Growth Performance, Carcass, Haematology and Serum Metabolites of Broilers as Affected by Contents of Anti-nutritional Factors in Soaked Wild Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) Corm-based Diets
The performance of hydro broiler chickens fed graded levels of soaked wild cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms (SWCC) as a partial substitute for maize were investigated in a 28 day study. One hundred and twenty (120) 4 week old hydro broiler chickens of similar average weight were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments. Each treatment had 3 replicates of 10 birds each. Four experimental diets were formulated such that SWCC replaced maize at 0.00, 10.00, 20.00 and 30.00% in the diets. The birds were fed ad libitum and clean drinking water was provided throughout the period of the study. Parameters investigated include the growth performance, carcass characteristics, haematological and serum biochemical indices. Result of the growth performance showed no significant (p>0.05) difference in average weekly feed intake. Average weekly weight gain and cost per kilogram feed decreased (p<0.05); FCR increased (p<0.05) with increased inclusion of SWCC in the diets. Cost of feed per kilogram weight gain (CFPKWG) of birds fed on all SWCC-based diets were significantly (p<0.05) lower than control. Result of carcass analysis indicated that live weight, plucked weight, Eviscerated Weight (EW), Dressed Weight (DW), GIT and organs (kidney, liver and gizzard) were significantly (p<0.05) affected by dietary treatments. The highest (p<0.05) EW (72.91%) and DW (64.78%) of the control were similar (p>0.05) to EW (71.51%) and DW (63.33%) of 10% SWCC; but higher (p<0.05) than those of 20 and 30% SWCC. Organ weights reflected their roles in handling residual anti-nutritional factors in SWCC. Variations obtained in all the serum biochemical indices and haematological parameters investigated were not significant (p<0.05). This may suggest adequacy of the nutrients and absence of deleterious health implications for the birds. It was concluded that SWCC can economically replace 30% of maize in the diets of broiler finishers with no deleterious effects on carcass quality and health of the birds.
to cite this article:
R. Olajide , 2012. Growth Performance, Carcass, Haematology and Serum Metabolites of Broilers as Affected by Contents of Anti-nutritional Factors in Soaked Wild Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) Corm-based Diets. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences, 6: 23-32.
Received: August 12, 2011;
Accepted: November 02, 2011;
Published: December 29, 2011
Feed represents the major cost of poultry production. Cost of ingredients could
be as high as 80% of the total cost of production of the finished feed (Longe,
2006). Inadequate production of feeds has been found to be one of the major
factors limiting the development and expansion of poultry business (Emenalom,
2004). Birds are known to eat in order to satisfy their energy requirement
(Ranjhan, 1980; Ewing, 1995). The
implication is that the energy content of a diet would determine the extent
of consumption of such feed. Since, the energy component of a feed is usually
high, a reduction in the cost of energy would translate to reduced cost of feeding
livestock (Ayuk et al., 2009). In the developing
countries of the world, cereals and other grains serve as food for man, feed
for livestock and other industrial uses. This has led to high cost of cereals
and invariably high cost of livestock production.
Adequate production of animal products and consumption of protein of animal
origin at the optimal level for the teaming population of these developing countries
will be a mirage except alternatives are found to cereals. Roots and tubers
including corms of cocoyam readily provide these alternatives. Some cultivars
of wild cocoyam are not directly competed for as human food resources. These
are more likely to be available for use at lower costs. Presence of anti-nutritional
factors (ANFs) in cocoyam (Panigrahi, 1996; Esonu
et al., 2000) could limit their use. Soaking in water has been recommended
to alleviate the problem (Marfo and Oke, 1988; Sonaiya,
1995; Iyayi and Losel, 1999). Therefore, this study
evaluated the effects of graded levels of soaked wild cocoyam (Colocasia
esculenta L. Schott) corms on growth performance, carcass and health status
of hydro-broiler finisher chickens.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The processing, nutrient and anti-nutritional contents of the soaked wild cocoyam
(Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms were as in Olajide
et al. (2011).
Chemical analysis: Analysis of the proximate chemical composition of
the experimental diets was according to the method of AOAC
(1995). Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE) was determined by difference and Metabolizable
Energy (ME) calculated according to the procedure of Pauzenga
ME (kcal kg-1) = 37xProtein (%)+81.8xFat (%)+35.5xNFE(%)
Experimental diets: Four experimental diets were formulated with partial substitution (weight for weight) of maize with SWCC. Diet 1(Control) had no SWCC. Diets 2, 3 and 4 were formulated to contain 10, 20 and 30% SWCC.
Site of the experiment: The feeding trial was carried out at the rearing section of the Poultry Unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. The location of the study is 7°27' N and 3°45' E at altitude 200-300 m above sea level; mean temperature of 25-30°C and the average annual rainfall of about 1255 mm.
Management of the experimental birds: Wood shavings of about 20 cm thick layer served as the litter and artificial light (electric bulb) provided to encourage the birds eat at night. The rearing house was previously washed, disinfected, allowed to dry and rest before the birds were moved in from brooder section. One hundred and twenty hydro broiler finishers were used for this study. The birds at 4 weeks of age were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments of three replicates each. There were 30 birds of similar average weight per diet. The birds were weighed and feed intake recorded weekly. Feed and water were provided ad libitum.
Carcass analysis: Forty eight birds were randomly selected at the rate
of 12 birds per diet for carcass analysis at the end of feeding trials which
lasted for 4 weeks. The selected birds were starved overnight and their live
weights recorded. The birds were slaughtered by severing the jugular vein, hung
upside down for proper bleeding. Each of the carcasses was thoroughly bled,
scalded, de-feathered and eviscerated according to the procedures of Jones
(1984). The carcass and internal offal designated as Gastro Intestinal Tract
(GIT) were weighed and recorded. The plucked, eviscerated and dressed weights
were also taken and expressed as percentages of live weight. The organ weights
were calculated and expressed as percentages of carcass weight. Carcass evaluation
was carried out at the Meat Science Laboratory of the University of Ibadan,
Haematology and biochemical indices: At the end of feeding trial, twenty
four birds (6 birds per dietary treatment) were selected and bled by the jugular
vein using hypodermic needle with syringe. Blood was drained into two different
carefully labeled bottles for haematological and serum metabolite investigation.
The blood samples for haematological parameters were collected into bottles
pretreated with Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA), an anti-coagulant.
Blood samples for biochemical indices were collected into another sample bottles
containing no EDTA. Serum biochemical indices investigated include total protein,
globulin, albumin, albumin: Globulin ratio, cholesterol and glucose. Packed
Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cell count (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC) and haemoglobin
were determined by Wintrobes microhaematocrit, improved Neubauer haemocytometer
and cyanometaemoglobin methods, respectively. Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV),
Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and Mean Corupuscular Haemoglobin Concentration
(MCHC) were calculated as described by Jain (1986).
Statistical analysis: Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance
(ANOVA) using SAS Statistical Package, SAS (1999). The
means were separated using Duncan multiple range test.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The proximate composition, metabolisable energy and contents of anti-nutritional
factors in soaked wild cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms
are presented in Table 1. The report revealed that corms of
cocoyam contain anti-nutritional factors which is agreement with the submissions
of Agwunobi et al. (2002) and Preeti
|| Proximate composition, metabolisable energy and anti-nutritional
factors in soaked wild cocoyam corms
|SWCC: Soaked wild cocoyam corms, Source: Olajide
et al. (2011)
The gross composition and determined nutrient composition of the experimental
diets are presented in Table 2. The replacement levels were
0, 10, 20 and 30% of maize with soaked wild cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta
L. Schott) corm. The determined nutrient composition reflected the original
compositions of maize and SWCC. The diets were formulated in such a way that
the nutrient and energy requirements of the birds were met as recommended for
the tropics (Olomu, 1976, 1995).
Table 3 revealed that the highest (p<0.05) weight gain
(304.48 g/b/week) was obtained in birds fed the control diet. This significantly
(p<0.05) reduced to 275.31, 240.37 and 215.33 g/b/week, respectively for
birds fed 10, 20 and 30% SWCC-based diets. The same trend was observed in the
cost per kilograms feed. The lowest (p<0.05) FCR (2.56) was obtained in birds
fed the control diet and the highest (3.59) in birds fed 30% SWCC-based diets.
Cost (N127.86) of feed per kilograms weight gain recorded in birds fed the control
diet was significantly (p<0.05) higher than N105.97, N117.81 and N125.95,
respectively from birds fed 10, 20 and 30% SWCC-based diets. Ezieshi
and Olomu (2004) reported that feed cost per kg live weight of broilers
on palm kernel cake diets and maize offal were lower than that of the control.
Feed intake was not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the dietary treatments.
|| Gross composition of experimental finisher diets fed to hydro
|SWCC: Soaked wild cocoyam corms, *Composition of premix: 2.5
kg of premix contains: Retinol acetate (10000000 iu), Vit. D3 (2000000 iu),
Vit. E (15000 iu), Vit. B (3000 mg), Niacin (15000 mg), Vit. B6 (3000 mg),
Vit. B12 (10 mg), Vit. K3 (2000 mg), Biotin (20 mg), Folic Acid (500 mg),
Calcium pantothenate (800 mg), Chlorine Chloride (250000 mg), Manganese
(75000 mg), Iron (25000 mg), Copper (5000 mg), Zinc (70000 mg), Selenium
(150 mg), Iodine (1300 mg), Magnesium (100 mg), Ethoxyquine (500 g), BHT
|| Performance characteristics of hydro broilers fed soaked
wild cocoyam corms as substitute for maize
|SWCC: Soaked wild cocoyam corms, a, b, c, dMeans
in the same row with different superscripts are significant (p<0.05),
SEM: Standard error of the means, COV: coefficient of variation
The non significant dietary effects on feed intake could point to better ability
of these older birds (finishers) to tolerate contents of anti-nutritional factors
in the SWCC-based diets. This agrees with the submissions of Bedford
(2006) and Egena (2006) that older birds are able
to tolerate ANFs than younger ones.
Absence of anti-nutritional factors in the control diet which would have allowed
for effective utilization of nutrients in it was responsible for highest weight
gain and lowest FCR of birds fed the diet. The increasing contents of these
anti-nutritional factors with the increasing levels of substitution could also
account for decreased Weight Gain (WG) and increased Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR)
obtained. Similar decreased WG and elevated FCR have been linked to contents
of ANFs in the diets (Ahmad et al., 2000; Kumar,
2003). Also, Esonu et al. (2000) recorded
similar trends with another cultivar of wild cocoyam corms, wild variegated
cocoyam (Caladium hortilanum). Cost of a kilogram of feed across the
dietary treatments reflects the price of maize which was higher than that of
SWCC at the time of purchase. Because of this lower price of SWCC than maize,
despite the lower WG and higher FCR of the birds fed on SWCC-based diets than
those on control, the cost of feed per kg weight gain of those on SWCC were
still lower than control.
Result of the carcass characteristics analysis of broilers is presented in
Table 4. It indicated that live weight, plucked weight, eviscerated
weight, dressed weight, GIT and organs (kidney, liver, gizzard) were significantly
(p<0.05) affected by dietary treatments. There was no significant (p>0.05)
difference across the dietary treatments in bled weight and abdominal fat. The
highest bled weight (96.94%) and abdominal fat (2.03%) was diet 1 while the
lowest bled weight (95.63%) and abdominal fat (1.47%) was diet 4. The trend
observed in the live weight was as a result of performance of the birds fed
control and other diets. The highest eviscerated weight (72.91%) and dressed
weight (64.78%) were obtained from birds fed the control diet which was not
significantly (p>0.05) different from those fed 10% SWCC-based diets with
respective values of 71.51% and 63.33% in the same order. These were, however,
significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed 20 and 30% SWCC-based diets.
The higher eviscerated and dressed weights obtained in birds fed the control
and 10% SWCC-based diets was indication that birds on these 2 diets produced
more edible meat than others. This was a result of better utilization of the
nutrients in the control diet with no anti-nutritional factors and 10% SWCC-based
diet with lower contents of ANFs than 20 and 30% SWCC-based diets.
|| Carcass characteristics of broilers fed soaked wild cocoyam
|SWCC: Soaked wild cocoyam corms, a, ab, c, dMeans
in the same row with different superscripts are significant (p<0.05),
SEM: Standard error of the means, COV: Coefficient of variation
This result confirms earlier findings (Emiola et al.,
2003) that reduced ANFs as a result of improved processing techniques enhanced
birds performance. The increases observed in the weights of the gastro intestinal
tracts with increased level of SWCC in the diets could be linked to the weight
of undigested parts of the feeds. The ANFs increased with levels of substitution
and have been reported to lower nutrients and dry matter digestibility (Onifade
and Tewe, 1993; Alokan, 2000; Olajide
et al., 2009). The offal percentages represented by GIT obtained
in this study is at variance with the submission of Butcher
et al. (1983) that offal percentages tend to increase as slaughter
weight of animal increase. The highest kidney weight was obtained in birds fed
30% SWCC and similar liver weights obtained at 0 and 10% SWCC which increased
with the contents of SWCC in the diets. This could be linked to the roles of
these organs in elimination of metabolic wastes and toxins from the body. This
result agrees with the report by Onyeyilli et al.
(1998) that kidney and liver are primary organs of biotransformation in
animals. Also, Voss et al. (1990) and Ewuola
et al. (2003) have linked hypertrophy or hypotrophy of these organs
to the presence toxin. The lowest gizzard of the birds on control diet which
increased with SWCC in the diets reflected the extra muscular work required
to process these diets with anti-nutritional factors including higher fibre
than control. Similar anti-nutritional effect of Velvet beans on gizzard growth
was reported by Carew et al. (2003).
Serum metabolites profiles of the birds are presented in Table
5. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference across the various dietary
treatments in total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin: globulin ratio and
glucose. The lowest globulin (3.83 g dL-1) obtained in the control
treatment numerically increased to 4.20, 4.39 and 4.48 (g dL-1),
respectively for birds fed 10, 20 and 30% SWCC-based diets. The highest cholesterol
(134.54 mg dL-1) was obtained from birds fed control diet which numerically
reduced to 129.56, 122.45 and 116.34 mg dL-1, respectively for birds
fed 10, 20 and 30% SWCC-based diets. The non significant of most of these serum
metabolites may indicate adequacy of nutrients especially CP.
|| Serum metabolites of broilers fed soaked wild cocoyam corm-based
|SWCC: Soaked wild cocoyam corms, SEM: Standard error of the
means, COV: coefficient of variation
|| Haematology of broilers fed soaked wild cocoyam corm-based
|SWCC: Soaked wild cocoyam corms, SEM: standard error of the
means, COV: coefficient of variation
However, the increased globulin with contents of ANFs in SWCC in the diets
was an indication of the need for defense system (immune response) to defend
the body from these ANFs. The total protein, globulin, albumin and glucose fall
within the values recommended for normal chickens (Mitruka
and Rawnsley, 1977). The decreased cholesterol could also be linked to contents
of saponins in SWCC. Saponins are known to bind with bile acids and cholesterol,
thereby clean or purge these fatty compounds from the body, lowering the blood
cholesterol level. Similar reports were given (Potter et
al., 1979; Oakenfull, 1981; Akpodiete
et al., 1997; Michael, 2005).
None of the haematological indices investigated was significantly (p>0.05)
affected by dietary treatments (Table 6). The lowest WBC (19.55
mm3x103) was recorded in birds fed control diet. This
numerically increased to 19.98, 20.10 and 20.30 mm3x103,
respectively for birds fed 10, 20 and 30% SWCC-based diets. The numerical increase
in WBC was as a result of the response of the defense mechanism of the birds
to handle contents of ANFs in SWCC. However, the non significant values of these
haematological parameters across all dietary treatments, coupled with values
of PCV, Hb and total protein which fell within the recommended for normal chickens
(Mitruka and Rawnsley, 1977) was an indication of adequate
nutrition for these birds. Ikhimioya et al. (2000)
and Oladele et al. (2001) linked lower values
of these parameters to inadequate nutrition.
Results from this study indicated that maize could economically be replaced by 30% soaked wild cocoyam corms in the diets of broiler finishers without compromising the quality of the carcass and with no deleterious effects on the health status of the birds.
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