance and Haematological Parameters of Cockerel Fed House Fly Larvae as a Substitute to Fish Meal. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences, 16: 37-44.

DOI: 10.3923/ajas.2022.37.44

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajas.2022.37.44
 
Copyright: © 2022. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

INTRODUCTION

The growth in poultry production is having a huge effect on the availability of high-quality feeds and consequently on feed cost1. High-quality feeds and nutrient balance are critical for high productivity and efficiency. The genetic potential of chicken is well expressed with properly formulated feeds that are protein- and energy-dense2. In poultry, protein supplies amino acids for tissue building and reparation, muscle growth and synthesis of egg protein1. In most developing countries, the main conventional feed resources of protein are soya bean meal, groundnut meal, cottonseed meal or fish meal. They are expensive and used extensively by other livestock and humans3. Among those sources, fish meal is the only source of animal protein. Fish stocks are overexploited and one of the consequences is the low availability of fish meal for livestock4. It is well established that animal proteins contain all the essential amino acids meanwhile plant-based proteins are rich in some amino acids but may lack others5. Moreover, the chemical analysis of plant sources showed lower protein content as compared to animal sources. Plant sources are also rich in anti-nutritional compounds that reduce digestibility and nutrient assimilation4. The attention of researchers has been focused on unconventional alternative sources of animal protein. Such alternatives should have comparative nutritive value but are cheaper than the conventional feed ingredients6. Maggots seem to be one of the promising alternatives to animal protein for livestock. Several studies reported that the crude protein content of maggot range between 25-64%, which is comparable to that of fish meal7,8. Moreover, the amino acids profiles in black soldier fly larvae and maggots seem to be suitable for poultry. Chemical analysis of maggots showed the presence of all the essential amino acids9,10. The effects of the house fly larvae and black soldier fly larvae on poultry production performance have been carried out in early studies. In broiler chicken, it has been reported that maggot meal could suitably replace fish meal in broiler diets11-14. Fanadzenyuy et al.15 obtained better carcass characteristics performance in broiler chickens fed 100% maggot meal as a protein substitute for fish meal. Inversely, other authors showed that the growth performance was better with 50% fish meal substitution by maggot meal6. In young turkeys, Agodokpessi et al.16 pointed out that fish meal replacement by maggot meal at 50 and 100% in the starter diet, improved the feed conversion ratio. The heterogeneity across findings in studies may reflect the great variation reported in the chemical composition of maggots. Those variations may be related to the type of substrate8, production locality17 or production methods18,19. Moreover, substrates usually used for maggot production can be a source of the potential accumulation of chemicals and pathogens20.

The influence of the production locality is likely related to an environmental condition such as temperature or humidity19. In Cameroon, many studies on maggot production have been carried out in the soudano-guinean agroecology area but none was done in the Sahelian area such as the Far North. One of the characteristics of this region is the abundance of house flies during the hot ambient periods of the year. The objective of this work was then to evaluate the maggot production during the hottest season of the year and assess the growth performance and physiological status of cockerel fed maggot meal as a protein substitute for fish meal.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The present work was carried out in two experiments: In the first experiment, the maggot production in the different substrate was evaluated, with and without attractive substances, in the second experiment, maggots produced from ruminal content was used as a protein substitute for fish meal in cockerel.

Experiment 1: Maggot production in the different substrates and attractive substances
Study area: The study was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Maroua, located in Maroua (latitude: 10°35'N, longitude: 14°19'E, altitude 384 m), from March-May, 2021. The climatic characteristics of the city at the time of the study were recorded in Table 1.

Production substrates and attractive substances: To assess the effect of the type of substrate on maggot production, three substrates were used: Ruminal content, cow dung and pig manure. The fresh cow dung and ruminal content were collected at the slaughterhouse of Makabaye in the Maroua 1 subdivision, meanwhile, the pig manure was collected from a private piggery in Makabaye. Fish waste, mango puree and fresh bovine blood were used as housefly attractive.

Experimental design: The maggot production was assessed in two tests. The first testing consisted of evaluating the production of three substrates (ruminal content, cow dung and pig manure) enriched with fish waste. For the second testing, the maggot production was evaluated in ruminal content enriched with fish waste, mango puree or fresh bovine blood. For each test, the experimental design consisted of 3 treatments repeated 3 times. Each repetition consisted of 6 half cans of 20 L.

Table 1: Weather data in Maroua during the experiment
Months
Mean temperature (°C)
Maximum temperature (°C)
Minimum temperature (°C)
Wind speed (km h1)
Humidity (%)
March, 2021
33
40
26
17
22
April, 2021
36
41
30
16
21
May, 2021
36
40
31
15
40
Source: cds.climate.copernicus.eu


Table 2: Ingredients and nutrient composition of experimental diets
Ingredients
R0
R25
R50
R75
Maize
61
61
61
61
Corn bran
6
6
6
6
Premix*
5
5
5
5
Cotton cake
13
13
13
13
Soybean meal
6
6
6
6
Fish meal
5
3.75
2.5
1.25
Maggots meal
0
1.25
2.5
3.75
Palm oil
2
2
2
2
Bone meal
1
1
1
1
Oyster shell
1
1
1
1
Total
100
100
100
100
Calculated values
ME (kcal kg1)
3005.8
3012.54
3019.28
3026.02
CP (%)
20.54
20.16
19.78
19.39
Energy/protein
146.33
149.43
152.64
156.06
ME: Metabolizable energy, CP: Crude protein, *Premix: CP = 40%, ME: 2078 kcal kg1, Calcium: 8%, Phosphorus: 2.05%, Lysine: 3.3% and Methionine: 2.4%

In one container, 2 kg of substrate enriched or not with 250 g of attractants were introduced. After 24 hrs of sowing, the containers were covered with non-impregnated mosquito nets. The maggots were harvested on the 5th day after sowing.

Data collection: After harvesting, fresh maggot biomass was determined. The chemical composition was estimated accordingly to the methodology described by Helrich and AOAC21, at the lab of nutrition and animal feed of the Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences (The University of Dschang).

Experiment 2: Growth performance and physiological status of cockerel fed maggot meal as a protein substitute for fish meal
A total of 40 cockerels (6 weeks), weighing 151.08±35.27 g, all from a producer of layer chicks, were used. They were allowed to acclimate for a week at the farm. Chicks were kept under similar environmental and managerial conditions during the experiment (5 weeks). Feed and water were given ad libitum in adapted equipment.

Experimental design: Birds were randomly allocated to 4 treatments, each containing 10 cockerels. The 4 treatment groups were, respectively fed different diets from the beginning to the end of a 5th week experiment. Formulated diets contained maggot meal (MM) substituting fish meal (FM) at graded levels, 0, 25, 50 and 75% (Table 2). Maggots were produced at the farm and sent for analysis at the Lab of nutrition and animals feed of the Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences (The University of Dschang). Other ingredients were purchased from the local market.

Data collection: Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratios were recorded weekly. The economic evaluation was also done by determining: Cost/kg feed consumed, Feed cost/kg weight gain. Estimations were done based on the local cost of each ingredient. In the 5th week of the experiment, blood was collected from an ulnar vein of 6 birds/treatment. Blood was collected into tubes containing the anticoagulant Ethylene Diamine Tetra-acetate (EDTA) to prevent clotting. Each blood sample collected was subjected to haematological analysis of Red Blood Cell (RBC), hemoglobin, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), erythrocyte indices and platelets in the laboratory. Haematological analyses were performed using an automatic analyzer, SNFS BC30S.

Data analysis: Data collected were presented as Mean±Standard Deviation. Data were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of p<0.05 following the general linear model procedure. When differences were significant between means, the Tukey test was used to separate means. All statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Instat 3.1.

RESULTS

Experiment 1: Maggot production
Type of substrate and attractants in production: The fresh biomass of maggot produced in three substrates (ruminal content, pig manure or cow dung) were presented in Fig. 1. Fresh biomass of maggot was significantly lower (p<0.0001) in cow dung as compared to values of this parameter obtained in other substrates.

The fresh biomass of maggot produced in ruminal content enriched with fish waste, mature mango puree or fresh bovine blood as illustrated in Fig. 2. Maggot production in ruminal content enriched with fish waste was significantly higher (p<0.0001) than that obtained with other attractants. However, the production registered in ruminal content enriched with mature mango puree or fresh beef blood was statistically (p>0.05) comparable.

Type of substrate and attractants on the chemical composition of maggot: The chemical composition of maggot produced in ruminant content, pig manure, cow dung or in ruminant content enriched with fish waste, mature mango puree or fresh bovine blood were summarized in Table 3. The highest values of dry matter, ash and fat and the lowest value of crude protein were recorded with maggot produced in ruminal content.

Maggot produced in ruminal content enriched with fish waste, mature mango puree or fresh bovine blood showed variation in crude protein content. The highest value was obtained with maggot produced in ruminal content enriched with fresh bovine blood.

Experiment 2: Growth performance and physiological response
Growth performance: Growth parameters of cockerel fed on diets containing maggot meal at the graded level were presented in Table 4. Results showed that the daily feed intake, daily energy intake, daily protein intake and the feed conversion ratio were not significantly (p>0.05) different between treatments. Although, the highest values of the daily feed intake, daily energy intake, daily protein intake and daily body weight gain were obtained with a diet containing only fish meal (R0).

Image for - Growth Performance and Haematological Parameters of Cockerel Fed House Fly Larvae as a Substitute to Fish Meal
Fig. 1: Fresh biomass of maggot produced in three different substrates
Mean values with a different superscript in a row differ significantly ( p<0.05)


Table 3: Chemical composition of maggot
Dry matter
Ash (% DM)
Organic matter (% DM)
Fat (% DM)
Crude protein (% DM)
Type of substrate
Ruminal content
86.45
9.13
89.44
20.23
25.68
Pig manure
72.1
3.11
96.88
10.08
36.055
Cow dung
76.5
8
89.54
9.035
33.61
Type of attractants
Ruminal content+fish waste
86.43
8.97
89.62
20.21
25.66
Ruminal content+mature mango puree
85.7
7.62
91.1
22.98
26.83
Ruminal content+fresh bovine blood
86.72
5.915
93.405
18.715
31.09


Table 4: Growth parameters of cockerel fed on diets with different content of maggot meal
Parameters
R0
R25
R50
R75
p-value
Daily feed intake (g)
49.01±5.01
46.3±5.33
48.48±4.91
45.66±2.66
0.485
Daily energy intake (kcal)
147.34±33.02
139.49±34.66
146.37±31.89
138.17±20.89
0.485
Daily protein intake (g)
10.06±2.25
9.33±2.32
9.59±2.08
8.85±1.33
0.095
Daily body weight gain (g)
15.4±4.09a
13.44±4.99ab
13.61±3.26ab
11.87±2.98b
0.003
Feed conversion ratio
3.16±0.06
3.46±0.34
3.55±0.41
3.94±0.83
0.319
Economic evaluation cost/kg feed consumed (CFAF)
429.02
424.5
419.77
415.14
Feed cost/kg weight gain (CFAF)
1365.34
1462.37
1495.24
1596.89
Mean values with a different superscript in a row differ significantly (p<0.05)


Table 5: Haematological parameters of cockerel fed on diets with different content of maggot meal
Parameters
R0
R25
R50
R75
p-value
RBC (1012 L1)
2.252±0.105
2.274±0.083
2.216±0.136
2.236±0.163
0.901
HG (g L1)
128.6±6.188
129±5
126.4±7.569
128.2±8.167
0.934
PCV (%)
28.14±1.705
28.28±0.864
27.16±1.745
27.64±1.659
0.654
MCV (fl)
124.86±4.267
124.2±3.607
122.6±4.186
123.76±2.612
0.806
MCH (pg)
57.14±1.192
56.76±1.781
57.18±1.505
57.34±0.618
0.917
MCHC (g L1)
458±9.513
457.2±10.779
466.6±10.039
463.4±5.366
0.343
PLT (109 L1)
6.6±1.673
7±3.082
6.4±1.516
5.4±1.516
0.656


Image for - Growth Performance and Haematological Parameters of Cockerel Fed House Fly Larvae as a Substitute to Fish Meal
Fig. 2: Fresh biomass of maggot produced in ruminal content enriched with fish waste, mature mango puree or fresh bovine blood
Mean values with a different superscript in a row differ significantly (p<0.05)

The lowest value of feed conversion ratio was also registered in cockerel fed diet R0. As compared to a diet containing only fish meal (R0), the daily body weight gain of cockerels fed on a diet containing 75% maggot meal was significantly lower (p<0.01).

Production cost: The economic evaluation of the diets used in this study was presented in Table 4. It comes out from this table that the cost of kg feed consumed decreases with the increase of maggot meal in the diet. Inversely, feed cost per kg body weight gain increased with maggot meal quantity in diet. As compared to a diet containing only fish meal, the feed cost per kg of body weight gain, obtained in cockerels fed a 75% maggot meal diet, increased by 14.5%.

Haematological parameters: Irrespective of treatment (Table 5), Red Blood Cell count, Haemoglobin, Pack Cell Volume, platelet cell count and other haematological indexes were comparable (p>0.05).

DISCUSSION

Maggots of ordinary flies are increasingly considered in the world of animal feed. Numerous studies have thus contributed to highlighting some factors determining the production of maggots in various localities. In the present experiment, results revealed that fresh biomass was significantly lower in cow dung as compared to the quantity obtained in ruminal content of pig manure. This result could be attributed to the ability of each substrate to attract flies. Current results agreed with those of Itongwa et al.22, who reported a higher maggot production in ruminal content as compared to cow dung. Our findings showed that maggot production in ruminal content and pig manure were similar. This result is different from those obtained by Itongwa et al.22 who pointed out a significantly higher production in ruminal content as compared to pig manure. On contrary, Tendonkeng et al.8 reported higher biomass from pig manure. The heterogeneity between findings may be related to the fly families available in each production area or to the environmental temperature and humidity. Itongwa et al.22 revealed that the Muscidae family is more attracted by ruminal content meanwhile, the Calliphoridae family is more attracted by pig manure than by ruminal content. In our study, fish waste was added to all the substrates. Their presence could explain our results since Itongwa et al.22 showed that the Muscidae and Calliphoridae families are well attracted by fish waste. Our study identified those two fly families as predominant in our study area. During our experiment, the mean temperature was between 33-36°C and the humidity between 21 and 40%. These climate conditions were different to those of the study area reported by Tendonkeng et al.8 (21-33°C and >60%) or Itongwa et al.22 (15-19.5°C and 68-75%). The maggot biomass produced from ruminal content enriched with fish waste was significantly higher than those obtained from the same substrate enriched with mango puree or fresh bovine blood. These results agreed with those of Itongwa et al.22, who reported that fish waste is more attractive to Muscidae and Calliphoridae than mango peel.

The chemical composition of maggot revealed heterogeneity of value between substrates. Maggot produced from ruminal content expressed the highest value of fat (20.23% of dry matter) but the lowest content of crude protein (25.68% of dry matter) as compared to the value of the same parameters obtained from pig manure (fat: 10.08%, crude protein: 36.05%) or cow dung (fat: 9.03%, crude protein: 33.61%). These results agreed with those of Itongwa et al.22 who reported that maggots issued from ruminal content have lower crude protein and higher fat content as compared to maggots produced from pig manure or cow dung. As previously reported by Tendonkeng et al.8, the highest value of organic matter was obtained on maggot meal produced in pig manure.

Irrespective of the substrate, the crude protein content (25-36%) was lower than that reported by several authors (38-61%). This would be related to the drying method used. In this experiment, maggot samples were sun-dried while in many other studies, they were oven-dried. Aniebo and Owen23 stated that the oven-dried method increases fat content and reduces crude protein content of maggot samples. Maggot samples produced in ruminal content enriched with fresh beef blood expressed the highest crude protein content (31.09%). Tendonkeng et al.8 pointed out that as compared to ruminal content, blood-enriched ruminal content produced significantly higher biomass of maggot.

Under similar environmental and managerial conditions, the growth performance of healthy animals is related to the nutritional value of their feed, their feed consumption as well as their digestibility efficiency. In this study, daily feed intake slightly decreased with the increase of maggot meal in the diet. This result can be explained by an adverse effect of maggot meal on the diet. It has been reported that the texture and colour of the feed containing maggots render the feed less palatable24. These findings may also be related to the variation in diets energy and protein content. It is well established that any change in poultry nutrition, especially in energy or protein content is reflected in feed intake2,25. Poultry eats primarily to satisfy their energy needs2. Following this statement, our results showed similar values of daily energy intake between treatments.

Although, feed intake and energy intake were not statistically different between treatments, daily body weight gain was significantly lower (p<0.01) in 75% maggot meal (R75) as compared to 100% fish meal diet (R0). This result can be explained at least by better utilization of the diet containing only fish meals. In fact, with 61.3% of crude protein, a fish meal could provide more essential amino acids than a maggot meal used which contains 30.65% crude protein. According to several authors, maggot meal and fish meal can both provide all the then essential amino acids needed by chickens. However, their concentration depends on several factors among which total protein content of feed17,26,27. A diet containing 75% maggot meal as a substitute for a fish meal could have supplied less quantity of essential amino acids needed for maintenance and muscle growth. Current results on daily protein intake showed that the lowest value of this parameter was obtained with a 75% maggot meal diet. This study’s findings agreed with those of previous studies which reported that better growth performance in broiler was obtained when fish meal substitution by maggot meal was not higher than 50%6,17. Another possible explanation for the decrease of daily body gain of cockerel fed graded maggot meal content may be a result of specific interaction between fish and maggot when combined14.

Despite that the cost of kg feed consumed decreases with the increase of maggot meal in diet, feed cost per kg of body weight gain, obtained in cockerels fed 75% maggot meal diet, increased by 14.5% as compared to a diet containing only fish meal. These findings were in agreement with the values of the feed conversion ratio obtained in this study. These results showed that a diet containing only fish meal was better converted into body weight than that containing maggot meal used in this study.

One of the most important concerns about the use of maggots in animal feeding is the living model of the house fly, being a vector of pathogens14. Haematological parameters are usually used in the diagnosis of physiological or metabolic disorders. They are also used as physiological indicators of environmental or nutritional stressors28,29. From current results, red blood cell count, haemoglobin, pack cell volume and platelet cell count were not affected by maggot meal incorporation. The values obtained in this study were within the normal range for chicken, which indicates no harmful effects of maggot meal on the health status of the birds30. The present results are in line with the findings of Duwa et al.31 who reported that soybean replacement in rabbits with maggot meal (5%) showed no adverse effects on haematological indices.

CONCLUSION

Ruminal content enriched with fish waste is a good substrate for maggot production during the dry season, in an environment where the main fly families identified are Muscidae and Calliphoridae. Fish meal replacement by maggot meal should not exceed 50% in cockerel. Moreover, the house fly maggot meal can be used safely in cockerel nutrition. However, in the conditions of this experiment, a diet containing only fish meal showed the best growth performance and feed cost for meat. Taking into account the determining effect of temperature and humidity on maggot production, it will be interesting to evaluate the production during the other period of the year, in the same environment.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

Housefly larvae are increasingly considered a promising alternative to animal protein in the world of animal feed. For this purpose, projects on determining the factors required for optimal production of maggots and utilization have been implemented in various localities. This study identifies the main fly families in the Maroua area and some required conditions for the good production of maggots in the dry season. The present study also contributes to determining the optimal incorporation rate of locally produced maggots as a replacement for fish meals in the starter diet of a cockerel.

REFERENCES

  1. Neves, D.P., T.M. Banhazi and I.A. Nääs, 2014. Feeding behaviour of broiler chickens: A review on the biomechanical characteristics. Braz. J. Poult. Sci., 16: 1-16.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  2. Beski, S.S.M., R.A. Swick and P.A. Iji, 2015. Specialized protein products in broiler chicken nutrition: A review. Anim. Nutr., 1: 47-53.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  3. Gadzirayi, C.T., B. Masamha, J.F. Mupangwa and S. Washaya, 2012. Performance of broiler chickens fed on mature Moringa oleifera leaf meal as a protein supplement to soyabean meal. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 11: 5-10.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  4. Olsen, R.L. and M.R. Hasan, 2012. A limited supply of fishmeal: Impact on future increases in global aquaculture production. Trends Food Sci. Technol., 27: 120-128.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  5. Lim, M.T., B.J. Pan, D.W.K. Toh, C.N. Sutanto and J.E. Kim, 2021. Animal protein versus plant protein in supporting lean mass and muscle strength: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrients, Vol. 13.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  6. Okah, U. and E.B. Onwujiariri, 2012. Performance of finisher broiler chickens fed maggot meal as a replacement for fish meal. J. Agric. Technol., 8: 471-477.
    Direct Link  |  


  7. Pieterse, E. and Q. Pretorius, 2013. Nutritional evaluation of dried larvae and pupae meal of the housefly (Musca domestica) using chemical- and broiler-based biological assays. Anim. Prod. Sci., 54: 347-355.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  8. Tendonkeng, F., E. Miégoué, J. Lemoufouet, M. Mouchili and N.F. Matimuini, 2017. Production and chemical composition of maggots from different type of substrates. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 29.
    Direct Link  |  


  9. Kenis, M., N. Koné, C.A.A.M. Chrysostome, E. Devic and G.K.D. Koko et al., 2014. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa. Entomologia, 2: 107-114.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  10. El-Hack, M.E.A., M.E. Shafi, W.Y. Alghamdi, S.A. Abdelnour and A.M. Shehata et al., 2020. Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) meal as a promising feed ingredient for poultry: A comprehensive review. Agriculture, Vol. 10.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  11. Teguia, A., M. Mpoame and J.A.O. Mba, 2002. The production performance of broiler birds as affected by the replacement of fish meal by maggot meal in the starter and finisher diets. Tropiculture, 20: 187-192.
    Direct Link  |  


  12. Milutin, Đ., R.D. Brana, V. Marijana, M. Baltić and T. Radislava et al., 2008. Effects of substitution of fish meal with fresh and dehydrated larvae of the house fly (Musca domestica L) on productive performance and health of broilers. Acta Vet. (Beogr.) 58: 357-368.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  13. Okubanjo, A.O., E.S. Apata and O.O. Babalola, 2014. Carcass and organoleptic qualities of chicken broilers fed maggot meal in replacement for dietary fish meal. Am. J. Res. Commun., 2: 147-157.
    Direct Link  |  


  14. Attivi, K., K. Agboka, G.K. Mlaga, O.E. Oke, A. Teteh, O. Onagbesan and K. Tona, 2020. Effect of black soldier fly (hermetia illucens) maggots meal as a substitute for fish meal on growth performance, biochemical parameters and digestibility of broiler chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 19: 75-80.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  15. Fanadzenyuy, M.H., K.A. Etchu and K. Ndamukong, 2019. Carcass characteristics, hematology, serum chemistry, and enzymes in broiler chickens fed maggot meal as a protein substitute for fishmeal. Global J. Med. Res.: G Vet. Sci. Vet. Med., 19: 6-13.
    Direct Link  |  


  16. Agodokpessi, B.J., Y. Toukourou, I.T. Alkoiret and M.H. Senou, 2016. Zootechnic performances of turkey poults fed with maggot flour -based rations Tropicultura, 34: 253-261.
    Direct Link  |  


  17. Neumann, C., S. Velten and F. Liebert, 2018. Improving the dietary protein quality by amino acid fortification with a high inclusion level of micro algae (Spirulina platensis) or insect meal (Hermetia illucens) in meat type chicken diets. Open J. Anim. Sci., 8: 12-26.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  18. Sanou, A.G., F. Sankara, S. Pousga, K. Coulibaly and J.P. Nacoulma et al., 2019. Production de masse de larves de Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) pour l’aviculture au Burkina Faso: Analyse des facteurs déterminants en oviposition naturelle. J. Appl. Biosci., 134: 13689-13701.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  19. Ganda, H., E.T. Zannou-Boukari, M. Kenis, C.A.A.M. Chrysostome and G.A. Mensah, 2019. Potentials of animal, crop and agri-food wastes for the production of fly larvae. J. Insects Food Feed, 5: 59-67.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  20. Charlton, A.J., M. Dickinson, M.E. Wakefield, E. Fitches and M. Kenis et al., 2015. Exploring the chemical safety of fly larvae as a source of protein for animal feed. J. Insects Food Feed, 1: 7-16.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  21. Helrich, K. and AOAC., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 15th Edn., Arlington, VA: The Association, Washington D.C., ISBN-13: 9780935584424
    Direct Link  |  


  22. Itongwa, J.A., D.S. Wasso, L.M. Kazamwali, B.N. Patrick and J.P.B. Bajope, 2019. Production trial and chemical composition of maggots obtained from local substrates in South Kivu (DRC). J. Appl. Biosci., 142: 14529-14539.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  23. Aniebo, A.O. and O.J. Owen, 2010. Effects of age and method of drying on the proximate composition of housefly larvae (Musca domestica Linnaeus) Meal (HFLM). Pak. J. Nutr., 9: 485-487.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  24. Moula, N. and J. Detilleux, 2019. A meta-analysis of the effects of insects in feed on poultry growth performances. Animals, Vol. 9.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  25. Ferket, P.R. and A.G. Gernat, 2006. Factors that affect feed intake of meat birds: A review. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 5: 905-911.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  26. Aniebo, A.O., E.S. Erondu and O.J. Owe, 2008. Proximate composition of housefly larvae (Musca domestica) meal generated from mixture of cattle blood and wheat bran. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 20.
    Direct Link  |  


  27. Hwangbo, J., E.C. Hong, A. Jang, H.K. Kang, J.S. Oh, B.W. Kim and B.S. Park, 2009. Utilization of house fly-maggots, a feed supplement in the production of broiler chickens. J. Environ. Biol., 30: 609-614.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  


  28. Afolabi, K.D., A.O. Akinsoyinu, A.R.O. Abdullah, R. Olajide and S.B. Akinleye, 2011. Haematological parameters of the Nigerian local grower chickens fed varying dietary levels of palm kernel cake. Poljoprivreda, 17: 74-78.
    Direct Link  |  


  29. Albokhadaim, I., 2012. Hematological and some biochemical values of indigenous chickens in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia during summer season. Asian J. Poult. Sci., 6: 138-145.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  30. Campbell, T.W., C.K. Ellis and B. Doneley, 2007. Avian and Exotic Animal Hematology and Cytology. 3rd Edn., Blackwell Publishing, Ames, Iowa, USA, Pages: 270
    Direct Link  |  


  31. Duwa, H., B. Saleh and J.U. Igwebuike, 2014. The replacement of fish meal with maggot meal on the performance, carcass characteristic, haematological and serum biochemical indices of growing rabbits. Global J. Bio-Sci. Biotechnol., 3: 215-220.
    Direct Link  |  


©  2022 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved