Effect of Feeding Acacia as Supplements on the Nutrient Digestion, Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Some Blood Constituents of Awassi Lambs under the Conditions of North Sinai
This research was conducted to study the effect of different levels of acacia in the feed of weaned Awassi lambs on the digestibility coefficient and nutritive values, growth performance, carcass traits and some blood constituents. Four rations were nutritionally evaluated through four digestion trials with ram lambs. Rations 2 and 3 which gave the highest feeding value were chosen and compared with the control ration in a feeding trial conducted using 18 newly weaned (16 weeks of age) Awassi lambs which were divided into three similar groups of 6 lambs each for 84 days. The main results showed significant differences among rations in the digestibility coefficients for DM, OM, CP, EE, CF and NFE which decreased as acacia consumption increased. Diet 1 and 2 had the highest (p<0.01) TDN value, followed by diet 3 then diet 4. All animals were in positive N balance in the four experimental rations. Feed cost/kg gain was reduced and economic efficiency improved by increasing acacia in sheep rations. Lambs fed 40% acacia recorded the highest values of dressing percentage. Dietary had no significant effects serum constituents of lambs which were all within the normal ranges for healthy lambs. It could be concluded that replacement of acacia up to 40% in growing lambs diet improved growth performance traits, economical efficiency, dressing percentage and decreased feed cost per kg body gain from weaning to marketing weight.
Received: June 02, 2010;
Accepted: August 17, 2010;
Published: November 24, 2010
In Egypt, in the new reclaimed desert lands, there is a great shortage in animal
feedstuffs during summer season and early autumn (Yousef,
2005). Using non-traditional feeds in animal feeding substantially aid in
solving this problem, which decreased the cost of feeding and hence the market
price of animal products. Many attempts have been made to introduce forage which
suit the weather and soil conditions of the new reclaimed lands (Yousef,
The energy rich ingredients (mainly, cereal) are not available for the nomadic
tribes in Sinai, especially middle Sinai, since they are transported to Sinai
from the Nile valley at high costs compared with acacia plants which grow all
year round in Sinai and are considered as a good feed source for livestock (goats
sheep and camels), especially during the dry season (Mousa
and El-Shabrawy, 2003).
In North Sinai, Acacia saligna has the potential to provide both protein
and energy supplements for small ruminants raised on poor quality forage particularly
during the dry season (Mousa and Shetaewi, 2002; Mousa
and El-Shabrawy, 2003). Acacia plants grow all round the year in
North Sinai (Mousa and El-Shabrawy, 2003).
Acacia contains about 12 to 18% crude protein on DM basis (Ben
Salem et al., 2002b; Mousa and Shetaewi, 2002;
Mousa and El-Shabrawy, 2003; Bhatta
et al., 2002; Moujahed et al., 2005;
Salem, 2005; Yousef, 2005; Van
Thanh et al., 2005; Nyambati et al., 2006;
El-Waziry, 2007; El-Meccawi et
al., 2008; Sanon et al., 2008a; Yayneshet
et al., 2008; Ngambi et al., 2009)
depending on area and aridity.
Several studies were conducted to partially replace traditional feed ingredients
by acacia. Replacing 40% of the Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) from basal
ration for Awassi sheep by acacia increased milk yield by 16.5% compared with
feeding control diet and improved growth performance of their lambs from birth
to weaning and reduced the costs of feeding by of 38% compared to those fed
the control diet (Mousa and Shetaewi, 2002). Replacing
50% of the daily dry matter alfalfa intake for Barki sheep with acacia foliage
increased Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) and reduced digestible protein (El-Lakany
et al., 1991).
Many leguminous fodder trees and shrubs have high protein levels and are potentially
promising supplements to overcome nutrient deficiencies provided anti-nutritional
factors as tannins and other secondary compounds can be controlled. Tannis are
polyphenolic substances that occur widely in plants and have the ability to
bind proteins (Makkar, 2003; Min
et al., 2003). Salem et al. (2004),
detected phenolic compounds, saponins, alkaloids and lectins, in Acacia saligna
leaves which can be highly toxic to ruminal and intestinal bacteria. Anti-nutritional
factors such as condensed tannins protect proteins from degradation in the rumen.
Tannin-protein complex on one hand reduces the availability and digestibility
of proteins for ruminants, but on the other hand it allows more dietary protein
to escape rumen degradation to reach the lower digestive tract (Reed,
1995; Min et al., 2003).
Among the different means investigated to reduce the deleterious effects of
anti-nutritional factors was air-drying and supply of exogenous nutrients. The
PEG was found more efficient in improving the nutritive value of acacia foliage
(Ben Salem et al., 1997; Moujahed
et al., 2000), thus increasing sheep growth (Ben
Salem et al., 1999a; Moujahed and Kayouli, 2003).
Metabolism traits have shown that the nutritive value of acacia foliage
is low although the Crude Protein (CP) content is high. Condensed Tannins (CT)
which from insoluble complexes with proteins, proved to be the major constraint
reducing the feeding value of acacia (Degen et al.,
The most important effect of tannins on intake and digestibility was due to
formation of tannin-protein complexs (Jones and Mangan,
1977). However, Terril et al. (1992) and
Bhatta et al. (2000, 2001)
suggested that tannin could have a positive effect. Moreover, Bhatta
et al. (2005) reported that, formation of Condensed Tannins (CT)-protein
complex had a positive effect for sheep grazing on semi-arid range; this was
due to the levels of tannins ingested.
Van Thanh et al. (2005) reported that the Condensed
Tannins (CT) in Acacia cyanophylla foliage were reduced after 2 days
of drying under shade or in the sun. The total tannins were reduced by 22.6
and 11.3% for the wilting and drying, respectively, compared to fresh, but these
differences were not significant.
Mahgoub et al. (2008) reported that feeding
non-conventional foods containing phenols and condensed tannins for extended
periods may produce subtle negative effects on animals health and production.
The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of feeding of different levels of Acacia saligna on digestibility, nitrogen balance, growth performance, carcass traits and serum constituents of Awassi sheep under North Sinai conditions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was carried out at the experimental farm of Animal Production Department,
Faculty of Environmental Agricultural Sciences, El-Arish, Suez Canal University
during the period from 2006 to 2007. The climatic characteristic of this region
is semi-arid (Long. 33.75 E, Lat. 31.27 N) with an average annual rain in fall
of about 94 mm (average 10 years from 2000 to 2009) in North Sinai (CLAC,
Plant material: Acacia saligna (leaves and twigs) were harvested daily at morning from the farm of Animal Production Department. These plants were collected by hand, then air-dried until DM content was around 450 g kg-1 feed.
The experimental work of this study was divided into two successive parts.
During the first period, digestibility and nitrogen balance trails were conducted
before the commencement of the feeding trial to evaluate the four experimental
diets. Three ram lambs with an average live body weight of 38 kg were used to
estimate the digestibility coefficients of the diets. They were individually
kept and fed in metabolic crates. The digestibility trial consisted of 14 days
as a preliminary period followed by 7 days as a collection period. The control
ration (T1) was a basal diet consisting of CFM and rice straw to cover their
nutritional requirements according to NRC (1985). Rations
2, 3 and 4 consisted of CFM to cover 80, 60 and 40% of the TDN requirements
and were offered air-dried acacia, respectively.
The daily CFM of rations were offered in almost two equal parts at 8:00 am and 4:00 pm whereas acacia was offered ad lib. 9:00 am Refusals were collected just before offering the next days. During the collection period, total daily faces output was collected and 10% sample was taken. And acacia were first dried at 65°C for 48 h. The final dry matter of feed and faces were determined after drying in a forced air oven at 105°C for 24 h. Dried samples were mixed and ground through in a wily mill with a 2 mm screen. Dry samples were kept in a plastic vials at room temperature for the chemical analysis. Total daily urinary excreted from each ram lambs were collected in jar containing 100 mL of 20% H2SO4 to prevent ammonia loss. Daily samples of 10% were taken from each animal.
During the second part, the effect of the control ration, 2nd and 3rd rations on growth performance, carcass characteristics, some blood metabolites and economical evaluation were (ration 4 was discarded). Eighteen newly weaned Awassi lambs (16 weeks of age) were divided according to body weight into three similar groups of six lambs each. The three groups were assigned at random to receive the three experiments rations for 12 weeks. The average initial body weights of lambs for T1 (control), T2 and T3 were 23.38, 23.04 and 24.41 kg, respectively.
The lambs of the control ration (T1) was fed a basal ration consisting of concentrate
feed mixture and rice straw to cover their nutritional requirements according
to NRC (1985) which was adjusted every two weeks according
to body weight and growth rate. Second and 3rd rations were fed CFM to cover
80 and 60% of the Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN) requirements and were offered
air-dried acacia ad libtum.
The lambs were drenched against internal parasites before the start of the
experimental. The animals were watered. natural saline well water containing
3400 ppm. The analysis of drinking under ground water was carried out to Page
et al. (1982).
The animals of each group were fed and housed in a 6x10 m2 semi-open shaded pens.
Animals were individually weighed at the beginning of the experiment then every two weeks and daily gain was calculated for each animal.
Mineral and vitamins blocks were fixed among cages to enable the animals to lick when ever they required. Samples of the experimental ingredients, acacia was taken for chemical analysis at the beginning of the collection period of the digestibility trials and the chemical of the consumed rations were calculated.
Slaughtering procedure and carcass measurements: At the end of the growth experiment, three male animals in each group were randomly selected for slaughter. The lambs were fasted for at least 12 h and body weight recorded before slaughtering. The body was weighed again after bleeding, skinned eviscerated and the skin, head, fore feet, hind feet and the viscera were removed. Weight of the gut content was calculated as the difference between full and empty weight. The weight of other components of offal or non-carcass parts such as kidney and pelvic fat and different organs (liver, spleen, lung and trachea diaphragm, heart, kidneys and testes) were recorded.
Blood samples were taken monthly before morning feeding. Blood samples were
by jugular puncture from 3 animals from each group. Within one hours of collection,
the samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min. The serum was separated
and stored at -20°C until analysis. The results of the 3 months samples
Serum total protein, albumin, total lipids, glucose, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, ALT, GPT, AST and GOT levels were determined colorimetrically using commercial kits Bio-Merieus, Laboratory Reagent and products, France. The globulin values were obtained by subtracting albumin values from protein values.
Samples of feeds, faces and urine were chemically analyzed according to AOAC
(1990). All animals were kept under the same managerial and environmental
Data were subjected to statistical analysis by the SAS (1996)
computer program using the General Linear Models (GLM). Differences between
treatments means were tested for using Duncan multiple range test (Duncan,
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Chemical of the ingredients and the experimental rations: The chemical
composition of the ingredients used to formulate the experimental rations (Table
1), was within the normal ranges published in Egypt (El-Shaer
et al., 1984; MAO, 1997; Mousa
and Shetaewi, 2002; Mousa and El-Shabrawy, 2003)
and Bhatta et al. (2005) and Van
Thanh et al. (2005).
Table 1 shows that Crude Fiber (CF) was higher in acacia
than CFM, while Ether Extract (EE), crude protein, Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE)
and ash were lower than CFM. The values were 1.75, 13.07, 53.61 and 8.07% for
acacia vs. 2.90, 17.30, 58.39 and 9.81 for CFM, resp. These results are in agreement
with those reported by Mousa and El-Shabrawy (2003).
The proximate analyses of the consumed experimental rations are also shown in Table 1. The control ration (T1) had higher DM% then rations 2, 3 and 4 because of the higher moisture content in acacia. Ration 4 had lower CP, EE and ash contents but higher CF than other rations.
Digestibility coefficients and nutritive values: Digestion coefficients
of the experimental rations are presented in Table 2. Differences
were observed in the digestion coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF and NFE among
rations 1, 2, 3 and 4.
||Chemical composition of the ingredients and calculated chemical
composition of the consumed rations (%)
|*Ration 1 Concentrate feed (CFM) plus rice straw,
*Ration 2 Concentrate feed (CFM) plus ad lib acacia (20%), *Ration 3 Concentrate
feed (CFM) plus acacia ad lib (40%), *Ration 4 Concentrate feed (CFM)
plus acacia ad lib (60%), *Gross energy concentration (MJ kg-1
DM), calculated according to MAFF (1975) using
the equation GE MJ kg-1 DM = 0.0226CP+0.0407EE+0.0192CF+0.0177NFE,
Where, CP, EE, CF and NFE are presented as g kg-1 DM|
||Digestion coefficients and nutritive values of the experimental
B, C, D: Means bearing different superscripts within the same row
are significantly different at p<0.01, a,b: Means bearing
different superscripts within the same row are significantly different
The digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP and CF were significantly (p<0.01)
higher in ration 2 (CFM to cover 80 and 60% of the TDN requirements and acacia
ad lib) than 4 (CFM to cover 40% of the TDN requirements and acacia ad lib.
There was no differences among EE digestibility of rations 1, 3 and 4, but EE
digestibility (67.2) was low (p<0.05) for ration 2 compared to other rations.
These results agree with the data of Mousa and El-Shabrawy
(2003) who found that the digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE,
CF and NFE of diet consisted of Concentrate Feed Mixture (CFM) to cover 70%
of the TDN requirements of kids and green acacia ad lib were lower than those
of the control diet. On the other hand, Mugweni et al.
(2001) reported that the dry matter digestibility of acacia/maize mixture
was similar to maize alone (62.2 vs. 63.8%), both higher than the Leucaena/maize
Generally, the coefficients of DM, OM, CP, CF and NFE decreased with increasing acacia inclusion in the diet. The best CP digestibility (75.07) was that of ration 1 (control) followed by rations 2, 3 and 4 (68.51, 64.81 and 59.67, respectively).
The adverse effect of acacia the digestibility of the ration should be ascribed
to the inhibitory effect of its high tannin content on microbial activity (Malechek
and Provenza, 1981). The type of tannin, the level and activities of tannin
in browse are variable leading to varied effects on the reduction of digestibility
On the other hand, Sanon et al. (2008b) reported
that the Acacia senegal leaves with high cp content had good intake characteristics
and showed high nutrient digestibility. It seems that the protein in acacia
is poorly digested by sheep and goats owing to the presence of tannins (4-11%)
DM basis (Degen et al., 1995; Abou
El-Nasr et al., 1996).
Anti-nutritional factors such as condensed tannins protect plants from degradation
in the rumen. They are reported to form combination with proteins in the rumen
rendering them unavailable for digestion and consequently increase their out
put in faces (Robins and Brooker, 2005).
Feeding values: The feeding values of, ration 1 (control) and 2 had
the highest (p<0.01) TDN value followed by ration 3 then ration 4 which had
the lowest TDN value The superiority of the rations 1 and 2 in TDN is mainly
due to their almost equal high CFM contents. On the other hand, rations 3 and
4 contained high levels of acacia which reflected lower TDN value. Regarding
the DCP% of the four experimental rations (Table 2), it was
clear that the differences among the four rations were significant (p<0.01).
The highest value was that of ration 1 (control) followed by ration 2, 3 and
4. The low DCP% value of ration 4 may be due to its high level of acacia which
contains a high value of tannins therefore is showed the lowest value of CP
digestibility, as reported by Mousa and El-Shabrawy (2003).
The present findings are in agreement with those reported by Abou
El-Nasr et al. (1996) and Mohamed (1996).
The absence of negative effects of tannin on intake could be attributed to
the relatively low quantity of tannin ingested and/or to the effect of drying
the acacia before feeding. Barry et al. (1986)
reported that less than 40% of tannin in the ration was beneficial to ruminants.
Igwebuike et al. (2008) reported that the growing
rabbits can tolerate 40% Acacia alibido pods in their diets without adverse
effect on nutrient digestibility and blood parameters.
Nitrogen balance: The date of N-balance recorded for the four experimental rations are reported in Table 3.
||Nitrogen balance of lambs fed the experimental rations
B, C, D: Means with different superscripts within the same row are
significantly different at p<0.01|
In all animals on the four rations were in N. balance. The highest N intake was recorded for ration 1 followed by group 3, 2 and 4. The amounts excreted in the feces are reflected on the CP digestibility coefficients. Fecal-N was highest with ration 4 including high levels from acacia compared with rations 1, 2 and 3.
The negative effect of acacia tannins on N-balance was demonstrated in numerous
studies on sheep and goats (Reed et al., 1990;
Degen et al., 1995; Ben Salem
et al., 1999a, b, 2000,
2002a, 2005). In addition, acacia
leaves contains in average 20% of its total N bound to fiber (N-ADF) as reported
by Ben Salem et al. (1995).
The present findings are in agreement with those reported by Woodward
and Reed (1997) and Mousa and El-Shabrawy (2003).
The amount excreted in the urine was highest with ration 1 which received the highest N-intake.
Ben Salem et al. (2005) reported that lambs
fed on acacia diet retained less nitrogen than those on the oat hay diet (p<0.001).
While, Sotohy et al. (1997) reported that absorbed
and retained nitrogen (g/d) were decreased with increasing levels of Acacia
nilotic (tannin-rich plants) by Baladi goats in Assuit.
The value of N-balance/N-absorbed (the biological values) was also improved as acacia inclusion was increased.
The growth trial:
Live body weight and daily gain: The Awassi lambs used in the experiment
were of North Sinai type especially in Rafah, Shiekh Zeyuied and El-Arish regions,
this breed is well adapted in the semi-arid zones, Awassi sheep have a high
potential for milk production (Guirgis, 1988).
The final weights and daily gain of lambs were not significantly affected by three experimental rations during the whole experimental period (Table 4).
Generally lambs fed ration 3 (40% acacia) had the highest body weight followed
by ration 2 (20% acacia) then those fed ration 1 (control). The highest values
of Total Weight Gain (TWG) and Daily Gain (DG) were shown for ration 3 (15.65
kg and 186.31 g/d), respectively. While, the intermediate values was recorded
for ration2 (14.21 kg and 171.9 g/d, resp.) and the lowest total gain and daily
gain were recorded for control ration (13.48 kg and 160.47 g/d), respectively.
||Growth performance of lambs as affected by feeding diets containing
different levels of acacia (X-±SE) from 16 to 28 weeks of age
difference between three rations were not significant p<0.05|
||Performance of lambs fed the experimental rations
Similar trends were obtained by Shetaewi et al. (2001),
Mousa and El-Shabrawy (2003) and Yousef
(2005) reported that the concluded that up to 40% acacia leaves could be
used and safely in the diet of rabbits without adversely affecting their reproductive
under subtropical conditions. Abd-Alla et al. (2007) and Abdel-Samee
et al. (2008) reported that feeding Acacia saligna improved
productivity of heat stressed growing lambs and increased (p<0.05) daily
gain and relative growth rate by 15.48 and 16.0%, respectively.
DM intake and feed conversion: The average of dry matter intake by lambs
given ration 1 (control) compared to rations 2 and 3 supplemented with acacia
are present in Table 5. The DM intakes (kg/heed/d) were 1.182,
1.123 and 1.186 kg for lambs fed rations 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Feed conversions
in terms kg feed kg-1 gain of were 7.37, 6.53 and 6.37 for rations
1, 2 and 3, respectively. These values were worse than those obtained by Momani
Shaker et al. (2002, 2003) for Awassi ram
lambs. However, similar results were reported by Harb (1994)
who found the feed conversion of Awassi male lambs to be 6.55 in an experiment
lasting for 154 days with high concentrate rations.
Daily TDN and DCP intakes (g/head/d) were 734, 697 and 712 and 147, 124 and
121, for rations 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Daily intake from CFM and acacia
by Lambs for ration 3 could cover their nutritional requirements (maintenance
and growth) according to NRC (1985) from TDN for sheep.
However, these values of TDN from acacia could cover 40% TDN from nutritional
requirements. These obtained results are in agreement with those reported by
EL-Lakany et al. (1991), Mousa
and Shetaewi (2002), Mousa and El-Shabrawy (2003)
and Yousef (2005). The corresponding TDN intake/kg gain
was 4.6, 4.05 and 3.82 kg and DCP intake/kg gain were 0.91, 0.72 and 0.65.
This indicated better feed conversion as DM, TDN and DCP intakes/kg gain for ration 3 (40% acacia) compared with lambs fed ration 2 and the control. In general, feed conversion improved by increasing acacia ratio up to 40%.
Economical evaluation: The obtained results of economical for lambs fed the experimental diets are presented in Table 6. Data revealed that ration 1 (control) was the highest in feed cost to give kg gain (8.89 LE) followed by ration 2 (6.61 LE) and ration 3 (5.74 LE).
||Economical efficiency for lambs fed the experimental rations
|Price of 1 kg DM feed for CFM and rice straw were 1.40 and
0.15 LE, respectively. Total feed cost = Price of 1 kg DM feedxtotal dry
matter consumed. Feed cost/kg gain = Total feed cost/Total body weight gain.
Price of 1 kg Live body weight = 20 LE at the time of the experiment. Total
interest = (price of 1 kg live body weightxTotal gain kg) (total
feed cost). Interest/kg gain = Price of 1 kg live body weight gain-feed
The highest cost of one kg gain for the ration was mainly due to the high proportion
and price of CFM which increased the total cost of the diet by increasing of
CFM in diet. While, lower cost of one kg gain for ration 2 and 3, was due to
the lower price of acacia and to the low proportion of the expensive CFM, which
reduced the total cost of the diet by increasing the acacia, which was associated
with the highest daily gain and the best feed conversion.
Addition of acacia to the diet resulted in an improvement of interest/kg gain. The improvements were 20.52 and 28.35 for rations 2 and 3 above the control diet.
Similar results were reported by Mousa and El-Shabrawy
(2003) who found that cost of feeding/kg gain was reduced when CFM was substituted
by acacia in ration of Damascus kids.
Carcass characteristics: The effects of diets on carcass and organ weights
are shown in Table 7. The averages of fasting weight; hot
carcass and dressing out percentage of ration 3 were higher than those of the
other rations, with no significant differences among them. The dressing percentages
(including tail fat) were 52.51 and 50.28% in lambs fed experimental rations
3 and 2, respectively when compared with lambs of the control group (48.28%)
but with no significant differences. These results agree with those of Momani
Shaker et al. (1997, 2002), Allam
et al. (2005) and Sanon et al. (2008b).
Dressing percentage in cold condition in the ranged from 50.13 to 52.43% for
fat tailed Awassi ram lambs Momani Shaker et al.
(2002). Also, Allam et al. (2005) reported
that the average slaughter weight, average carcass weight and average dressing
percentage were 42 kg, 21.57 kg and 51.35%, respectively for Saedi lambs. Mohamed
et al. (2005) reported that the dressing percentage of lambs ranged
from 49.44 to 51.67. On the other hand, Abdel Monein (2009)
reported that the dressing percentage were 56.2, 53.3 and 53.10 for Ossimi,
Barki and Rahmani ram lambs under intensive productions, El-Asheeri
et al. (2006) found that the dressing percentage was approximately
similar for Rahmani (49.1%) and Ossimi (49.8%) ram lambs.
The highest dressing percentage of carcass without tail fat was 48.28 and 46.04%
in carcass of experimental ration 3 and 2 when compared with carcass of control
ration 43.89%. These results agree with the data of Yayneshet
et al. (2008), who found that the dressing percent for male goats
increased with increased level of acacia etbic fruit supplement (1.5% on body
||Effect of feeding the experimental diets on carcass and organ
weight of lambs
B: Means bearing different superscripts within the same row are
significantly different at p>0.01, a, b: Means bearing different
superscripts within the same row are significantly different at p>0.05|
Similar, results were reported by Momani Shaker et al.
(2003) who found that the average dressing percentage of Awassi ram lambs
The head and legs weights did not show remarkable change among groups. Also, other offal's and organs (liver, kidneys, heart and lungs and testes) did not record any differences among rations.
Data in Table 7 showed that the internal fat and kidney fat were significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.01) the highest, being 1.59 and 0.53 kg, respectively in carcass of lambs fed experimental ration 3. The corresponding values for lambs fed rations 2 and 1 were 0.81, 0.242, 0.507 and 0.188 kg.
In general all organs appeared normal with no apparent lesions. It appeared therefore that of acacia in the ration had no deleterious effects on carcass quality.
Blood serum parameters: Table 8 shows the blood serum parameters in terms of total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, cholesterol, total lipids, glucose, creatinine, SGOT and SGPT concentrations when growing lambs were fed the experimental.
No significant (p>0.05) changes concerning these metabolites were found.
The values of total protein and their fractions, urea, cholesterol, glucose,
creatinine, SGOT and SGPT concentrations were within the normal range reported
by Mousa and Shetaewi (2002) on ewes fed acacia.
Gabr et al. (2005) and Al-Shanti
and Abo Omar (2005) reported similar results with growing lambs.
||Some blood serum constituents of lambs fed the experimental
difference among the three rations were not significant (p>0.05)|
Generally, the values obtained of blood constituents indicated normal physiological
and healthy status of lambs fed both rations containing acacia.
This study indicates that feeding Awassi lambs on diets including up to 40%
of the TDN requirements from acacia did counter act their feedlot performance.
Therefore, the use of acacia tested in the current experiment can be
recommended for use by local farmers for lamb production under North Sinai conditions
which should reduce their cost of meat production. During the dry season acacia
remain green and maintain a relatively high crude protein content and is commonly
used as protein and energy supplements for small ruminants during this period.
This is supported by the findings of Youssef et al.
(2003) who reported that acacia saligna shrubs showed a great potentiality
as fodder for growing sheep under arid and saline conditions of Egyptian desert.
1: Abd-Alla, O.A.M., A.M. Abdel-Samee and S.A.I. El-Adawy, 2007. Effect of Acacia saligna and olive pulp on growth, biochemical and hormonal status in lambs under heat stress in Sinai province. SCVMJ, XII: 129-138.
2: Abdel-Moneim, A.Y., 2009. Body and carcass characteristics of Ossimi, Barki and Rahmani ram lambs raised under intensive production system. Egypt. J. Sheep Goat Sci., 4: 1-16.
Direct Link |
3: Abdel-Samee, A.M., O.A.M. Abd-Alla and S.A.I. El-Adawy, 2008. Nutritional treatments for alleviation of heat stress in Awassi sheep using acacia and olive pulp in subtropics. Egypt. J. Comp. Path Clinic. Path., 21: 466-477.
4: Abou El-Nasr, H.M., H.M. Kandil, D.M. El-Kerdawy, H.S. Khamis and H.S. El-Shaer, 1996. Value of processed salt brush and acacia shrubs as sheep fodders under the arid conditions of Egypt. Small Ruminant Res., 24: 15-20.
5: Allam, S.M., F.F. Abou-Ammou, M.S. Farghaly and A.A. Othman, 2005. Effect of some natural antioxidants on lambs performance. Carcass characteristics of lambs fed partial full fat soybean with natural additives. Egypt. J. Nutr. Feeds, 8: 275-283.
6: Al-Shanti, H.A. and J.M. Abo-Omar, 2005. Effect of adding carnation residue in diets on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and some blood parameters of growing Awassi lambs. Egypt. J. Nutr. Feeds, 8: 461-468.
7: AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington DC., USA
8: Barry, T.N., T.R. Manley and S.J. Duncan, 1986. The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pedunculatus for sheep. 4. Sites of carbohydrate and protein digestion as influenced by dietary reactive tannin concentration. Br. J. Nutr., 55: 123-137.
CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
9: Ben Salem, H., A. Nefzaoui, H. Abdouli and L. Ben Salem, 1995. Tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. leaves: Their effect on digestion by sheep fed alfalfa hay-based diet. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on the Nutrition of Herbivores, Sept. 11-15, Clemont, Ferrand, France, pp: 10-15
10: Ben Salem, H., A. Nefzaoui and L. Ben Salem, 2002. Nitrogen supplementation improve the nutritive value of opuntia Faces indica f. Inermis-based diets and sheep growth. Acta Hortic., 581: 317-321.
11: Ben Salem, H., A. Nefzaoui and L. Ben Salem, 2002. Supplementation of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage-based diets with barley or shrubs from arid areas (Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis and Atriplex nummularia L.) on growth and digestibility in lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 96: 15-30.
Direct Link |
12: Ben Salem, H., A. Nefzaoui, L. Ben-Salem, H. Ferchichi and J.L. Tisserand, 1997. Intake and digestion in sheep given fresh or air-dried Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Ann. Zootechnl., 46: 361-374.
13: Ben Salem, H., A. Nefzaoui, H.P.S. Makkar, H. Hochlef, I. Ben Salem and L. Ben Salem, 2005. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanopghylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 122: 59-77.
Direct Link |
14: Ben Salem, H., A. Nefzaoui, L. Ben Salem and J.L. Tisserand, 1999. Different means of administering polyethylene glycol to sheep: Effect on the nutritive value of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl foliage. Anim. Sci., 68: 809-818.
15: Salem, H.B., A. Nefzaoui, L.B. Salem and J.L. Tisserand, 1999. Intake, digestibility, urinary excretion of purine derivatives and growth by sheep given fresh, air-dried or polyethylene glycol-treated foliage of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 78: 297-311.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
16: Ben Salem, H., A. Nefzaoui, L. Ben Salem and J.L. Tisserand, 2000. Deactivation of condensed tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Foliage by polyethylene glycol in feed blocks: Effect on feed intake, diet digestibility, nitrogen balance, microbial synthesis and growth by sheep. Livestock Prod. Sci., 64: 51-60.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
17: Bhatta, R., U. Krishnamoorthy and F. Mohammed, 2000. Effect of feeding tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed husk as a source of tannin on dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients and production performance of crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 83: 67-74.
Direct Link |
18: Bhatta, R., U. Krishnamoorthy and F. Mohammed, 2001. Effect of feeding tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed husk tannins on in vitro rumen fermentation. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 90: 143-152.
Direct Link |
19: Bhatta, R., U. Krishnamoorthy and F. Mohammed, 2002. Effect of feeding tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed husk as a source of tannin on dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients and production performance of crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 83: 67-74.
20: Bhatta, R., S. Vaithiyanathan, N.P. Singh, A.K. Shinde and D.L. Verma, 2005. Effect of feeding tree leaves as supplements on the nutrient digestion and rumen fermentation pattern in sheep grazing on semi-arid range of India-1. Small Ruminant Res., 60: 273-280.
Direct Link |
21: CLAC., 2008. Arab republic of Egypt. Ministry of Agriculture and Reclamation Land. Agriculture Research Center. Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate.
22: Degen, A.A., K. Becker, H.P.S. Makkar and N.B. Borowy, 1995. Acacia saligna as a fodder tree for desert livestock and the interaction of its tannins with fiber fraction. J. Sci. Food Agric., 68: 65-71.
23: Degen, A.A., A. Blanke, K. Becker, M. Kam, R.W. Benjamin and H.P.S. Makkar, 1997. The nutritive value of Acacia saligna and Acacia salicina for goats and sheep. J. Anim. Sci., 64: 253-259.
24: Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
25: Ebong, C., 1995. Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Sesbania sesban as supplement to tef (Eragrostis tef) straw fed to sheep and goats. Small Ruminant Res., 18: 233-238.
26: El-Asheeri, A.K., Y.M. Hafez, M.A. Ibrahim, M.M. Ali and A.H. Barkawi, 2006. Growth performance of Rahmani and Ossimi Lamb breeds from birth to 12 months of age. Egypt. J. Anim. Prod., 43: 31-42.
27: El-Lakany, M.H., S. Mahmoud and A. Bishay, 1991. Agroforestry as a desert farming system; biomass production and feeding quality of Acacia saligna. Proceedings of the 2nd International Development Conference, (IDC`91), Cairo, Egypt, pp: 423-433
28: El-Shaer, H.M., N.I. Hassan, M. El-Ashry and A.M. El-Serafy, 1984. Seasonal variation in the nutritive value of the southern Sinai native range pastures. Proceedings of the Ist Egyptian British Conference on Animal and Poultry Production, Sept. 11-13, Zagazig, Egypt, pp: 60-60
29: El-Meccawi, S., M. Kam, A. Brosh and A.A. Degen, 2008. Heat production and energy balance of sheep and goats fed sole diets of Acacia saligna and Medicage sativa. Small Ruminant Res., 75: 199-203.
30: El-Waziry, A.M., 2007. Nutritive value assessment of ensiling or mixing Acacia and Atriplex using in vitro gas production technique. Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 3: 605-614.
Direct Link |
31: Gabr, A.A., A.E. Abdel-Khalek and M.S. El-Haisha, 2005. Response of growing Lambs to rations containing restaurant bread wastes. Egypt. J. Nutr. Feed, 8: 349-365.
32: Guirgis, R.A., 1988. Potential sheep and goat breeds in the Near East. Proceedings of the Workshop Small Ruminants Research and Development in the Near-East, November 2-4, 1988, Cairo, Egypt, pp: 69-76
33: Harb, M., 1994. The use of cereal grains in intensively Fattening Awassi lambs to high weights. Dirassat, 21: 67-75.
34: Igwebuike, J.U., F.O.I. Anugwa, A.O. Raji, N.G. Ehiobu and S.A. 1hkurior, 2008. Nutrient digestibility, Hematological and serum biochemical indices of rabbits fed graded levels of Acacia albida pods. ARPN J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 3: 33-40.
Direct Link |
35: Jones, W.T. and J.L. Mangan, 1977. Complex of the condensed tannins of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop) with fraction leaf Protein and with submaxillary mucoprotein and their reversal by PEG and PH. J. Sci. Food Agric., 28: 126-136.
36: MAFF, 1975. Fisheries and food. Energy allowances and feeding system for ruminants. Ministry of Agriculture Tech. Bulleling 33, London, UK.
37: Mahgoub, O., I.T. Kadim, M.I.H. Tageldin and W.S. Al-Marzooqi, 2008. Pathological Features in sheep feed rations containing phenols and condensed tannins. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 7: 1105-1109.
38: Makkar, H.P.S., 2003. Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds. Small Rumin. Res., 49: 241-256.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
39: Malechek, J.C. and F.D. Provenza, 1981. Feeding behavior and nutrition of goats on range lands. Int. Symp. Nutr. Syst. Goat Feed., 1: 411-428.
40: MAO, 1997. Scientific and Applied Feeding of Animals. 1st Edn., Agricultural Research Center, Animal Production Research Institute, Egypt
41: Min, B.R., T.N. Barry, G.T. Attwood and W.C. McNabb, 2003. The effect of condensed tannins on the nutrition and health of ruminants fed fresh temperate forages: A review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 106: 3-19.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
42: Mohamed, M.I., 1996. Studies on desert roughage on camel and small ruminants nutrition. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.
43: Mohamed, A.H., N.M. Abd El-Bar and K. Ibrahim, 2005. Influence of some medicinal plants supplementation 2-lambs performance, carcass properties and mutton meat quality. Egypt. J. Nutr. Feeds, 8: 445-460.
44: Shaker, M.M., A.Y. Abdullah, J. Blaha, R.T. Kridli, J. Blaha, I. Sada and R. Sovjak, 2002. Fattening performance and carcass Value of Awassi ram lambs, F1 crossbreds of Romanov X Awassi and Charollais X Awassi in Jordan. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 47: 429-438.
Direct Link |
45: Momani Shaker, M., A.Y. Abdullah, R.T. Kridli, J. Blaha and I. Sada, 2003. Influence of the nutrition on fattening and carcass characteristics of Awassi ram lambs. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 48: 466-474.
Direct Link |
46: Momani Shaker, M., I. Sada and F. Vohradsky, 1997. Analysis of parameters of fattening ability and carcass value of ram lambs of the charollais breed. Sci. Agric. Bohem., 28: 39-49.
47: Moujahed, N., H. Ben Salem and C. Kayouli, 2005. Effects of frequency of polyethylene glycol and protein supplementation on intake and digestion of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage fed to sheep and goats. Small Ruminant Res., 56: 65-73.
Direct Link |
48: Moujahed, N. and C. Kayouli, 2003. Supplementation of Acacia cyanophylla L. foliage-based diet with feed blocks and PEG 4000 on in vitro fermentation and performance in sheep. Proceedings of the 1st Joint Seminar of the FAO-CIHEAM Sheep and Goat Nutrition and Mountain and Mediterranean Pastures Sub-Networks, October 2-4, 2003, Granada, pp: 114-114
49: Moujahed, N., C. Kayouli, A. Thewis, Y. Beckers and S. Rezgui, 2000. Effects of multinutrient blocks and polyethylene glycol 4000 supplies on intake and digestion by sheep fed Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage-based diets. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 88: 219-238.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
50: Mousa, M.R.M. and H.M. El-Shabrawy, 2003. Growth performance of damascus kids as affected by feeding system under semi-arid conditions of North Sinai. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 28: 5224-5237.
51: Mousa, M.R.M. and M.M. Shetaewi, 2002. Milk yield and growth rate as influenced by feeding olive pulp and acacia shrubs for Awassi sheep under semi-arid conditions. Annales Agric. Sci. Moshtohor, 40: 843-856.
52: Mugweni, B.Z., M. Titteron, P.B. Maasdor and F. Gandiya, 2001. Effect of Mixed Cereal-Legume Silagas on Milk Production from Lactating Holstein Cows. In: Sutaining Livestock in Challenging Dry Season Environments: Strategies for Smallscale Livestock Farmer, Smith, T. and S.H. Godfery (Eds.). Natural Resources International Ltd., Aylesford, Kentuk, pp: 82-89
53: Ng`ambi, J.W., P.M. Nakalebe, D. Norris, M.S. Malatje and C.A. Mbajiorgu, 2009. Effects of dietary energy level and tanniferous Acacia karroo leaf meal level of supplementation at finisher stage on performance and carcass characteristics of ross 308 Broiler chickens in South Africa. Int. J. Poultry Sci., 8: 40-46.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
54: NRC., 1985. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals No. 6. Nutrient Requirements of Sheep. 6th Edn., National Academy of Science, Washington, DC., USA
55: Nyambati, E.M., L.E. Sollenberge, C.N. Karue and N.K.R. Musimba, 2006. The value of Acacia brevispica and Leucaena Leucoc ephala seed pods as dry season supplements for calves dry areas of Kenya. Afr. J. Agric. Res., 1: 118-124.
Direct Link |
56: Page, A.L., R.H. Miller and D.R. Keeney, 1982. Methods of Soil Analysis Part 2: Chemical and Microbiological Properties. 2nd Edn., ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI., USA., Pages: 1159
57: Reed, J.D., 1995. Nutritional toxicology of tannins and related polyphenols in forage legumes. J. Anim. Sci., 73: 1516-1528.
PubMed | Direct Link |
58: Reed, J.D., H. Solter and A. Woodward, 1990. Fodder trees and straw diets for sheep: Intake, growth, digestibility and the effects of phenolics on nitrogen utilization. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 30: 39-50.
59: Robins, C. and J.D. Brooker, 2005. The effects of Acacia aneura feeding on abomasal and intestinal structure and function in sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 121: 205-215.
Direct Link |
60: Salem, A.F.Z.M., 2005. Impact of season of harvest on in vitro gas production and dry matter degradability of Acacia saligna leaves with inoculum from three ruminant species. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 123: 67-79.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
61: Salem, A.F.Z.M., Y. Gohar, M.M. El-Adawy and M.Z.M. Salem, 2004. Growth inhibitory effect of some anti nutritional factors extracted from Acacia Saligna leaves on intestinal bacteria activity in sheep. Proc. 12th Scientific Conf. Egypt. Soc. Anim. Prod., 41: 283-300.
62: Sanon, H.O., C. Kabore-Zoungrana and I. Ledin, 2008. Growth and carcass characteristics of male Sahelian goats fed leaves or pods of Pterocarpus lucens or Acacia senegal. Livest. Sci., 117: 192-202.
Direct Link |
63: Sanon, H.O., C. Kabore-Zoungrana and I. Ledin, 2008. Nutritive value and voluntary feed intake by goats of three browse fodder species in the sahelian zone of West Africa. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 144: 97-110.
Direct Link |
64: Shetaewi, M.M., A.M. Abdel-Samee and E.A. Bakr, 2001. Reproductive performance and milk production of Damascus goats fed acacia shrubs or berseem clover hay in North Sinai, Egypt. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 33: 67-79.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
65: Sotohy, S.A., A.N. Sayed and M.M. Ahmed, 1997. Effect of tannin- rich plant (Acacia nilotica) on some nutritional and bacteriological parameters in goats. Dtsch Tierarzti Wochenschr, 104: 432-435.
66: Terril, T.H., G.B. Douglas, A.G. Foote, R.W. Purchas, G.E. Wilson and T.N. Barry, 1992. Effect of condensed tannin upon body growth, wool growth and rumen metabolism in sheep grazing sullav Hedysaran coronarium and perennial, pasture. J. Agric. Sci., 119: 256-274.
67: Van Thanh, D.T., N.T. Mui and I. Ledin, 2005. Tropical foliages: Effect of presentation method and species on intake by goats. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 118: 1-17.
68: Woodward, A. and J.D. Reed, 1997. Nitrogen metabolism of sheep and goats consuming Acacia brevispica and Sesbania sesban. J. Anim. Sci., 75: 1130-1139.
Direct Link |
69: Yayneshet, T., L.O. Eik and S.R. Moe, 2008. Feeding Acacia etbaica and Dichrostachys cinerea fruits to small holder goats in northern Ethiopia improves their performance during the dry season. Livestock Sci., 119: 31-41.
Direct Link |
70: Youssef, K.M., H.M. Abou El-Nasr and H. El-Shaer, 2003. Nutritional studies on sheep fed Acacia saligna shrubs treated with polyethylene glycol under arid conditions of Egypt. Egypt. J. Nutr. Feeds, 6: 821-831.
71: Yousef, M.I., 2005. Reproductive performance, blood testosterone, lipid peroxidation and seminal plasma biochemistry of rabbits as affected by feeding Acacia saligna under subtropical conditions. Food Chem. Toxicol., 43: 333-339.
Direct Link |
72: SAS., 1996. Statistical Analysis Systems. User's Guide. Release 8.5, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA