Digestibility of Different Thermal Processed Grain of Legumes, Rynchosia
minima and Cajanus cajan, in white Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
Since nutrition demands a high percentage of production costs in shrimp culture,
the development of dietary strategies such as the inclusion of vegetable protein
sources, is a very important tool. Thus, digestibility of alternative feedstuffs
for evaluating its dietary potential as shrimp feed represents the first action.
The objective of study was to determine digestibility coefficients for protein,
energy, dry matter and amino acids of least snout bean and pigeon pea meals
in Pacific white shrimp juveniles. Thirteen isonitrogenous diets (34.8 to 35%
protein) were formulated and elaborated. One containing only fish meal as a
source of protein and the other replacing 10 and 18% of fish meal with the leguminous
seed meals Rynchosia minima and Cajanus cajan, previously subjected
to a thermal process for 0, 45 and 90 min. The shrimp were fed to satiation
four times daily for 25 day. The apparent digestibility coefficients were determined
using 0.5% Cr2O3. Feces were collected from three replicate
groups of shrimp. The results showed that shrimp fed with 10 and 18% Cajanus
cajan and Rynchosia minima replaced and subjected to a thermal process
of 45 min presented higher weight increase (p<0.05) and specific growth rate
compared with control diet group. L. vannamei had relatively high apparent
digestibility coefficients of crude protein (93.68 and 92.29%) and crude lipid
(96.87 and 97.55%) for CC10-45 and RM18-45 diets, respectively. Results suggest
that diets with both R. minima and C. cajan seed meals thermally
processed, can partially replace animal protein in shrimp diets at inclusion
levels of 10 and 18%, respectively.
to cite this article:
H. Cabanillas-Beltran, J.T. Ponce-Palafox, J.L. Arredondo-Figueroa, H. Esparza-Leal and M. Garcia-Ulloa, 2013. Digestibility of Different Thermal Processed Grain of Legumes, Rynchosia
minima and Cajanus cajan, in white Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Asian Journal of Animal Sciences, 7: 36-46.
Received: March 04, 2013;
Accepted: May 03, 2013;
Published: June 20, 2013
Various plant protein sources have been tested as source of pigments from plant
extracts and their potential to partially replacement of fish meal in practical
shrimp diets (Ponce-Palafox et al., 2006). The
legume seeds are characterized for contain high levels of energy and quality
protein that could be useful as a component for practical diets; between they
are include peas, grains and beans and other closely related species within
the Fabaceae family (Vasagam et al., 2007).
According to Lim and Dominy (1990) and Samocha
et al. (2004), soybean meal is the most widely vegetable protein
source since its available worldwide, low price and nutritional content. Recently,
the nutritionists had begging evaluated the suitability of grain legumes such
as soybean products (Cabanillas-Beltran et al.,
2001; Cruz-Suarez et al., 2009) feed pea
(Cruz-Suarez et al., 2001; Davis
et al., 2002; Bautista-Teruel et al., 2003),
lupin (Sudaryono et al., 1999), cowpea and mung
bean (Eusebio, 1991; Eusebio and
Coloso, 1998; Vasagam et al., 2007) in shrimp
feeds. Grain legumes offer some advantages such as the flexibility in feedstuff
selection to the feed manufacturer because they have the potential to provide
both good energy and moderate protein to the diet.
The accurate measurement of nutrient digestion and assimilation efficiency
of the dietary components, loosely termed digestibility, is essential to achieve
an optimal diet formulation from both biologically and economically points of
view. Akiyama et al. (1989) stated that feedstuff
digestibility depends on its physical and nutritional characteristics, as well
as other animal features and external factors such as digestive tract architecture
and physiology and the environmental conditions, respectively. The potential
of locally available legume seed meals obtained from Least snout bean (Rynchosia
minima) and Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), which grow in north-western
Mexico, as protein sources has been evaluated in Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles
diets. Nevertheless, De Silva (1989) concluded that the
nutritional bioavailabilities of such feed ingredients are often limited due
to the presence of anti-nutritional factors and other toxic substances in legumes
(Elias et al., 1979; Siddhuraju
et al., 2002; Siddhuraju and Becker, 2005).
There are some processing methods to inactivate or reduce the presence of antinutrients
in plant feeds (Penaflorida, 1995; Siddhuraju
and Becker, 2005), one of the most used is the application of a thermal
process. The objective of the present study was to determine digestibility coefficients
for protein, energy, dry matter and amino acids of least snout bean and pigeon
pea meals in Pacific white shrimp juveniles L. vannamei.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Diet preparation: Thirteen isonitrogenous diets (34.8 to 35% protein) were
formulated and elaborated. Control Diet (CD) consisted in only Fish Meal (FM)
as a source of protein and the other twelve replacing 10 and 18% of FM with
the leguminous seed meals Rynchosia Minima (RM) and Cajanus cajan
(CC). The proximate compositions of FM, RM and CC are presented in Table
1. Composition of the experimental diets and amino acid are shown in Table
2 and 3, respectively. The leguminous seed meals were
subjected to thermal process (wet heat, 121°C) for 0, 45 and 90 min (RM10-0,
RM18-0, CC10-0, CC18-0, RM10-45, RM18-45, CC10-45, CC18-45, RM10-90, RM18-90,
CC10-90, CC18-90). The feeds were prepared in the laboratory by drying, grinding
and passing them through a 0.5 mm screen mesh. A meat mincer with a 2.0 mm diameter
die was used to produce the spaghetti-shaped diet that was cut in pieces and
dried overnight at 40°C. After that, it was packed in black plastic bags
and stored in a freezer at -20°C, until required.
Shrimp and experimental conditions: The Pacific white shrimp were selected
for uniformity of size (10.0±0.47 g) from grow-out ponds at Thaimex farm,
Nayarit, Mexico. The shrimps were randomly distributed into 15 chambers of 50
L with six shrimp in each one, with three repetitions by treatment. Each chamber
was an adaptation of the Guelph method design (Martinez
et al., 2001).
|| Proximate composition of feedstuffs (percentage of total
dry weight) used for formulating experimental diets
|Data represent mean±standard deviations of three replicates
|| Ingredient composition of the reference diet used to measure
digestibility (% as fed)
|aSardine meal 57% CP. Alimentos marinos, Ciudad
Obregón, Sonora, México. bMineral mixture composition:
Co, 2 g kg-1; Mn, 16 g kg-1; Zn, 40 g kg-1;
Cu, 20 g kg-1; Fe, 1 mg kg-1; Se, 100 mg kg-1;
I, 2 g kg-1. c Vitamin mixture composition: retinol,
4000 IU g-1; thiamin, 24 g kg-1; riboflavin,16 g kg-1;
DL Ca pantotenate, 30 g kg-1; pyridoxine, 30 g kg-1;
cyanocobalamin, 80 mg kg-1; ascorbic acid, 60 mg kg-1;
menadione, 16 mg kg-1; cholecalciferol, 3200 IU g-1;
tocopherol, 60 g kg-1; biotin, 400 mg kg-1; niacin,
20 mg kg-1; folic acid, 4 g kg-1. dVitamin
C (L-ascorbyl-2-polyphospate, 35%)
Water was supplied to each experimental system after biological and mechanical
filtration, temperature control (±1°C) and aeration. Daily measurements
of temperature, salinity (Atago refractometer), pH (Corning 56 pH-meter) and
dissolved oxygen (YSI 59 D.O. meter) were taken in tanks selected at random.
Ammonia, nitrite and nitrate (Strickland and Parsons, 1977)
were measured in chambers, three times a week. Dechlorinated tap water was added
to the biofilters to replace evaporation losses, as required. Temperature, salinity,
pH, nitrite, nitrate and total ammonia nitrogen were maintained at 27.0°C,
35, 8.0±0.3, 0.49±0.14, 16.1±4.8 mg L-1
and 0.03 mg L-1, respectively, while dissolved oxygen did not fall
below 6.0 mg L-1.
Evaluation of growth parameters: Shrimp production was evaluated at
the end of the growth trial, considering the following parameters: weight gain,
feed conversion ratio, survival, protein efficiency ratio, specific growth rate
(Goytortua-Bores et al., 2006). The weights
of the shrimp were recorded at 0 (IBW) and 25 (FBW) day.
||Amino acid composition (g/100 g crude protein) of experimental
|Values are means of three samples±SD
Fecal collection techniques: During the experiment, the chambers were
covered with black net mesh to reduce the effects of the stress caused by the
disturbance of the laboratory staff passing-by. Groups of five animals (10.0±0.46
g) were randomly selected for each diet and transferred into the experimental
arrays where they were acclimated during eight days. Before each feeding procedure,
all the faecal material was removed. The shrimp were fed with the experimental
diets to visual satiety four times a day at 08:00, 12:00, 16:00 and 20:00 h.
Feces were removed 1 to 4 h after each feeding. At each feeding, shrimp were
given 1 to 4 h to consume a measured quantity of diet after which feces and
uneaten diet in each chamber were collected from the settling trap into a sample
bottle. Then, faecal samples were then gently rinsed with distilled water and
dried overnight on Petri dishes at 105°C. Feces collections were terminated
after 25 d, when approximately 10 g of dry feces had been collected from shrimp
fed in each of the treatments.
Chemical analysis: Diets and fecal samples were freeze-dried and stored
at -20°C until used for chemical analysis. Crude protein was determined
by Kjeldahl method using an Auto Kjeldahl System (Tecator, 1030). Crude lipid
was determined by the Soxhlet extraction method (Soxtec 2050 FOSS Model, Switzerland)
and ash content by a furnace muffler (Naberthern, model K, Germany) at 550°C
for 4 h. Fiber crude was analyzed according to AOAC (1995).
Moisture was determined by oven drying at 105°C for 24 h (AOAC,
1995). The gross energy of the diets and feces was calculated according
to the NRC (1993) procedure.
Amino acid composition: Amino acids were determined after hydrolysis
of samples (fecal and diets) in 6 N HCl for 24 h at 110°C. Then, the samples
were evaporated to dryness, mixed with Na-EFDR buffer and then analysed using
a High Performance Amino Acid (Beckman System 6300). Tryptophan concentration
was not determined.
Apparent digestibility: Nutrient apparent digestibility was determined
collecting the feces during 25 d by settling trap into a sample bottle. Fecal
samples were rinsed with distilled water to remove the excess of salts and frozen
(-20°C). Chromic oxide was added to the samples of diets as an index of
the undigested compound. The percentage of utilization was calculated from the
concentrations of this index in the feed and the excreta (McGinnis
and Kasting, 1964). Chromic oxide levels, both in diets and faeces, were
determined by first digesting the organic matter with nitric acid and then oxidizing
Cr2O3 to Cr2O7 with perchloric acid
followed by the colorimetric analysis of the dichromate ion with diphenylcarbazide
(Furukawa and Tsukahara, 1966). All chemical determinations
were made on a dry-weight basis and in triplicate.
Statistical analysis: Percent data were transformed to the arcsine of
their square root prior to analysis. All data were subjected to one-way analysis
of variance to test the effects of experimental diets using the STATISTICA 6.0
software package (Statsoft, Tulsa, OK, USA). Bartletts chi-squared test
was used for homogeneity test and there were no differences among variances.
Multiple comparisons among means were made by ANOVA and using Tukeys test
was used to test differences among individual means. Difference was regarded
as significant when p was <0.05 (Montgomery, 2005).
Growth indices: At the end of the trial, the experimental diet CC10-45
exhibited higher values of FBW, WG, SGR and PER, in contrast with diet CC10-90
which presented lower values in all five-growth performance indicators evaluated
in shrimp juvenile. The diets RM10-45, RM18-45 and CC18-45 also showed at least
three higher values (Table 4). The shrimp fed with the RM10-90,
CC10-45 and CC18-90 showed significantly higher Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER).
Finally the shrimp survival rate was 100% in all treatments.
Nutrient digestibility: Results of the digestibility study showed that
the Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC) of the dry matter (ADDM) in shrimp
fed with RM18-45, CC10-45 and CC18-45 were significantly higher than that obtained
for the CD diet (Table 5). ADCs of ADDM, ADCP and ADCL decreased
with thermal process of 90 min. Significant decrease in apparent digestibility
for crude protein (ADDM, from 90.51 to 71.54%), crude protein (92.22 to 83.02%)
and crude lipid (ADCL, from 97.55 to 92.45%) was observed. Shrimp fed CC10-45
diet showed significantly (p<0.05) higher ADDM (90.51%) and ADCP (93.68%).
|| Growth performance of juvenile L. vannamei fed with
different levels of CC and RM
|Values in the same column with different superscript letters
are significantly different (p< 0.05). (Tukeys test; p< 0.05);
IBW: Initial body weight, FBW: Final body weight, FCR (feed conversion ratio):
Total dry feed offered (g)/total wet weight gain (g), WG: Weight gain, SGR:
Specific Growth Rate, PER (Protein efficiency ratio): (shrimp weight gain,
g)/(protein intake, g)
||Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC,%±SD) for
dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and crude lipid (ADCL) in experimental
diets consumed by L. vannamei (means; n = 3)
|R: Rynchosia minima, C: Cajanus cajan, Thermal
process = 0, 45 and 90°C; Inclusion in the diet = 10 and 18%. Values
in the same column with different superscript letters are significantly
different. (Tukeys test; p< 0.05)
||Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC,%) of amino acids
in various CC and RM treated diets and difference in digestibility of amino
acids and crude protein consumed by L. vannamei shrimp
|In the column, different letters mean statistical difference
Digestibility of amino acids: Experimental diets CD, CC45-10, and CC45-18
presented higher values of essential amino acids followed by CC45-10 and CC45-18
and presented significantly differences (p<0.5) with respect to the other
diets. Diets RM45-18, RM90-10, CC45-10 and CC45-18 showed higher values of non-essential
amino acids (Table 6).
All data found in this research indicated that diet containing 10% of CC and
treated with thermal process by 45 min, resulted be the best experimental diet
to fed shrimp juvenile, such as was show by the growth performance indicators.
Moreover, this diet presented higher Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC)
of the dry matter (ADDM) and higher values of essential amino acids.
The determination of nutrient digestibility is the first step for evaluating
the potential of an ingredient to be utilized in animal feed (Allan
et al., 2000; Luo et al., 2012).
Bioavailability of proteins and amino acids in feedstuffs is an important factor
to contemplate, because they are related with the quantity of nitrogen absorbed
by shrimp (Terrazas et al., 2010). During high
density cultivation, almost 78% of nitrogen derived from dietary protein is
released to the environment (Jackson et al., 2003).
The chemical composition of the experimental diets tested in this research was
equalled in protein and energy and at levels supposed to be optimal for pacific
white shrimp (Amaya et al., 2007; Oujifard
et al., 2012). All diets fed to shrimp in the present study had similar
amino acid values similarly to those reported by Oujifard
et al. (2012) for L. vannamei. Final body weight showed no
differences by increasing the dietary levels of RM and CC up to 18% and subjected
to a thermal process of 45 min, 0 and 90 min thermal process induced a growth
reduction about 13% (Table 4). Survival, however, was not
affected indicating that the juvenile shrimps are less sensitive to dietary
EM and CC level. The results are considered good compared with those reported
for Penaeus monodon fed the lupin meal, cow pea and mung bean (Sudaryono
et al., 1999; Vasagam et al., 2007)
and L. vannamei fed the cow pea, full fat soybean meal, solvent extracted
soybean meal, soybean protein concentrate, soybean protein isolate and rice
protein concentrate, (Cruz-Suarez et al., 2009;
Oujifard et al., 2012). The digestibility of
a feed ingredient depends primarily on its chemical composition and the digestive
capabilities of the shrimp to which it is fed. However, factors unrelated to
diet formulation such as environmental conditions in the production system,
feeding practices and diet manufacturing techniques affect the digestibility.
However, digestibility coefficients are not often constant (McGoogan
and Reigh, 1996).
Antinutritional factors ANFs were significantly reduced by thermal process,
since digestibility with tested diets was inferior when compared with diets
without thermal process. The improvement in digestibility due to the thermal
process treatments might be attributed to disruption of protein structures and
cell wall-encapsulated starch, starch gelatinisation and physical disintegration
of the legume seeds. Also, thermal process is found to be most effective among
the different processing methods for the reduction of various antinutrients
in legume seeds (Rehman and Shah, 2005; Siddhuraju
and Becker, 2005).
The improved growth performance in the shrimp fed with CC10-45 might be due
to thermal process time of the diet. In general, there are several reasons for
the reduced growth rates among treatments, from which the decreased ADC can
be the most important. When alternate plant protein sources are used in diets
containing the same concentration of digestible energy and protein and are able
to meet the nutritional requirements of the animal being fed, similar growth
may be expected (Cruz-Suarez et al., 2001).
In the present study, ADCs of ADCP and ADCL decreased progressively from CC10-45
to CC18-0 (Table 5). The ADCP (93.7%) and ADDM (90.5%) from
up to 10% CC10-45 inclusion of the present study (Table 5),
are comparable with the mean values of ADCP (87.9%) and ADDM (69.9%) reported
for P. monodon fed lupin protein concentrate, cow pea and mung bean (Sudaryono
et al., 1999; Vasagam et al., 2007)
and with the mean values of ADCP (96.9%) and ADDM (91.7%) reported for L.
vannamei fed four soybean ingredients (Cruz-Suarez et
al., 2009). Digestibility of protein was significantly affected by the
thermal process, followed by reduced digestibility of most amino acids in the
Generally, the decreasing trend in ADC for AA was observed when the thermal
process was not applied and level increase of 45 to 90. The ADCAA of the up
to 18% CC and RM included diets ranged from 81.25% (excluding serine) to 94.68%
(Table 6) which are similar to those reported by Cruz-Suarez
et al. (2001) (86-95%) and Oujifard et al.
(2012). Arginine and serine showed the lower apparent digestibility whereas
lysine and aspartic acid obtained the higher digestibility in all diets.
In general, it was found that the digestibility of C. cajan was consistently
higher than that of R. minima, in terms of ADCDM and ADCCP, suggesting
that C. cajan meal is more easily digested. Compared to the values reported
by Akiyama et al. (1989) and Cabanillas-Beltran
et al. (2001) for L. vannamei, the ADCDM, ADCCP and ADCCL
values obtained in this study for C. cajan and R. minima were
consistently higher. The high protein digestibility of plant origin feedstuffs
may be related to the omnivorous/herbivorous feeding habit of L. vannamei.
The AAAD values obtained for C. cajan and R. minima were lower
than those of Akiyama et al. (1989) and Cabanillas-Beltran
et al. (2001). The results suggest that R. minima seed meal
(RM45-18) or C. cajan seed meal (CC45-10) diets can partially replace
animal protein in shrimp diets at inclusion levels of 10 and 18%, respectively.
This study showed that whole C. cajan and R. minima meal is a
very acceptable ingredient for white shrimp diets; thermal process improved
digestibility. Results suggest that diets with both R. minima and C.
Cajan seed meals thermally processed, can partially replace animal protein
in shrimp diets at inclusion levels of 10 and 18%, respectively.
1: Akiyama, D., S.R. Coelho, A.L. Lawrence and E.H. Robinson, 1989. Apparent digestibility of feedstuffs by the marine shrimp, Penaeus vannamei Boone. Nippon Suisan Gakk., 55: 91-98.
Direct Link |
2: Allan, G.L., S. Parkinson, M.A. Booth, D.A.J. Stone, S.J. Rowland, J. Frances and R. Warner-Smith, 2000. Replacement of fish meal in diets for Australian silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus: I. Digestibility of alternative ingredients. Aquaculture, 186: 293-310.
Direct Link |
3: Amaya E., A.D. Davis, and D.B. Rouse, 2007. Alternative diets for the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture, 262: 419-425.
Direct Link |
4: AOAC, 1995. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 16th Edn., Vol. 1, AOAC International, Arlington, VA., USA
5: Bautista-Teruel, M.N., P.S. Eusebio and T.P. Welsh, 2003. Utilization of feed pea, Pisum sativum, meal as a protein source in practical diets for juvenile tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture, 225: 121-131.
Direct Link |
6: Cabanillas-Beltran, H., J.T. Ponce-Palafox, C.A. Martinez, C. Chavez and G.R. Lindsay, 2001. [Comparison of the digestibility of diets based on fish meal and soybean meal in Litopenaeus vannamei Boone 1931, using different temperatures and salinities for culture]. Cienc. Mar., 27: 577-593.
Direct Link |
7: Cruz-Suarez, L.E., D. Rieque-Marie, M. Tapia-Salazar, I.M. McCallum and D. Hickling, 2001. Assessment of differently processed feed pea (Pisum sativum) meals and canola meal (Brassica sp.) in diets for blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris). Aquaculture, 196: 87-104.
Direct Link |
8: Cruz-Suarez, L.E., M. Tapia-Salazar, D. Villarreal-Cavazos, J. Beltran-Rocha, M.G. Nieto-Lopez, A. Lemme and D. Ricque-Marie, 2009. Apparent dry matter, energy, protein and amino acid digestibility of four soybean ingredients in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. Aquaculture, 292: 87-94.
9: Davis, D.A., C.A. Arnold and I. McCallum, 2002. Nutritional value of feed peas Pisum sativum in practical diet formulations for Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquacult. Nutr., 8: 87-94.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
10: De Silva, S.S., 1989. Digestibility Evaluation of Natural and Artificial Diets. In: Fish Nutrition Network Meeting, De Silva, S.S. (Ed.). Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines, pp: 36-45
11: Elias, L.G., D.G. Fernandez and R. Bressani, 1979. Possible effects of seed coat polyphenolic on the nutritional quality of bean protein. J. Food Sci., 44: 524-531.
12: Eusebio, P., 1991. Effect of dehulling on the nutritive value of some leguminous seeds as protein sources for tiger prawn. Peaneus monodon, juveniles. Aquaculture, 99: 297-308.
13: Eusebio, P. and R.M. Coloso, 1998. Evaluation of leguminous seed meals and leaf meals as plant protein sources in diets for juvenile Peaneus indicus. Isr. J. Aquacult. Bamidgeh, 50: 47-54.
14: Farukawa, A. and H. Tsukahara, 1966. On the acid digestion method for the determination of chromic oxide as an index substance in the study of digestibility of fish feed. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish., 32: 502-506.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
15: Goytortua-Bores, E., R. Civera-Cerecedo, S. Rocha-Meza and A. Green-Yee, 2006. Partial replacement of red crab (Pleuroncodes planipes) meal for fish meal in practical diets for the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, Effects on growth and in vivo digestibility. Aquaculture, 256: 414-422.
16: Jackson, C., N.P. Preston, P. Thompson and M. Burford, 2003. Nitrogen budget and effluent nitrogen components at an intensive shrimp farm. Aquaculture, 218: 397-411.
17: Vasagam, K.K.P., T. Balasubramanian and R. Venkatesan, 2007. Apparent digestibility of differently processed grain legumes, cow pea and mung bean in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius and associated histological anomalies in hepatopancreas and midgut. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 132: 250-266.
18: Lim, C. and W. Dominy, 1990. Evaluation of soybean meal as a replacement for marine animal protein in diets for shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). Aquaculture, 87: 53-64.
Direct Link |
19: Luo, L., J. Wang, Q. Pan, M. Xue, Y. Wang, X. Wu and P. Li, 2012. Apparent digestibility coefficient of poultry by-product meal (PBM) in diets of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) and Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) and replacement of fishmeal with PBM in diets of P. monodon. Aquac. Res., 43: 1223-1231.
20: Martinez, C.A., H. Cabanillas-Beltran, J.T. Ponce-Palafox, C. Chavez and L.G. Ross, 2001. A modified chamber designed for estimation of digestibility in shrimp. N. Am. J. Aquacult., 63: 252-255.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
21: McGinnis, A.J. and R. Kasting, 1964. Colorimetric analysis of chromic oxide used to study food utilization by phytophagous insects. J. Agric. Food Chem., 12: 259-262.
22: McGoogan, B.B. and R.C. Reigh, 1996. Apparent digestibility of selected ingredients in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) diets. Aquaculture, 141: 233-244.
23: Montgomery, D.C., 2005. Diseno y Analisis de Experimentos [Design and Analysis of Experiments]. 2nd Edn., Limusa Wiley, Mexico, ISBN-13: 9789681861568, Pages: 686
24: NRC., 1993. Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA., ISBN-13: 9780309048910, Pages: 114
25: Oujifard, A., J. Seyfabadi, A.M. Abedian-Kenari and M. Rezaei, 2012. Growth and apparent digestibility of nutrients, fatty acids and amino acids in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, fed diets with rice protein concentrate as total and partial replacement of fish meal. Aquaculture, 342-343: 56-61.
26: Penaflorida, V.D., 1995. Growth and survival of juvenile tiger shrimp fed diets where fish meal is partially replaced with papaya (Carica papaya L.) or camote (Ipomea batatas Lam.) leaf meal. Isr. J. Aquacult. Bamidgeh, 47: 25-33.
27: Ponce-Palafox, J.T., J. Arredondo-Figueroa and J. Vernon-Carter, 2006. The plant pigment source in the diet of the pacific white. Rev. Mex. Ing. Quim., 5: 157-165.
28: Rehman, Z. and W.H. Shah, 2005. Thermal heat processing effects on antinutrients, protein and starch digestibility of food legumes. Food Chem., 91: 327-331.
29: Samocha, T.M., D.A. Davis, I.P. Saoud and K. DeBault, 2004. Substitution of fish meal by co-extruded soybean poultry by-product meal in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture, 231: 197-203.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
30: Siddhuraju, P. and P. Becker, 2005. Nutritional and antinutritional composition, in vitro amino acid availability, starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of differentially processed mucuna beans (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis): An under-utilised legume. Food Chem., 91: 275-286.
31: Siddhuraju, P., H.P.S. Makkar and K. Becker, 2002. The effect of ionising radiation on antinutritional factors and the nutritional value of plant materials with reference to human and animal food. Food Chem., 78: 187-205.
32: Strickland, J.D.H. and T.R. Parsons, 1977. A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis. 2nd Edn., Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, Pages: 203
33: Sudaryono, A., E. Tsvetnenko, J. Hutabarat and A. Supriharyono, 1999. Lupin ingredients in shrimp Peaneus monodon diets: Influence of lupin species and types of meals. Auqaculture, 171: 121-133.
34: Terrazas, M., R. Civera, L. Ibarra and E. Goytortua, 2010. Coeficientes de utilizacion digestiva aparente de materia seca, proteina y aminoacidos esenciales de ingredientes terrestres para el camaron del Pacifico Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae) [Apparent digestive utilization coefficients of dry matter, protein and essential amino acids of terrestrial ingredients for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Pacific (Decapoda: Penaeidae)]. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 58: 1561-1576.
Direct Link |