Feed Intake and Nutrient Digestibility of Growing Yankasa Rams Fed Sorghum Stover Supplemented with Graded Levels of Dried Poultry Droppings Based Diet
The use of conventional feedstuff such as groundnut cake, fish meal, etc. as
supplement to low quality feed may not be cost effective in present day Nigeria
to intensify production, owing to their high cost, irregular supply. Its
pertinent therefore to shift attention to the use of non-conventional protein
materials of farm waste origin such as poultry droppings. This study was therefore
initiated to determine the feed intake and nutrient digestibility of growing
Yankasa rams fed sorghum stover supplemented with graded levels of dried poultry
dropping based diets. Thirty growing Yankasa rams aged 9-12 months, weighing
11.5-15.5 kg were randomly divided into five groups (6 in each) and assigned
to five supplemental diets designated T1-T5. Fresh poultry
droppings were sun-dried for 3-5 days to minimize the level of microbes present.
Thereafter the product were milled and included in rams diet at 0, 20,
40, 60 and 80%. Animals were fed in the morning (supplementary) and evening
(basal diets). Salt-lick, water were also provided. Data were collected on feed
intake and nutrient digestibility coefficient. Results showed that rams fed
the control diet significantly (p<0.05) had lower feed intake as well as
apparent nutrient digestibility coefficient when compared with the rams fed
dried poultry droppings based diets. It was concluded that dried poultry droppings
inclusion up to 80% in the diet of the rams enhances feed intake and nutrient
digestibility and thus increases live weight gain. Therefore, sun-dried poultry
droppings can satisfactorily supplement sorghum Stover up to 80% inclusion level.
Received: March 09, 2013;
Accepted: April 27, 2013;
Published: June 20, 2013
Sheep population in Nigeria which is estimated to be 33.9 million, make sheep
the second most important livestock species in the country (FAO,
2008). In Nigeria, sheep are kept primarily for meat production. They contribute
about 11% to the total meat supply in the country (Adu and
Ngere, 1979). This class of animal requires adequate nutrients for growth
and productivity. This therefore helps in meeting the protein requirement of
The use of conventional feedstuff such as maize, soybean cake, fish meal and
others as supplement to low quality feed may not be cost effective in present
day Nigeria to intensify production, owing to their high cost, irregular supply
(Akinmutimi, 2004) and the competition both with humans
and monogastric animals (Adama, 2008; Ajayi
et al., 2008; Ukpabi and Abdu, 2009). It
is in this respect that non-conventional energy and protein materials of farm
and agro-industrial wastes origin are presently being utilized for livestock
production in Nigeria (Ndubueze et al., 2006;
Okonkwo et al., 2008). Such feed resources should
be cheap, have high nutritive value, non-toxic, readily available, should have
low or no demand by both human and other livestock species and without industrial
usage (Egbo et al., 2001; Amaefule,
2002; Ndubueze et al., 2006).
There are many agricultural crop residues with great potentials for ruminant
animal feeding. Sorghum Stover is one of such usable crop residues as ruminant
animal feed. Sorghum Stover consists of the leaves and stalks after harvest
and has been used mostly as roughage for cattle, sheep, goats and horses (Alawa
and Umunna, 1993). Sorghum Stover is highly fibrous. Its usage is limited
mainly to cattle, sheep and goats which can convert in excess of 60% of the
crude fibre component (Alhassan et al., 1984).
The mean voluntary consumption of supplemented sorghum Stover has been found
to be about 1.1% of body weight for intensively fed goats and cattle and 1.4%
for sheep (Alhassan et al., 1984; Alhassan,
The above researchers suggested supplementation with a minimum of 60 g of cotton
seed cake (CSC head day-1) for sheep and 50 g/head day-1
for goats to reduce weight losses. Sorghum Stover is readily available especially
during the dry season, after the years
harvest, cheaper to cure and store, hence it can be fed to ruminant animals
as a basal feed. Above all, it may offer reductions in feed costs and therefore
has a great impact on the total cost of livestock production.
Poultry litter is an agricultural waste from poultry farms in the rural, sub-urban
and industrial settlements which often constitute health hazard due to inadequate
means of disposal, especially when not utilized as fertilizer. The proximate
analysis of poultry litter, particularly nitrogen which is high in content (Jordaan,
2004; Lanyasunya et al., 2006) indicate that
offering it to ruminant animals would be a first-rate avenue to turn nutrients
in the waste into animal products for humans use; therefore it can be
a good feed for ruminant animals.
Also, Poultry litter is rich in macro and micro-minerals such as Ca, P, Na,
Cl, Co, I and Cu. They are readily available and comparatively cheaper than
conventional feedstuff such as groundnut cake, soybean cake or cottonseed cake
which is customarily used in ruminant ration as a major protein supplement.
In the same vein, about 30% poultry litter is true protein, the remainder being
uric acid which is slowly degraded in the rumen; it is thus an ideal protein
source for ruminant animals. Its use as protein supplement has been investigated
in Nigeria (Ibeawuchi et al., 1993; Belewu
and Adeneye, 1996; Maigandi and Owanikin, 2002;
Ndubueze et al., 2006; Aro
and Tewe, 2007; Fajemisin et al., 2008; Abdul
et al., 2008). Majority of these researchers concluded that the usage
of poultry litter might be a good alternative to minimize feed cost in livestock
production enterprise, at least in the developing countries like Nigeria.
They reiterated that it can be fed as a sole protein supplement resulting in
increase in weight gain, therefore it can sustain ruminants maintenance and
even production needs when fed with the appropriate energy source (Aduku,
2004; Abdul et al., 2008), while in the same
vein, it is an avenue of disposing of a waste in environmentally healthy manner
(Ahmed and Talib, 2008). However, its optimum level
of use in combination with crop wastes such as Sorghum Stover has not been properly
established especially in the guinea savannah zone of Nigeria, where a lot of
grains are produced annually. This study was therefore initiated to determine
the feed intake, as well as nutrient digestibility of Yankasa rams fed sorghum
Stover, supplemented with graded levels of dried poultry droppings based diet.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment was carried out at the Department of Animal Production, Teaching
and Research Farm of the School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology,
Federal University of Technology, Main Campus, Gidan-Kwano Minna. Minna is located
within latitudes 09o311 and 09o 421
North and longitudes 06o 291 and 06o 411
East with an altitude of 260 meters (853 ft) above sea level. It is bounded
by River Niger running the North -West Flank down to the South Western part
of the state. It falls within the Southern Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zone
of the country NSADP (1995) as was cited by Lanko
(2005). The town experiences mean monthly temperature of 30.5°C with
the highest in the month of March and the lowest in August, 22-30°C. The
raining season lasts for a period of five months on the average with annualaverage
rainfall of 1400 mm in the month of July and August. Relative humidity ranged
between 60 and 75% (Danwake, 1999). The experiment was
conducted between the months of February-May 2011.
Experimental animals and their management: Thirty Yankasa rams aged
9-12 months and weighing 11.5-15.5 kg was used for the experiment. The rams
were sourced from Mariga and Beji local markets in Niger State. The animals
were housed in individual pens with corrugated iron roof and a concrete floor.
Wood shavings were used as bedding materials to protect the animals from dampness
and/or cold and were changed on weekly basis. The animals were treated against
ectoparasites, using ivermectin injection, were dewormed with Albendazole Bolus
to take care of endoparasites and also injected intra-muscularly with Oxytetracyline-long
acting broad spectrum antibiotic as a precautionary measure against bacterial
infections. The animals were later allotted into five treatment groups and fed
for a pre-treatment period of two weeks to enable them adapt to the experimental
diets and the environment before the commencement of the actual experiment.
Salt-licks were provided throughout the period of the experiment. And water
was provided ad-libitum. Feed offered and feed refused were recorded
for each animal in each group daily while animal weights were taken on a weekly
basis, using a spring balance. Average daily feed intake and average daily weight
gain were calculated over the 106 day experimental period. The animals were
under feedlot management.
Experimental design: The experimental design used was Complete Randomized
Design. (CRD) The rams were randomly assigned to five treatments (T1-T5)
comprising of three replicates with two animals per replicate. Treatment one
(T1) were rams fed 0% Dried Poultry Droppings (DPD), T2
were fed with 20% DPD, T3 were fed with 40% DPD, T4 were
fed with 60% DPD and T5 were fed with 80% DPD. Feeding trial lasted
for 106 days.
Source of feed ingredients and feed preparation: Sorghum Stover was
sourced in Bosso and Chanchaga areas of the town after the grain harvest and
chopped using cutlass to 2-3 cm long before feeding as basal feed. Fresh poultry
droppings were obtained from caged layers reared commercially at Abu-Turab poultry
farm in Minna. The poultry droppings were sun-dried for 5-6 hours daily for
3-5 days to minimize the level of microbes present. The product was thereafter
pounded using pestle and mortal and used as feed. They were sourced between
October to December 2009.
Diet formulation: Two experimental diets were prepared for the study:
basal and supplementary diets. A total of 2000 g of chopped Sorghum Stover were
fed as basal diet/ram/day. Five types of supplementary diets were prepared and
fed. The supplements consist of the following; Maize Bran (MB) alone (100%),
Maize Bran (MB)+dried Poultry Droppings (MB+DPD) (80:20), Maize Bran (MB)+dried
poultry manure (MB+DPD) (60:40), maize bran (MB+DPD) (40:60), Maize Bran (MB)+dried
poultry manure (MB+DPD) (20:80). The basal and supplementary diets were offered
at the rate of 3 and 2% of body weight, respectively.
Digestibility trial: Three animals were randomly selected from each
treatment at the termination of the growth study. They were placed in an individual
metabolic cage with slatted floors adapted for faecal collection. Experimental
diets fed were the same as those used in the growth study. An adjustment period
of 5 days was allowed before the faecal samples were measured for the subsequent
seven days. Faeces from animals on each treatment were bulked thoroughly mixed
and sub- sampled taken. Feed intake was measured by finding the difference between
the amount of feed offered and the amount refused. Feed and faecal samples were
dried at 65°C to constant weight, milled and kept in air tight containers
until required for analysis. Apparent digestibility of the diets was calculated
as the difference between nutrient intake and excretion in the faeces expressed
as a percentage of the nutrient intake (Maynard et al.,
1979; Marshal, 2001; Aduku, 2004).
Chemical analysis: The experimental diets were analyzed for dry matter,
crude protein, crude fibre and ash according to AOAC (1990).
Samples of feed offered, faecal output were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein,
crude fibre, ether extract and ash according to AOAC (1990).
Statistical analysis: All data generated were subjected to analysis
of variance (ANOVA) using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of SAS
(2008).Means were separated Using Least Significant Difference (LSD) test
of the same package.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1 shows the proximate compositions of the experimental
feeds. The dry matter content of the experimental feed ranges from 84.20% in
maize bran to 94.09% in sorghum Stover. The poultry droppings used in this study
has a crude protein value of 21.88%, lower than 26.60% reported by Ndubueze
et al. (2006); 28.20% reported by Abdul et
al. (2008), but higher than 15.40, 20.3% reported by Lanyasunya
et al. (2006), Onimisi and Omage (2006) and
Owen et al. (2008) respectively. The variations
in the crude protein values of the poultry manure may be attributed to type
of bird, the age of the manure and level of feeding the birds.
The lower value of Crude Protein (CP) of the sorghum Stover (3.5% ) reported
in this study justifies the need for supplementation. This agrees with the results
reported by Alhassan (1988) and Abdul
et al. (2008).
|| Proximate composition of experimental feeds
The high level of crude fibre reported for both the poultry dropping (20.67%)
and sorghum Stover (31.20%) are expected because of the litter material and
the lignifications of the sorghum Stover. The ash content (33.00%) reported
for poultry dropping in this study is lower than 41.60% reported by Zinn
et al. (1996). The gross energy values of sorghum Stover (2.02 kcal
g-1) is low, this is in line with the findings of Ayoola
and Ayoade (1992). This lower value in sorghum Stover energy level justifies
the need for inclusion of additional energy source Aduku
(2004) and Abdul et al. (2008).
The dry matter content of the supplementary diet (Table 2)
ranges from 84.20% in the control diet (T1) to 92.80% in T5.
The crude protein contents of the supplementary diet were between 7.00% in T1
to 15.40% in T5. The values reported in this study were within and
slightly above the range (9-14%) reported by Aduku (2004)
except T1 which falls below the range. The gross energy contents
of the supplementary diet followed the same trend as crude protein with exception
of T1 all others falls within the values recommended by Ogundipe
Table 3 shows the results of voluntary feed intake. The mean
feed intake obtained from this study indicates that animals in T1
had lower feed intake (808.80 g day-1). This is in line with the
findings of Reid and Klopfenstein (1983) which showed
feeds with low CP contents are seldom consumed by animals. Animals fed sorghum
Stover supplemented with dried poultry droppings had higher feed intake (1028.09
to 1661.12 g day-1) compared to the control group (808.80 g day-1).
This result is in agreement with the findings of Mubi et
al. (2008) in their trial with growing heifer fed sorghum Stover supplemented
with poultry litter where they observed, there was significant increase in feed
intake of the groups supplemented, a conclusion also reached by Abdul
et al. (2008).
The result of apparent digestibility coefficient is shown in Table
4. There were higher (p<0.05) significant differences between the supplemented
treatment groups (T2-T5) and unsupplemented treatment
group (T1). The result showed that the former groups had higher DM,
CP, CF, Ash and EE digestibility values compared to the later group that had
lower values. Dry matter digestibility was significantly (p<0.05) higher
in T5 (91.4) compared to T1 (81.0). The same trend was
observed with crude protein, for T5 (86.6) as against T1
(76.8), crude fibre for T5 (88.3) compared to T1 (70.8),
ash for T5 (87.8) vs T1 (67.0) and ether extract for T5
(92.1) compared to T1 (58.3). This present result is in agreement
with the findings of Abdul et al. (2008); Solomon
et al. (2008) and Dessie et al. (2010).
|| Proximate composition (% DM Basis) of supplementary diets
fed to the experimental animals
|| Feed intake of the experimental animals
|| Apparent digestibility coefficient of the experimental animals
|Mean values with the same letter(s) along the row are not
significantly different (p<0.05), LS: Level of significance, *Significant
The higher digestibility coefficient values observed in the supplemented treatment
groups could be attributed to the higher CP intake compared to the unsupplemented
treatment group. On the other hand, the lower digestibility coefficient values
recorded for the control treatment group could be attributed to the lower CP
content of their diets.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
From the results obtained from this study. It can be concluded that animals
supplemented with dried poultry droppings based diet had the best feed intake
and apparent digestibility coefficient thus better feed utilization hence increase
in live weight gain. Therefore, it is recommended that dried poultry droppings
based diet can satisfactorily supplement sorghum Stover up to 80% inclusion
level when fed to growing Yankasa rams.
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