Biodiversity and Seasonal Abundance of Small Indigenous Fish Species (SIS) in the Rivers and Adjacent Beels of Karimganj (Kishoreganj, Bangladesh)
Md. Abdul Quaiyum,
Bhakta Supratim Sarker,
M. Belal Hossain,
K.M. Khalid Bin Jaman
Small (length <25 cm) indigenous fish species (SIS) play an important role in providing animal sources of protein in the poor rural houses of Bangladesh. They are also valuable sources of vitamin A, calcium and Iron. But since the green revolution started in Bangladesh their diversity has been decreased alarmingly. This investigation was carried out from December 2010 to November 2011 in the riversand beels of Karimganj Upazila, Bangladesh to assess the biodiversity status of SIS. The samples were collected from Balikholafish landing centre and thearea was visited at least once in a month. However, during the study period, only 30 species belonging to 7 orders and 15 families were identified where 19 species had normal abundance, 6 species moderate abundance and 5 species least abundance. The highest number (9) of species was recordedfrom the family Cyprinidae and Puntius sophore being the most dominant. Among the families, contribution of Cyprinidae was 30%, followed by Bagridae and Schilbeidae 10%, Channidae and Clupeidae 6.67% and rest of the each family was 3.33%. The species comprised 39% catfishes, 22% minnows, 17% barbs, 10% perch, 5% snakeheads, 2% gourami, and river shads, loaches, gar, glass fish, goby were 1% individually. The highest number of species (25) was found in October and the lowest (3) in February. The maximum yield of SIS was found in (Sep-Dec) period and the least availability of SIS found during (Jan-Apr). Among the fish species, 2 were considered as critically endangered (CR), 4 were endangered, 3 were vulnerable (VU) and 2 were Data Deficient (DD). From this repot, general people, researcher and policy makers would be able to know about the valuable SIS fishes of the study area, their present biodiversity status and their seasonal abundance. The information will be helpful for proper conservation and management of the SIS.
to cite this article:
Rownok Jahan, Md. Abdul Quaiyum, Bhakta Supratim Sarker, M. Belal Hossain, K.M. Khalid Bin Jaman and S. Rahman, 2014. Biodiversity and Seasonal Abundance of Small Indigenous Fish Species (SIS) in the Rivers and Adjacent Beels of Karimganj (Kishoreganj, Bangladesh). Asian Journal of Animal Sciences, 8: 38-46.
Received: November 13, 2013;
Accepted: January 20, 2014;
Published: April 11, 2014
Fish and fisheries are indispensable part in the livelihood of the peoples
of Bangladesh since the time immemorial. In 2009-10, about 10% of the peoples
directly or indirectly depend on fisheries, 58% of the national protein is supplied
from fish, 2.70% export earnings come from fish and fish products and SIS contributes
27% of total fish production in our country (DoF, 2011).
Bangladesh has a globally important wetland ecosystem and associated aquatic
biodiversity ranked third in Asia. Small indigenous fish species (SIS) are those
small fishes which attains a maximum length of 25 cm (Felts
et al., 1996; Hossain and Afroze, 1991; Hossain
et al., 1999a). Bangladesh has approximately 260 indigenous fresh
water species where 143 species are classified as small indigenous species (Rahman,
2005). SIS contains huge amount of vitamin-A and vitamin-D which are very
good for human bones, teeth, skin and eyes. SIS also supply good amount of calcium,
phosphorus, iron, iodine etc. These minerals are essential for developing resistance
against disease in human body (Hasan et al., 2012;
Noss and Harris, 1986).
Fish is considered as an easily digestible food item and rich source of animal
protein (Khan et al., 2013). The rural people
of Bangladesh are largely dependent on SIS for animal protein but there is lack
of concern over the constant decline of SIS biodiversity. Little is known about
the status of SIS biodiversity in Bangladesh. There are very few cases where
baseline information on seasonal abundance and distribution of SIS is available
(Ahmed et al., 2012; Hossain
and Afroze, 1991; Hossain et al., 1999b; Hasan
et al., 2012; Kostori et al., 2012).
However, no contemporary comprehensive assessment of the SIS fishes in the study
area is available. There are considerable data gaps which makes access and harmonization
of information as a challenge. Thus, in light of the above and considering future
prospects of SIS fishes in Bangladesh, the present study was aimed at providing
the present status of biodiversity and seasonal abundance of SIS in the study
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study area: The study was conducted from December 2010 to November 2011
mainly in the Balikhola Fish Landing Center of KarimganjUpazila (24°.30'N
90°.87'E). The study area is about 45 km far from the Kishoreganj district
town. The Fish Landing center is bounded by mainly Dhanu River in the east and
Kalapaniabeel in the south (Fig. 1). Other adjacent rivers
and beels include Narsunda, Bathail, Singua, Balia, Bara, Sukhua and Kalai.
Fishes from these water bodies are also sometimes landed here. This landing
center has a major role in total SIS distribution and marketing of Kishoreganj
Data collection: The study was based on survey, and data were collected
from wholesaler/aratdar, fishermen, retailers and other related personsby interview.
Data were also collected by using PRA (participatory rural appraisal) tools
about species diversity, seasonal abundance and production and baseline information.
The entire areas of the beels and part of Dhanu river were visited by boat and
surrounding land areas were also visited. For justification of the collected
data, cross check interview were conducted by key informants, such as Upazilla
Fisheries Officer. Research papers on the fish fauna of Bangladesh were also
consulted towards compiling the past data of abundance and availability for
assessing biodiversity status.
Participatory rural appraisal (PRA): The Participatory Rural Appraisal
(PRA) technique was used for gathering baseline information about the landing
site and beels, their resources, seasonal availability of SIS and related problems.
Specific information regarding the abundance, fishing and marketing of SIS were
also collected during PRA session. The tool used to conduct the PRA was Focus
Group Discussion, which included all of the important stakeholders, such as
fishers, aratdars, government officials and local people.
||Map of study area (Source: Wikimapia)
Collection of fish samples: Monthly fish samples were collected from
the landing center. The samples were preserved with 10% formalin and brought
to the Fisheries Laboratory of Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali
for further identification. From the samples, catch rate and species composition
were analyzed. After that, weight (g) of each of the species was taken and the
percentage composition of each of the species was calculated.
Identification of the collected samples: The collected fish samples
were identified to species level using standard taxonomic viz., Rahman
(2005) and Freshwater Fishes of Bangladesh and Encyclopedia of Flora and
Fauna of Bangladesh, FAO identification sheets, ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information
System) standard report (http://www.itis.gov),
Fish Base (http://fishbase.org)
and other reference books. All data were analyzed with Microsoft Excel 2007.
SIS biodiversity: The result of the study revealed the occurrence of 30
Species belonging to 7 orders and 15 families. The highest number of species
(9) found from the family Cyprinidae.Among the families, contribution of Cyprinidae
was 30%, followed by Bagridae and Schilbeidae 10%, Channidae and Clupeidae 6.67%
and rest of the each family was 3.33% (Fig. 2).
Among the species, 9 catfishes, 6 minnows, 3 barbs, river shads, snakeheads
and loaches were 2 individually and minor carp, gar, glass fish, goby, gouramy
and perch were1 individually.
||Percentage contribution of different families in species composition
at Balikhola Fish Landing Center
||Number of different group of SIS, with their biodiversity
status. CR: Critically endangered, DD: Data deficient, VU: Vulnerable, EN:
Endangered, NO: Not thretened
Here it is observed that 19 species had normal abundance, 6 species moderate
abundance and 5 species least abundance (Table 1).
Among the total number of species found during the study, 2 species were critically
endangered (CR), 2 were data deficient (DD), 3 were vulnerable (VU), 4 were
endangered (EN) and 19 species were not threatened (NO) based on IUCN  list
of threatened fishes of Bangladesh (Fig. 3).
||Local name, scientific name, family name, species groups and
abundance of SIS found in Balikhola Fish Landing Center
|+: Least abundance, ++: Moderate abundance, +++: Normal abundance,
CR: Critically endangered, EN: Endangered; VU: Vulnerable, NO: Not threatened
and DD: Data deficient
Seasonal abundance: In Bangladesh SIS harvesting is mostly seasonal.
Maximum species (25) were found in October and least species were found in February.
Fishes were more or less available round the year. But all the species were
not available in all seasons. There were also some species which were found
throughout the year. The highest number of species (25) were found in October
and lowest numbers of species (3) were in February (Fig. 4).
Yieldof SIS was highest (155900 kg) during September to December. Fishing effort
was also highest in post monsoon period due to availability of more SIS. Highest
fishing gears also used in post monsoon period (Table 2).
According to the total yield of SIS it is revealed that, Jatputi (Puntius
sophore) was the top among the 5 highest yield SIS 45000 kg, followed by
pabda (Ompok pabda) 30000 kg, Mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) 26500
kg, Batashi (Pseudotropius atherinoides) 25000 kg, tengra (Mystus
tengara) 21000 kg during the study period are presented in Fig.
||Yield of SIS in 3 different seasons at Balikhola Fish Landing
||Monthly variation in species No. at Balikhola Fish Landing
Center during the study period
||Yield of 5 highest available SIS at Balikhola Fish Landing
Among the least available SIS, Rani (Botiadario) and Dhela (Osteobrama
cotio) were lowest 0.5 kg, titputi (Puntius ticto) and gaurabacha
(Clupisoma garua) were 1kg and Leuzzadarkina (Rasbora rasbora)
was top 1.5 kg during the study period presented in Fig. 6.
||Yield of 5 least available SIS at Balikhola Fish Landing Center
The results clearly depict the biodiversity of the SIS in the study area. There
were some rare species which were very incidentally or occasionally available,
such as Botia dario, Clupisoma garua, Puntius ticto, Osteobramaa
cotio etc., according to Khan et al. (2000)
Botia dario is endangered, Clupisoma garua is critically endangered
and Osteobramaa cotio is endangered. Based on the result of the catch
composition of the 30 species recorded, the most abundandant species were found
to be Amblypharyngodon mola, Chela cachius, Pseudeutropius
atherinoides, Esomus danricus, Puntius sophore, Lepidocephalus
guntea, Ompok pabda, Mystus cavasius, Mystus vittatus,
Colisa fasciatus, Clarius batrachus, Channa punctatus, Glossogobius
giuris, Xenentodon cancila, Corica soborna, Puntius chola,
Anabas testudineus, Chandanama, Gudusia chapra. The second
category in order of declining abundance includes Puntius sarana, Ailia
coila, Mystus tengara, Heteropneustes fossilis, Aplocheilus
panchax and Channa orientalis. The least abundant species were found
to be Puntius ticto, Osteobramaa cotio, Rasbora rasbora,
Clupeisoma garua, Botia dario. Catfishes were the dominant group comprising
39% species. Nurullah et al. (2001) also reported
that abundance of Punti, Mola, Tengra, Batashi, Pabda were higher than other
SIS, Kholisha, Chanda, Chapila were moderately abundant and Dhela were least
abundant in Kishoreganj district agreeing with my findings.
The availability and abundance of the SIS were recorded during the entire study
period. Fishes were more or less available round the year. But all the species
were not available in all seasons. Ahmad (1997) observed
that seasonal fluctuation in the fish species is a normal phenomenon. There
were also some species which were found throughout the year. The highest number
of species (25) was found in October and lowest numbers of species (3) were
in February. Abundance of fish also varies from season to season depending on
demand and production. Abundance of SIS during (Sep-Dec) was comparatively higher
than the rest of the year. Thilsted et al. (1997)
also found maximum availability of SIS during October. Least availability of
SIS were found during (Jan-Apr) agreeing with the findings of Thilsted
et al. (1997). All the species were not readily available in the
markets or landing centers. Hossain (1996) also studied
various aspects of Small Indigenous Species (SIS) of fishes in Bangladesh and
found that the demand for the fishes remain relatively constant throughout the
year but observed a great variation in the production scale from month to month
agreeing with my findings.
Among the available 30 SIS species, under Cyprinidae family exists in highest
number and dominated by weight by Jatpunti (Puntius sophore) a typical
barb in Bangladesh. Nurullah et al. (2001) alsoreportedthat
Punti (Puntius sophore) was at top of the list in percentage in Kishoreganj.
Catfishes were highest by percentage composition at Balikhola fish landing center
except in (Sep-Dec), when minor carp and minnows and barbs were dominant.
According to Khan et al. (2000) Bangladesh National
Categories, we found 2 critically endangered (CR) species. Highest number of
species was found from the not threatened (NO) categories. Once upon a time,
small fishes were abundant in the rivers, beels, jheels, canals, streams, ponds
etc., in Bangladesh (Ahmed, 1984; Talwar
and Jhingran, 1991; Shafi and Quddus, 1982). But
now a days, these species of fish are going to be extinct despite of their ability
to reproduce naturally due to environmental degradation.
Fish habitat destruction by roads, embankments, drainage and flood control,
and natural siltation along with over-fishing, have been commonly cited as causes
of the deterioration of the countrys resources (Ali,
1996). Principal causes behind the recent increase in the loss of fish biodiversity
in Bangladesh include habitat alteration, fragmentation and simplification.
Physical habitat is altered by channelization, construction of embankments and
diversions, siltation and degradation of wetlands. According to Hussain
and Mazid (2001), habitat degradation recently has become a great concern
in most aquatic ecosystems in Bangladesh.
As a result, natural SIS population has declined in the area. Indiscriminate
and destructive fishing practice has caused devastating effect to the aquatic
biodiversity (Hossain et al., 1999). Recent estimates
suggested that worldwide 20% of all freshwater species are extinct, endangered
or vulnerable (Moyle and Leidy, 1992). According to the
fishermen and local community living around the area, some SIS of the area are
either extinct or in the verge of extinction due to habitat destruction, indiscriminate
fishing and pollution.
Bhuiya (2002) conducted a study on haor fisheries resources
in Itnaupazilla under Kishoreganj district for a period of one year and observed
9 barbs. In the current study 4 barbs are found in the landing center indicate
the alarming declining of barb species. This report highlights the present status
of SIS biodiversity in the study area. The information will be helpful for fishermen,
researcher and policy makers for proper conservation and management of the SIS.
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