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Research Article
 

Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Crude Extracts of Allium cepa, Moringa oliefera and Vernonia amygdalina



I.O. Obaroh, J.N. Keta and J. Nwaogu
 
ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: The need for food security has led to the prohibition of antibiotics used as growth promoter, to replace their effects, phytoadditives obtained from plant could be an alternative. Thus, this study was carried out in order to assess the growth performance of Allium cepa, Moringa oliefera and Vernonia amygdalina extracts on Clarias gariepinus. Materials and Methods: Leaves were shade-dried, ground and sieved, while the fresh A. cepa bulbs were ground. About 100 g of each plant material was soaked in 500 mL ethanol for 24 h with constant shaking at intervals, afterward it was filtered. A total of 300 Clarias gariepinus fingerlings of mean weight ranging between 3.73±0.35-4.63±0.32 g were obtained from a hatchery. Fingerlings were divided into 10 groups representing the treatments (Control, A1, A2, A3, M1, M2, M3, V1, V2 and V3). Each group consist of 30 fishes. Fingerlings were stocked in outdoor concrete tanks (measuring 2×2×1.5 m). Water parameters were monitored twice in a week. Results: The highest final mean weight and mean weight gained were observed in group of fish fed with 0.5 g kg1 of M. oliefera extract (M1) with values of 44.22±3.89 and 39.72±3.30 g, respectively, while the least for both parameters were observed in group of fish fed with 1.5 g kg1 of A. cepa (A3) with values of 29.44±4.26 and 25.48±1.93 g, respectively. At higher concentrations the 3 plant extracts exerted low growth response on C. gariepinus, while at low concentrations A. cepa and M. oliefera extracts exerted positive growth response on C. gariepinus. Statistical analysis showed significant difference when the highest mean weight gained was compared with the control and other groups. Conclusion: This study infers that, at low concentration Allium cepa, Moringa oliefera and Vernonia amygdalina has growth promoting effects, furthermore Moringa oliefera leaf and Allium cepa bulb had superior performance over the control diet. The use of phytoadditives to replace antibiotics has just begun, it is hoped that, further research on their long duration use in fish culture will further establish their potency.

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I.O. Obaroh, J.N. Keta and J. Nwaogu, 2018. Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Crude Extracts of Allium cepa, Moringa oliefera and Vernonia amygdalina. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences, 12: 36-41.

DOI: 10.3923/ajas.2018.36.41

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajas.2018.36.41
 
Received: August 25, 2018; Accepted: November 16, 2018; Published: December 29, 2018


Copyright: © 2018. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

INTRODUCTION

Hormones, antibiotics, vitamins and several synthetic products have been used as growth promoters, anti-bacterials and other purposes in mariculture, though they have been reported to have positive effects on fish and shrimps it has been observed that they cannot be recommended in commercial culture operations due to their residual effects in the muscles of fish and shrimps1. Furthermore, the growing tendency for food safety has led to the ban of antibiotics which has widely been used to enhanced growth. To replace their activity on growth there is need to investigate for natural, cheap and biodegradable alternatives. Phytoadditives are folder additive obtained from plant extract. Plant materials serve as storehouses for safer, cheaper and biodegradable chemicals2. It has also been found to contain an antioxidant a type of molecules that neutralizes harmful compounds called free radicals that damage living cells and spoil food3-6.

Ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) was reported to enhance the growth of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus with significant variations in the growth parameters and food conversion ratio7. Improved feed conversion rates were observed when garlic was added to grower-finisher pigs diet at the levels of 1 or 10 g kg1 diet8. Yucca schidigera plant extracts has been found to improve growth, feed efficiency and health in ruminants9. Significant increase in weight was reported when Allium cepa was fed to broiler chicken10,11. Also Vernonia amydalina leaves has been used to enhance growth of broiler chicken12.

Allium cepa, Moringa oleifera and Vernonia amydalina plant extracts have been reported to enhance growth in broiler chicken and tilapia. There are fewer work on their effects on the growth response of Clarias gariepinus. Moringa oleifera leaf meal and not the extract was used as substitute for fish meal authors reported poor growth response with the control group having the highest mean weight gained13,14. However, earlier work in 2016 reported appreciable growth response when Moringa oleifera leaf meal was fed to fish14 but no significant difference was recorded between the highest growth and the control group. Most work on Allium cepa, Moringa oleifera and Vernonia amydalina was at replacing fishmeal with the plant material, thus the need to study the effects of these phytoadditives (not as a substitute) on growth response of Clarias gariepinus.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study location: This study was carried out between the month of July 22nd to August 19th 2017 at the Fisheries and Hydrobiology Research unit, Department of Biological Sciences, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria. It lies on the geographical coordinates of 12°16'41"N, 4°27'6"E.

Acquisition and preparation of plant materials: The fresh bulb of Allium cepa were purchased from Aliero market. Fresh leaves of Moringa oliefera and Vernonia amydalina, were obtained within the University and Shade-dried. The dried leaves and bulb were ground with an electric blender. About 100 g of each ground plant materials were soaked in 500 mL ethanol for 24 h with constant shaking at intervals15. Afterwards each were filtered using Whatman No. 1 filter paper, the filtrate was concentrated using a water bath to obtain jelly-like extract.

Experimental design: A total of 300 Clarias gariepinus fingerlings of mean weight ranging between 3.73±0.35- 4.63±0.32 g were obtained from the hatchery. Fingerlings were divided into 10 groups representing the treatments (Control, A1, A2, A3, M1, M2, M3, V1, V2 and V3). Each group consists of 30 fishes. Fingerlings were stocked in outdoor concrete tanks (measuring 2×2×1.5 m), they were fed 3% of their body weight. The feeding trails lasted for 28 days.

Preparation of experimental diets: A basal diet containing 40% crude protein was formulated with the following ingredients; Yellow maize, Groundnut cake, Soybean meal, Fish meal, Blood meal, Cassava starch (binder), Methionine and Vitamin/Mineral premix. All ingredients and the inclusion levels (0.5, 1.5 and 2.0 g kg1 of diet) of the plant extracts were weighted mixed and pelleted using a pelleting machine. Each of the 4 experimental diets (per plant extract) was pelletized with a die of 1 mm in diameter, air dried, kept in labeled cellophane bags and stored in the refrigerator until when needed.

Determination of some physico-chemical parameters of cultures: The physico-chemical parameters which include; temperature, pH, alkalinity and dissolved oxygen were determined bi-weekly during study.

Determination of growth/survival rate: Average daily growth rate (ADG):

Specific growth rate (SGR %/day):


Where:
Wf = Final average weight at the end of the experiment
Wi = Initial weight at the beginning of the experiment
t = Culture period in days

Food conversion ratio (FCR): Leftover feeds were collected at interval of 2 weeks, dried in an oven at 50°C and weighed:

Survival rate (%):


Where:
Ni = Total number of fish at the end of the experiment
No = Total number of fish stocked at the beginning of the experiment

Determination of nutrient utilization
Protein efficiency ratio (PER):

Protein consumed is to be calculated as the difference between the quantity of feed fed and the leftover on dry matter basis.

Data collection: Weights gained, leftover feed and water parameters were taken weekly using the meter scale and meter rule.

Statistical analysis: The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 a statistical software package for mean, standard deviation and one-way ANOVA to test for significant difference within the mean and student's t-test to test between two independent observations.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Physico-chemical parameters of water used in culture: Data in Table 1 showed the physico-chemical parameters of water in each experimental tank. The water temperature in the experimental concrete tanks ranged between 25.00±1.0- 27.00±1.0°C. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) when the highest value was compared with the lowest value. The pH of the water used for the culture ranged between 6.63±0.32-7.04±.0.17. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) across the groups. Dissolved oxygen content of water used for the culture ranged between 4.77±0.25-5.73±0.25 mg L1. Highest value was observed in tank containing fish fed with 0.5 g kg1 of V. amygdalina, while the lowest value was observed in tank containing fish fed with 1.0 g kg1 of A. cepa. There was variation (p<0.05) when the highest value was compared with the lowest. However, other groups showed no variation when compared with the highest and lowest values obtained. Physico-chemical parameters of water used for the culture were within the range of values requiring for optimum fish production in tropical region16.

Growth response of C. gariepinus fed with A. cepa, M. oliefera and V. amygdalina extract: Table 2 presented the growth response of C. gariepinus fed with A. cepa, M. oliefera and V. amygdalina extract.

Table 1:Physico-chemical parameters of water used in culture
A1, A2 and A3: A. cepa bulb extract. M1, M2 and M3: M. oliefera leaf extract, V1, V2 and V3: V. amygdalina leaf extract

Table 2: Growth response of C. gariepinus fed with A. cepa , M. oliefera and V. amygdalina extract
A1, A2 and A3: A. cepa bulb extract. M1, M2 and M3: M. oliefera leaf extract. V1, V2 and V3: V. amygdalina leaf extract

The highest final mean weight and mean weight gain were observed in the group of fish fed 0.5 g kg1 of M. oliefera extract (M1) with mean values of 44.22±3.89 and 39.72±3.30 g, respectively, while the least for both parameters were observed in group of fish fed 1.5 g kg1 of A. cepa (A3) with mean values of 29.44±4.26 and 25.48±1.93 g, respectively. At higher concentrations the three plant extracts showed low growth response, while at low concentrations A. cepa and M. oliefera extract showed good growth response. The mean weight gained in decreasing order is as follows; M1>A2>M2>M3>A1 >V1>Control>V2>V3>A3. Statistical analysis showed significant difference (p<0.05) across all the groups.

Fish fed 0.5 g kg1 of M. oliefera had the best average daily growth (ADG), specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) with values of 1.42±0.12, 8.17±0.17, 1.40±0.30 and 5.77±0.25, respectively. The least average daily growth (ADG), specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were observed in groups; V3 (0.91±0.03), V3 (7.17±0.18), V2 (1.73±0.12) and V2 (3.00±0.50), respectively. Analysis of variance showed significant difference (p<0.05) across all the parameters when compared with the control group. Hundred percent survival rate was recorded in groups of fish fed 0.5 g kg1 (M1) and 1.5 g kg1 (M3) M. oliefera extract, while the least (90.00±0.00%) was recorded in group of fish fed 1.5 g kg1 A. cepa (A3) and 1.0 g kg1 V. amygdalina (V2) leaf extracts. Significant difference (p<0.05) was observed when the highest value for survival rate was compared with the lowest survival rate.

This is the first research to report on the growth promoting effect of ethanolic extract of Moringa oliefera leaf and Allium cepa bulb on of C. gaiepinus, with high significant difference when compared with the control. Earlier studies reported poor growth even at low inclusion level13, this could be because plant materials were used as a substitute in replacing fishmeal and not as phytoadditives.

At low concentrations, Moringa oliefera and Allium cepa significantly increase the growth parameters of Clarias gariepinus, while increase in the concentration of the plant extract led to decrease in growth rates of the same fish species. Similar observation was made in earlier studies on other plant extracts, authors reported increase in growth rate at low concentrations7,17-20.

At high concentration A. cepa and V. amygdalina retarded the growth of C. gariepinus, in contrast to some researchers who observed increased in growth rate with increase in the concentration of plant extract fed to broiler chicken10,21 this could be as a result of differences in the physiology of this two organisms, chicken being a warm blooded (Poikilotherms) while fish is cold blooded (Homeotherms) organism.

CONCLUSION

Moringa oliefera and Allium cepa showed promising growth promoting effect on Clarias gariepinus. In the growing tendency for food safety which had led to the prohibition of synthetic hormones as growth promoter, Phytoadditives like ethanolic extract of Moringa oliefera leaf and Allium cepa bulb, could serve as alternative growth promoters.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

With the current growing world population there is need to meet up with the demand for animal protein. Hormones, antibiotics, vitamins and several synthetic products have been used as growth promoters in aquaculture, however the raising apprehension as to their safety to human and the environment led to the prohibition of their use. In a bit to replace their effect led to the search for natural alternatives, this alternative to replace synthetic growth promoter is the phytoadditives. Phytoadditives are additives obtained from plants extracts, they are safe, cheap and biodegradable. The use of phytoadditives to replace antibiotics has just begun, it is hoped that, further research on its long during use in fish culture will further establish its potency.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors wish to acknowledge Tertiary Education Trust Fund (Tetfund) Nigeria, for the grant.

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