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Research Article
 

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Bt Cotton and Post Harvest Soil Fertility under Dry Farming Agriculture



V.D. Vora, K.D. Rakholiya, K.V. Rupapara, G.S. Sutaria and K.N. Akbari
 
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ABSTRACT

The present study pertains to the effect of Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) techniques on seed cotton yield, economics and soil physico-chemical properties under rainfed condition. The 10 different treatments combinations comprising of organic and inorganic fertilizers (NPK), gypsum, castor cake, compost and vermi-compost were studied. The experimental result showed that the significantly highest seed cotton yield and highest net return were recorded under treatment T9 (80 kg ha–1 + 10 t compost ha–1 +500 kg castor cake ha–1+ bio-fertilizer-Azotobacter+ PSM). The effect of different treatments on EC, organic carbon, available phosphorus and potash and sulphur status in the soil were found significant and the maximum availability of most of the micronutrients were recorded on account of application of compost at 10 t ha–1 + vermi compost at 1 t ha–1 + castor cake at 500 kg ha–1 + bio-fertilizer (Azotobacter+PSM). Bulk density of soil was found to reduced due to application of organic alone (i.e., compost at 10 t ha–1, compost at 10 t ha–1 +vermi compost at 1 t ha–1 + castor cake at 500 kg ha–1 + bio-fertilizer (Azotobacter+PSM) or integration of organic and inorganic sources of nutrient (N at 80 kg ha–1 +castor cake 500 at kg ha–1 and N at 80 kg ha–1 +compost at 10 t ha‾1 +castor cake at 500 kg ha–1 +bio-fertilizer.

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V.D. Vora, K.D. Rakholiya, K.V. Rupapara, G.S. Sutaria and K.N. Akbari, 2015. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Bt Cotton and Post Harvest Soil Fertility under Dry Farming Agriculture. Asian Journal of Agricultural Research, 9: 350-356.

DOI: 10.3923/ajar.2015.350.356

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2015.350.356
 
Received: July 13, 2015; Accepted: August 19, 2015; Published: September 21, 2015



INTRODUCTION

Cotton ‘the king of apparel fibers’ is an important cash crop and it supplies a major share of raw material for the textile industry and playing a key role in the economic and social affairs of the world (Anonymous, 2010; Hosamani et al., 2013). It is grown chiefly for its fibre which is used in the manufacture of cloths, making of threads and extraction of oil from cotton seed (Deshmukh et al., 2013). The cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), an important fibre crop, is grown throughout India under both rainfed and irrigated conditions on an area of 9.5 million ha (Mayee et al., 2008; Yang et al., 2014). India ranks first in area and production is far below the world average of over 600 kg ha–1 (Gadhiya et al., 2009).

The cultivation of cotton is increasing day by day in North Saurashtra Agro-climatic zone due to change in rainfall pattern, sustained price at higher level, demand for export and introduction of pest resistant variety. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are primary element to increase of agricultural crop production. Among these, nitrogen is one of the decisive as well as expensive inputs, which has quickest and most pronounced effect on plant growth. As a constituent of protoplasm, it is intimately involved in the process of photosynthesis and ultimately, in the dry matter production. The organic manures plays an important role in crop production (Usman et al., 2013). It acts on the soil physical properties, organic matter promotes formation of soil crumbs, thus makes the soil friable and the thereby facilitates the proper movement of air and water as well as absorption of rain water. It also adds plant nutrients to the soil during organic matter decomposition which act on the insoluble nutrients reserve in the soil and make them available biologically as it provides food for the beneficial soil microorganisms. At present acute problems of reddening of cotton are observed (Das et al., 2004). Keeping in view, the experiment was planned to study the effect of integrated nutrient management in Bt cotton for sustaining yield and soil fertility under dry farming conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The experiment was carried out on rainfed Bt cotton during kharif seasons of 2008-2013 at Dry Farming Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Targhadia (Dist: Rajkot, Gujarat, India). The physical characteristics of soil were measured viz. field capacity (34.52%), wilting point (17.26%), apparent specific gravity. (1.38%), infiltration rate (10.15 mm h–1), maximum WHC (59.05) and soil texture (clayey). The chemical characteristics of soil were also measured according to soil depth. The soil characteristics of depth (0-15 cm) had pH (1:25): 8, Electrical Conductivity (EC): 0.19 m mhos cm–1, Organic Carbon (OC): 0.493%, available P2O5: 20.3 kg ha–1 and available K2O: 346 kg ha–1. The soil characteristics of depth (15-30 cm) had pH (1:25): 8.15, Electrical Conductivity (EC): 0.19 m mhos cm–1, Organic Carbon (OC): 0.42%, Available P2O5: 8.1 kg ha–1 and available K2O: 346 kg ha–1. The experiment included total 10 treatments viz. T1 (Absolute control), T2 (10 t compost ha–1), T3 (80 kg N ha–1), T4 (80 kg N ha–1 + 40 kg P2O5 ha–1), T5 (80 kg N ha–1 +40 kg K2O ha–1), T6 (80 kg N ha–1 +40 kg P2O5 ha–1 +40 kg K2O ha–1), T7 (80 kg N ha–1 +40 kg P2O5 ha–1 +250 kg gypsum ha–1), T8 (80 kg N ha–1 + 500 kg castor cake ha–1), T9 [80 kg N ha–1 +10 t compost ha–1 + 500 kg castor cake ha–1 + bio-fertilizer (Azotobacter+PSM)] and T10 [10 t compost ha–1 +1 t vermi compost ha–1+500 kg castor cake ha–1+ bio-fertilizer (Azotobacter+PSM)], each replicates thrice in random block design with the plot size of (a) Gross: 5.4×4.5 m (b) Net: 3.6×2.7 m. The spacing and seed rate were 90×30 cm and 1.250 kg ha–1, respectively. The fertilizer was given as per treatments. The 80 kg N ha–1 was applied in three splits as 20 kg N ha–1 as basal, 40 kg N ha–1 as top dressing at 35-40 days and 20 kg N ha–1 as top dressing at 60-65 days after sowing.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Seed cotton yield: The result revealed that seed cotton yield was significantly affected due to different treatments during all the years and pooled results (Table 1 and 2). Significantly highest seed cotton yield was recorded under T9 (80 kg ha–1+ 10 t compost ha–1 +500 kg castor cake ha–1+bio-fertilizer (Azotobacter+PSM) in the individual year and also in pooled as compared to remaining treatments but it was at par with T8, T7, T6, T5, T4 and T3. The highest seed cotton yield resulted in treatment T9 (80 kg ha–1+10 t compost ha–1+500 kg castor cake ha–1 + bio-fertilizer (Azotobacter+PSM) on account of balance supply of nutrients through organic and inorganic sources which improve physical and chemical properties of soil. Hence, combined use of organic with inorganic fertilizers has considerable importance as to take remedial measures in fertility management and boosting the production.

Table 1: Rainfall distribution during experimentation period
Image for - Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Bt Cotton and Post Harvest Soil Fertility under Dry Farming Agriculture

Table 2: Effect of integrated nutrient management on seed cotton yield (kg ha–1)
Image for - Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Bt Cotton and Post Harvest Soil Fertility under Dry Farming Agriculture
CV: Coefficient of variation, M±S.E: Standard error of the mean

Table 3: Effect of integrated nutrient management on yield attributes of cotton
Image for - Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Bt Cotton and Post Harvest Soil Fertility under Dry Farming Agriculture
M: Mean, SE: Standard error, CV: Coefficient of variation, M±S.E: Standard error of the mean

Similar result were found by various researchers, demonstrated the positive outcomes of integrated nutrient management in many areas (Laekemariam and Gidago, 2012; Islam et al., 2014).

Growth parameters/yield attributes: The results (Table 3) revealed that the effect of integrated nutrient management on number of branches plant–1, number of balls plant–1 and plant height (cm) was found significant. The highest number of branches/plant, numbers of balls plant–1 and plant height (cm) were recorded under treatment T9. These happen because crop got nutrients and moisture for longer period of time due to of application nutrients through organic and inorganic sources. Sridevi and Ramakrishnan (2010) also found similar results in combination of NPK fertilizer and fungi. The plant population ha–1 was found non significant.

Post harvest soil fertility: The results of post harvest soil fertility are showing in Fig. 1 and Table 4. The results revealed that organic carbon (Fig. 1c), available phosphorus (Fig. 1c), potash (Fig. 1e) and sulphur status (Fig. 1e) in the soil were significantly differed under different treatments and varied from 0.457-0.575%, 20.2-39.5 kg ha–1, 354-402 kg ha–1and 12.1-20.6 ppm, respectively. The maximum and minimum availability of most of the nutrients were maintained under T10 and T1, respectively. In case of micronutrients, availability of Fe, Zn and Mn (Fig. 1d) were significantly differed under different treatments (Salem and El-Gizawy, 2012; Rathod et al., 2012). The highest availability was recorded with application of treatment T10 [10 t compost ha–1+1 t vermi compost ha–1+ 500 kg castor cake ha–1+ bio-fertilizer (Azotobacter+PSM)].

The results (Fig. 1a-b) revealed that bulk density, water holding capacity, downward movement of water and infiltration rate were differed significantly under different treatments under integrated of nutrient management. Bulk density of soil was found to reduced due to alone or integration organic and inorganic sources of nutrient. Similar, beneficial effect of integration of organic and inorganic sources of nutrient was also observed on water holding capacity, % expansion by weight, downward movement of water and infiltration rate.

Economics: Economic response of cotton to integrated fertilizer management was worked out on the basis of pooled result and presented in Table 5.

Image for - Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Bt Cotton and Post Harvest Soil Fertility under Dry Farming Agriculture
Fig. 1(a-e):
(a) Bulk density, (b) Water holding capacity, downward movement of water and infiltration rate, (c) Organic carbon and potash, (d) Available micronutrients and (e) Potash and sulphur

The data indicated that application of 80 kg N ha–1 +10 t compost ha–1 +500 kg castor cake ha–1 +bio-fertilizer (T9) gave the highest total income (Rs. 125300 ha–1) and net return (Rs. 98289 ha–1).

Table 4: Post harvest soil fertility status (2013)
Image for - Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Bt Cotton and Post Harvest Soil Fertility under Dry Farming Agriculture
EC: Electrical conductivity, OC: Organic carbon, DTPA: Diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid, M±S.E: Standard error of the mean, CV: Coefficient of variance

Table 5: Effect of integrated nutrient management on economics
Image for - Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Bt Cotton and Post Harvest Soil Fertility under Dry Farming Agriculture

CONCLUSION

From the above study it is concluded that in North Saurashtra Agro climatic zone (AES-VI) under rainfed condition Bt cotton should be fertilized with 80 kg N +10 t compost+500 kg castor cake+bio-fertilizer or 80 kg N+40 kg P2O5+250 kg gypsum ha–1 for obtaining higher yield as well as maximum net return and improving soil fertility.

REFERENCES

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