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Fish availability and Marketing System at Local Markets of a Coastal District, Southern Bangladesh



Md. Yusuf Ali, Shaharior Hossen, S.M. Oasiqul Azad, Md. Shahin Alom, Md. Anwar Hossain Mondal, Mir Mohammad Ali and Mohammad Belal Hossain
 
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ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Fish biodiversity is important for the future sustainability of aquatic resources in Bangladesh. However, stresses due to overfishing, climate change, habitat loss, eutrophication and pollution pose threats to fish biodiversity. This study was designed to investigate the availability of fish species, marketing channel and constraints associated with 5 fish market in order to provide suggestions for efficient management and fish marketing system in Patuakhali district. Materials and Methods: Primary data were collected by using questionnaire interviews, participatory rural appraisals (PRA) and cross-check interviews with key informants from Pirtala, Rajakhali, Angaria, Lebukhali and Pangasius fish markets for 1 year from August, 2015-July, 2016. Results: A total number of 103 fish species belonging 55 freshwater, 37 marine and estuarine and 11 crustacean species were available in these fish market. Highest number (89) of fish species was recorded during the rainy season and lowest number of fish species (26) was recorded in summer season in 5 markets. Among them highest amounts were ilish (32.2%) and lowest amounts were exotic carp (3%). Pirtala bazar fish market represented highest number (95) of fish species where Pangasia (71) represented small number of fish species. Majority farmer/fisherme (50%) were directly sells their fish to the Aratders. Pirtala bazar fish market showed highest price compare to the other fish markets. Likert scale technique was developed to identify inadequate ice facilities as main problem of fish market. Conclusion: Rui, catla, thai pangus, silver carp, ilish, bata, tilapia species were most available in the market whereas species such as kajuli, gutum, tara baim, pabda, sagor rita, rup chanda were rare and chital and foli were very rare in the market due to over fishing and habitat destruction of these species. Enforcement of regulatory measure to protect habitat and reduce over fishing, establishment of ice factory, improved electricity and water supply, construction of cold storage, modern communication system and permanent platform were recommended to mitigate the constraints associated with the fish market.

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  How to cite this article:

Md. Yusuf Ali, Shaharior Hossen, S.M. Oasiqul Azad, Md. Shahin Alom, Md. Anwar Hossain Mondal, Mir Mohammad Ali and Mohammad Belal Hossain, 2017. Fish availability and Marketing System at Local Markets of a Coastal District, Southern Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences, 11: 221-229.

DOI: 10.3923/ajas.2017.221.229

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajas.2017.221.229
 
Received: August 22, 2017; Accepted: October 14, 2017; Published: October 27, 2017


Copyright: © 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

INTRODUCTION

Bangladesh is a riverine country and fisheries sector plays a vital role in the socio-economic development of Bangladesh1-3. Fisheries sector is contributing 3.65% to GDP and 23.81% to the agricultural sector4. Fish also contribute about 60% of the nation’s animal protein intake. About 11% of people directly or indirectly earn their livelihood through fisheries sector4. The country is enriched by aquatic diversity containing 260 species of freshwater finfish, 475 species of marine fish, 24 species of freshwater prawn, 36 species of shrimp5, 10 species of pearl bearing bivalves of the family Unionidae, 11 freshwater and 5 marine water turtles, 15 species of crabs of which 4 freshwater 11 marine water species, 6 species of lobster, 7 species of squid or loligo and 2 species of cuttle fish or sepia6. IUCN Red List7 sector revealed 54 threatened freshwater species in Bangladesh of which 12 are critically endangered, 28 are endangered and 14 are vulnerable. The total fish production was estimated at 3.68 million metric tons in 2014-15 of which 3.08 million metric tons (83.72%) and 0.51 million metric tons (13.98%) came from inland and marine waters, respectively8.

The fish market was a vital aspect for sellers, consumers and other facilitating agencies. It was not only limited to selling of fish but also includes all the activities which exert considerable impacts on the exploitation, production, distribution, preservation and transportation of fish in addition to actual sale of fish by reducing middlemen9. Domestic market was huge, varied and complex and in terms of volume and as compared to export market, domestic market is great. About 97% of the production of fish was marketed internally for domestic consumption while remaining 3% is processing for exported10. Fishermen are one of the most vulnerable communities in Bangladesh. They used to live on fishing, staying on the bank of the river from longer period. Now a day, they are faring tremendous pressure to live on the ancestral professions. They were poor by any standard. Over the years, their economic condition has further deteriorated. Alam and Bashar11 estimated the average per capita annual income of riverine fishermen families to be Tk. 2442/- which is about 70% lower than the per capita income of the country as a whole.

A large number of people, many of whom living below the poverty line, find the employment in the fisheries sector in the form of farmers, processor, traders, intermediaries, day labors and transporters10,12,13. Fisheries sector is important for socio-economic development, nutrition supplementation, employment generation, poverty alleviation and foreign exchange earning of Bangladesh14. Considering the above fact, the present study was therefore undertaken in different fish markets at Dumki upazila, Patuakhali district, Bangladesh to identify the available fish species and study the existing fish marketing systems.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area: The study was carried out in 5 fish markets (Fig. 1) of Dumki Upazila, namely Pirtala, Rajakhali, Angaria, Lebukhali and Pangasia. As the Upazila is situated near 4 rivers Paira, Lohalia, Rajaganj and Burishwar and it’s a tidal region of Bangladesh, many varieties of fish species from both inland (fresh and brackish) and marine water are available in this region.

Data collection methods: The study was carried out for the period of 1 year from August, 2015-July, 2016. Primary data were collected by using questionnaire interviews, participatory rural appraisals (PRA) and cross-check interviews with key informants. For questionnaire interviews, 100 fish traders (retailers) were selected in 5 markets (20 in each market) through simple random sampling method. Participatory rural appraisal is a group of methods to gather information on a participatory basis from rural communities. PRA tool focus group discussion (FGD) was conducted among fish retailers to get an overview on fish distribution, marketing systems and constrains of marketing. Cross-check interviews were conducted with key informants such as Upazila Fisheries Officer (UFO) and relevant GO and NGO officers and staffs.

Data processing and statistical analysis: Using Microsoft Excel 2010 software, data from different relevant sources were coded and recorded into a database system. Results from the data analyze, in combination with qualitative information collected through FGD and questionnaire interviews were compared with original data sheets to ensure the accuracy of data entered.

Likert scale with values of 4, 3, 2 and 1 was established to determine constraints associated with different fish markets of Dumki Upazila. In this way the retailer were enquired to rate their constraint as "very critical" "critical" "to some extent critical" and not "critical". The variable mean score of 2.5 was used to discover whether the factor in question was critical or not. The variables with mean score of 2.5 and above were considered critical while variable with less than 2.5 were not.

Image for - Fish availability and Marketing System at Local Markets of a Coastal District, Southern Bangladesh
Fig. 1: Geographical location of the study area

RESULTS

Source of fishes in the market: In the fish market, freshwater fish species available from rivers, canals, ditches, rice fields and culture ponds, where marine and estuarine fish species available from coastal and marine water body. Present study revealed the dominant portion of fish species from culture ponds (42%) where 36% from marine and estuarine water bodies and least 22% from rivers, canals, ditches and rice fields (Fig. 2). Most of the fish (80%) were brought from different areas of the district (Mohipur, Alipur, Kuakata, Kalaia) and the remaining part (20%) from Satkhira, Jessor, Jhalakathi and Barisal region.

Image for - Fish availability and Marketing System at Local Markets of a Coastal District, Southern Bangladesh
Fig. 2: Source of fishes in the market

Fish species availability in the markets: A total of 103 (Table 1, 2 and 3) fish species belonging 55 freshwater, 37 marine and estuarine and 11 crustacean species were available in the fish market.

Table 1: Available freshwater fish species in Dumki Upazila fish market
Image for - Fish availability and Marketing System at Local Markets of a Coastal District, Southern Bangladesh

Among them highest number (89) of fish species was recorded during the rainy season and lowest number of fish species (26) was recorded in summer season in 5 markets (Fig. 3).

Marketwise fish availability: Present study recorded highest number of fish species from Pirtala bazar (95) followed by Lebukhali (87), Rajakhali (87), Angaria (77) and Pangasia (71), respectively. Pirtala bazar represented highest number of freshwater (51), marine water (35) fish and crustacean (9) species. The numeric value of freshwater, marine and crustacean species from 5 fish market of Dumki Upazila are shown in Fig. 4.

Table 2: Marine and estuarine species in Dumki Upazila fish market
Image for - Fish availability and Marketing System at Local Markets of a Coastal District, Southern Bangladesh

Table 3: Crustacean species in Dumki upazila fish market
Image for - Fish availability and Marketing System at Local Markets of a Coastal District, Southern Bangladesh

Fish species composition in the markets: From the study, it was observed that single species Hilsa showed dominancy (23-48%) all of the markets following carps, snake head, shrimp, catfish, tilapia and other species. Present study represented 12, 8, 11, 2 and 13% marine and estuarine fish species from Pirtala, Rajakhali, Angaria, Lebukhali and Pangasia fish market. The percent value of all categories fish species in the 5 fish market of Dumki upazila are presented in Fig. 5.

Image for - Fish availability and Marketing System at Local Markets of a Coastal District, Southern Bangladesh
Fig. 3: Seasonal variation of fish species in 5 different markets of Dumki Upazila Mean+SEM

Image for - Fish availability and Marketing System at Local Markets of a Coastal District, Southern Bangladesh
Fig. 4:
Freshwater, marine and estuarine and crustacean fish species available in 5 different markets of Dumki Upazila, Patuakhali

Marketing channel of fish: Marketing channel (Fig. 6) includes the involvement of some intermediaries or middlemen through which transformation of fish take place from producer to consumer. Farmers/fishermen are the primary producers in the fish marketing systems. With a few exceptions, farmers/fishermen never directly communicate with the consumers. The local paikers (faria) carried the fish (about 50%) from fish farmers to the markets by their own or hired transport and sell them to retailers with the help of aratdars. The fish farmers carried their catches (about 23%) to retailers with the help of aratdars (commission agents). The present study also reveals that the farmers partially sell their fish to the Aratdars (about 15%) with the help of Aratdars and the wholesalers sell it to the retailers. Farmer/fishermen also sell (7%) directly to the wholesaler. In a very rare case, farmers carry the fishes (5%) to the markets and sell them to the retailers. From the survey, it was found that about 10% retailers used their own money for fish trading while the rest 90% received as loans from aratdars with or without any interest.

Fish price: Fish price depended on size, season, availability and quality. Price of the some native species depended on its live or death condition especially shing, magur, koi, shol, Gozar, taki and pangus etc (Table 4).

Constraint associated with fish market: Various types of problem were associated with the fish market of Dumki Upazila. The main problem was documented as inadequate ice facilities through all fish market. The Likert scale technique was used to analyze Table 5. Table exposed inadequate ice facilities, inadequate water supply system, poor platform facilities and lack of electricity as critical problem where poor transport, drainage and sanitation system were identified as not critical.

DISCUSSION

Fish market is the place where people gathered for buying and selling of fish. The availability of fish in the market depends on the demand and supply of fish in the market, transport and communication facilities and season of capture and culture of fish. A total number of 103 fish species were recorded during the study period in the 5 fish markets of Dumki Upazila. Al-Hasan et al.15, recorded 64 fish species from three fish market of Barisal district which was lower than the present study. This might be due to a considerable number of marine fish species were found in the 5 markets during the study period. Fish market was dominated by the Hilsa fishes (23-48%) followed by carps, snake head, shrimp, catfish, tilapia and other species. Hilsa was dominated in the studied market because all of the markets are located in the Southern coastal belt and the surrounding Paira river is famous for Hilsa. Al-Hasan et al.15 also represented Hilsa fishes (43%) as dominated species from the market of Barisal district. It was observed that rui, catla, thai pangus, silver carp, mirror carp, ilish, bata, tilapia, tengra, taki, koi, kachki, lottia, coral, poa, bhangan, phasa, chapila, chewa, prawn and shrimp species were most available in the market because those species has the highest demand in the market which showed similarity with Ali et al.16 findings.

Image for - Fish availability and Marketing System at Local Markets of a Coastal District, Southern Bangladesh
Fig. 5:
Percent composition of fish species in different fish market of Dumki Upazila, Patuakhali

Table 4:Price of most valuable fish species in different fish market of Dumki upazila
Image for - Fish availability and Marketing System at Local Markets of a Coastal District, Southern Bangladesh

Table 5: Constraint associated with fish markets of Dumki Upazila, Patuakhali
Image for - Fish availability and Marketing System at Local Markets of a Coastal District, Southern Bangladesh

Species such as kajuli, gutum, chitra, tara baim, titputi, pabda, air, magur, baghair, sagor rita, rup chanda, foli chanda and samudra koi were rare and chital, foli, mola, dhela were very rare in the market due to inadequate supply and habitat destruction of these species. Nurullah et al.17 found that 143 species of small indigenous fish in which Mola, Puti, Tengra, Chapila, Batasi, Kholisha, Kakila, Golchanda, Gutum, were common in fish market. Most of the fishes were distributed from the Patuakhali district. Azam et al.18 also represented 55% fish species were distributed from the local areas of Sylhet district.

Image for - Fish availability and Marketing System at Local Markets of a Coastal District, Southern Bangladesh
Fig. 6: Marketing channel of fish market in Dumki Upazila, Patuakhali

Present study recorded highest number (89) of fish species during the rainy season and lowest number of fish species (26) in summer season. Al-Hasan et al.15 also recorded highest species in rainy season. Consumer and retailer ensured that various types of SIS and native species is available in the rainy season due to available water in cannel, beel, lake and river. Beside freshwater fish species huge amount of marine (37) and crustacean (11) species were available in the studied market due to good transportation system from Mohipur and Kuakata fish landing center. Highest number of species (95) was recorded from Pirtala bazar because of accessible consumer. Remind that Pirtala bazar fish market is located beside the Patuakhali Science and Technology University. Retailer ensured that they can sell any kinds and size of fish in this market due to consumer of University. Market price was comparatively high in the Pirtala fish market Due to presence of higher class consumer. Price of Golda chingri (Macrobrachium rosenbargii) (650-1200 TK) and Large size Ilish (800-1200) were always high in all of the market of Dumki upazila. Ali et al.16 also recorded highest price for Golda chingri from Southern Bangladesh. Al-Hasan et al.15, recorded highest price for hilsa from three market of Barisal district.

Fish marketing channel in 5 fish market completely managed, supported, financed and controlled with rules by traditional, diligent and skillful middlemen. Tradition and the strength held by separate channel members affected the action of distribution system and the fish farmers/fishermen are very sensitive to this as they never directly communicate with consumers. Study revealed that about 50% fish carried by the local paikers (faria) from fish farmers to the markets by their own or hired transport and sell them to retailers with the help of aratdars. In the pirtala bazar fish market, the consumers have to pay higher price due to the participation of too many intermediaries in the marketing channel but the actual fishers do not get perfect price for their products and the profit go to the intermediary’s pocket. On the other hand retailers claimed that they get lower price as a result of exploitation by intermediaries, poor supply of ice, unhygienic market place. Present study identified inadequate ice facilities as the main problem from 5 fish market of Dumki upazila by Likert scale technique. Several problems of fishermen and intermediaries such as poor transportation, lower price of fish, lack of storage facilities, lack of weighing system, assessment of market taxes, lack of marketing facilities etc were reported by other researchers18-22.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

A total number of 103 fish species belonging to 55 freshwater, 37 marine and estuarine and 11 crustacean species were available in these fish market. Highest number (89) of fish species was recorded during the rainy season and lowest number of fish species (26) was recorded in summer season in 5 markets. Among them highest amounts were ilish (32.2%) and lowest amounts were exotic carp (3%). Majority farmer/fishermen (50%) were directly sells their fish to the Aratders.

On the basis of findings of the study the following recommendations have been made for the improvement of existing marketing of fishes:

•  Ensure electricity by the authority
•  Establishment of ice factories for sufficient supply for fish preservation
•  Establishment of improve drainage and transportation system
•  Ensure pure water and sanitation facility
•  Different NGOs can provide easy access credit in the crisis moment of retailer

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

This study uncovered the fish biodiversity of the study area (Local Markets of a Coastal District, Southern Bangladesh) and also highlighted the reasons behind the loss of biodiversity.

REFERENCES

1:  Ali, M.M., M.B. Hossain, M.A. Rahman and A. Habib, 2014. Diversity of fish Fauna in the Chitra river of Southwestern Bangladesh: Present status, threats and recommendations for conservation. Asian J. Applied Sci., 7: 635-643.
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2:  Ali, M.M., M.B. Hossain, M.H. Minar, S. Rahman and M.S. Islam, 2014. Socio-economic aspects of the fishermen of Lohalia River, Bangladesh. Middle-East J. Scient. Res., 19: 191-195.
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3:  Ali, M.M., M.B. Hossain, M. Al-Masud and M.A.W. Alam, 2015. Fish species availability and fishing gears used in the Ramnabad River, Southern Bangladesh. Asian J. Agric. Res., 9: 12-22.
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4:  DOF., 2016. Matsha Pakkah Shankalan. Directorate of Fisheries, Department of Fisheries, Dhaka, Bangladesh, pp: 148

5:  Hasan, H., M.M. Rahman, M.R. Sharker, M.M. Ali and S. Hossen, 2016. Fish diversity and traditional fishing activities of the river Padma at Rajshahi, Bangladesh. World J. Fish Mar. Sci., 8: 151-157.
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6:  DOF., 2012. Matsha Pakkah Shankalan. Directorate of Fisheries, Department of Fisheries, Dhaka, Bangladesh

7:  IUCN Bangladesh, 2000. Red Book of Threatened Fishes of Bangladesh. IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Bangladesh, Pages: 116

8:  Afroz, K.B., 2007. A study on availability and marketing of fishes in three different markets in Mymensingh town. M.S. Thesis, Department of Fisheries Management, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.

9:  Agarwal, S.C., 1990. Fishery Management. Ashish Publishing House, New Delhi, India, pp: 334

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13:  DFID., 2000. Introduction to sustainable livelihood and its relation to project work. DFID., Dhaka, Bangladesh.

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15:  Al-Hasan, A., M. Shahjahan, M.M. Hossain and M.M. Haque, 2014. Fish availability and marketing system at three markets in Barisal, Bangladesh. Int. J. Innov. Applied Stud., 7: 765-773.
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16:  Ali, M.M., M.M. Rahman, M.Y. Hossain M.Z. Rahman and M.A. Hossen et al., 2014. Fish marketing system in Southern Bangladesh: Recommendations for efficient marketing. Our Nat., 12: 28-36.
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17:  Nurullah, M., M. Kamal, M.A. Wahab, M.N. Islam and L. Yasmin et al., 2001. Present status of harvesting, transportation and marketing freshwater Small Indigenous Species of Fish (SIS) of Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Fish. Res., 9: 159-168.
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18:  Azam, M., M.B. Rahman, M. Ruma, S.M.O. Azad, M.S. Alom, M.Y. Ali and S.M.M. Islam, 2016. Marketing system of some fish species in the North-Eastern region of Bangladesh: An empirical study. J. Entomol. Zool. Stud., 4: 923-927.
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19:  Khan, M.A.R., 1995. Fish marketing in some selected areas of Bangladesh. M.S. Thesis, Department of Co-operation and Marketing, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

20:  Rokeya, J.A., S.S. Ahmed, A.S. Bhuiyan and M.S. Alam, 1997. Marketing system of native and exotic major carps of Rajshahi District. Bangladesh J. Fish, 20: 99-103.

21:  Mia, M.G.F., 1996. A study of production and marketing of culture fishes by the selected pond owners in Mymensingh District. M.S. Thesis, Department of Co-operation and Marketing, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

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