Effects of Different Nutrition Levels of Persimmon Sap on Laying the Queen Bee Colonies of Apis mellifera
Whatever a hive with high population inter a season of collecting nectar the rate of produce honey will increase as well. To provide energy needs in times of nectar shortage in nature, artificial nectar should be used to replace natural nectar, In order to assess the effects of different levels of nutrition, persimmon sap used as a stimulatory nutrition on laying queen bee rate in the colony in spring 2011, This experiment were conducted based on Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with 5 treatments and 5 replications in wild land in Guilan province on (Apis mellifera). To reduce genetic disorders sister queen with the same age were used. Treatments 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were sugar and water syrup 1:1; persimmon sap and water, 3:1; persimmon sap and sugar, 1:2; persimmon sap and white sugar, 1:1 and persimmon sap and sugar, 2:1, respectively. Treatments were used for 60 days. Amount of laying by queen was measured by determined scale. Related data to influence of nutrition on laying of queen showed that there was a significant difference between control treatment and experimental treatment (p<0.05). The most amount of laying was belong to treatment 4 and the least amount was observed in treatment 2.
Received: December 13, 2011;
Accepted: January 23, 2012;
Published: March 08, 2012
Honey bees, like other organisms for their survival needs nutrition. The successful
key to this is that beekeepers know scientific principles and apply techniques
of professional beekeepers (Hashemi, 2005). Honey, a natural
sweet substance produced by honeybees, has a wide range of applications in the
food industry (Dibyakanta and Mishra, 2011). To diminish
the impact of diseases in honey bees is of interest not just because of the
well-being of the insects and the value of the honey that they produce for the
beekeepers but for the value of pollination that many important crops are dependent
on (Arbia and Babbay, 2011). The numerous pollen types
and their diversity showed that bees travel considerable distance collecting
nectar and pollen for honey production (Ebenezer and Olugbenga,
2010). Bee products included honey, wax, pollen, Propolis royal jelly and
venom (Vanengelsdorp and Marina, 2010). Extra honey
and water besides royal jelly must be added into the diets to promote the growth
of larvae. We only know that in the whole developmental period queen bee larvae
take royal jelly as their principal food (Bin et al.,
2008). Stimulatory factors such as nutrition, young queen, the lack of adequate
food and nectar in nature, laying queen in the healthy hive, growing population
are immense important in honey production (Mclellan and
Rowland, 2003; Neupane and Thapa, 2005; Calderone
et al., 2002; Pourakbari and Ghorbani, 2011;
Taqi Pour Georgian Kalaee et al., 2010; Kauffeld,
1980). Overuse of antibiotics in honey bee nutrition and out-break of Varva
disease in the colony will decrease queens laying (Matasin
and Zeba, 2002; Calderone et al., 2002).
A study reported that adequate levels of thiamine vitamins (B1) and pantothenic
acid (B5) cause to increase queen laying (Forghani et
al., 2007). A study entitle ,The effect of Chlorella algae nutrition
on queen laying rate the results shown that the test diets have no significant
effect on the spawning of the queen and the larvae rate (Babai,
2011). A study The used beet molasses instead of white sugar in bee nutrition.
By Using of molasses colonys population in time to collect nectar, frame
number of eggs, larvae, pupae and produced honey in the different treatments
significantly reduced the mean (Modaresi, 2010) (p<0.01).
A study compared three treatments with each other, sucrose (glucose standard),
corn syrups containing high fructose (42 and 55%). Results showed no significant
differences observed between treatments in terms of increase laying queen (Severson
and Ericson, 1984). Artificial feeding of sugar syrup was necessary from
May to August. Brood rearing activity in dearth period was increased with the
increased amount of feeding (Bhuiyan et al., 2002).
A study carried out a pilot entitle the effect of niacin vitamin (B3) and pyridoxine
(B6) on Queen laying rate. Results showed that the effect of niacin vitamin,
pyridoxine on queen laying was meaningful (Sardari and Forghani,
2010) (p<0.05). The used different carbohydrates in the queens
ovipositional with consider cost of food; sugar was introduced as the best food
for growing populations (Asadi Dizaji et al., 2007).
Usually artificial feeding of sugar syrup used a colony in spring with 1:1 and
in autumn 1:2 (Edriss et al., 2002). With respect
to high cost of sugar in the honey bee nutrition, this study in addition to
increase in queen laying, population increase as well and will reduce the costs
of artificial feeding in colony. So persimmon sap syrup is recommended for this
purpose. This is one of the northern forest trees with the scientific name (diospyros
lotus). Sap of this fruit is rich in vitamin A and beta-carotene. Its
containing sugar and glucose is loliz. Its also contains significant amounts
of vitamins, B1, B2, B3 and C.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In order to assess the effects of different nutrition levels of sap forest persimmon as a feeding stimulant on laying queen bee rate in the colony, in spring 2011experiments conducted in Guilan province with different diets level base on a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates on the field on the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Treatments consisted of: treatment 1 (sugar syrup and water1:1ratio), treatment 2 (persimmon sap and water 1:3 ratio), treatment 3 (persimmon sap and sugar to a 2:1 ratio), treated 4: (persimmon sap and sugar 1:1), treated 5: (a ratio of 1:2 persimmon sap and sugar), for 60 days from the first week of April 2011 until the first week of June, 2011, were used as artificial nutrition. For reduce genetic disorders, used the Queens sister with same age. In mid-March 2010, the tested colonies selection carried out according to the population, spawning and diet. Colonies were supplied with the experimental treatments 4 times a week at 17:00 p.m. The queen laying eggs measured through the level of their day with eggs, larvae and pupae and were taken by the scale of predetermined which can be expressed in terms of square centimeters (6x6 cm square grid). After nectars in nature were finished, honey harvested from each honeycomb. Statistical analysis was conducted using SAS 9.1 software. Duncans multiple range test was used for mean comparison.
Data concerned to nutrition effect from the experimental treatments on laying
queen bee in the colony showed that there are significant differences between
control and experimental treatments (p<0.05) (Table 1).
||Average laying the queen and produced honey (±SEM)
in different treatments and compared them to the Duncan test at 5% probability
|The mean that are in a column with similar letters are not
significantly different (p>0.05)
|| Comparing color of produced honey in different treatments
through visual comparison
The most laying queen belong to treatment 4 (mixture of persimmon sap and sugar,
1:1ratio) with 125,496 eggs and the lowest rate related to two treatments (persimmon
sap and water with ratio of 1:3), with 21,600 eggs. The most amount of produced
honey were belong to treatment D (47.4 kg) and the least amount was related
to treatment B (16 kg) (Table 1). Color of the produced honey
in different treatments was different (Table 2). honey were
darker when density of persimmon sap is increased in treatments. With respect
to the rate of the queen laying, the best performance was related to the concentration
of 1:1 persimmon sap and sugar syrup.
Babai (2011) from Chlorella alga (Severson
and Ericson, 1984), from 3 sucrose treatment (standard glucose), corn syrups
containing high fructose (42 and 55%) and Modaresi (2010)
used from sugar beet molasses in the diet of honey bees the results showed no
significant effect on the laying queen, But if you use a sugar syrup along with
sap persimmon, this index significantly improved. Sardari
and Forghani (2010), Forghani et al. (2007)
and Asadi Dizaji et al. (2007) reported that
levels of the niacin vitamin (B3), pyridoxine (B6), thiamine (B1) and pantothenic
acid (B5) and sugar enhance queen eggs laying and increase honey yield this
results are consistent with their research. With respect that rich sap persimmon
is from B vitamin, it seems that one of the positive effects on improving the
laying rate of the queen and increase honey yield, is the presence of high levels
of these vitamins in the sap persimmon. Regarding to the significant increase
of honey production in all densities which persimmon sap is used and also by
considering that the least amount of honey is obtained when pure persimmon sap
is used, it is probably recommended that compound of persimmon sap and sugar
has synergistic influence, therefore all compounds of persimmon sap and sugar
had a better honey production than each of them. Color of the produced honey
in different treatments was different. honey were darker when density of persimmon
sap is increased in treatments. Therefore, using of sap persimmon with ratio
of 1:1 in the spring stimulation nutrition of beekeeping is recommended to increase
We appreciate Islamic Azad University of Tabriz Branch and Guilan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre for their cooperation with this project.
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