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Research Article
 

Effect of the Extract of Schanginia aegyptiaca on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)



Majeed K. Abbas and Ali Sabah Ali
 
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ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Schanginia aegyptiaca extract at different concentrations on seed germination and seedling growth of two cultivars of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Four extract concentrations; 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2%, in addition to control, were used. Germination percentage was strongly inhibited by all halophyte extract concentrations. Mean germination time was increased at the lower levels of the extract used but it decreased at the higher ones. The two cultivars did not differ from each other in germination rate but they differ in mean germination time, with the red cultivar has the lower MGT. The results show that as the percent of the halophyte extract increases, the germination index decreases. However, coefficient uniformity emergence (CUE) shows no significant differences at all extract concentrations used and at both cultivars. Root and shoot length and dry weight show significant reduction in proportional to increase in halophyte extract concentrations. It is concluded that Schanginia aegyptiaca extract has adverse effect on germination and seedling growth of roselle.

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  How to cite this article:

Majeed K. Abbas and Ali Sabah Ali, 2012. Effect of the Extract of Schanginia aegyptiaca on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Asian Journal of Agricultural Research, 6: 83-90.

DOI: 10.3923/ajar.2012.83.90

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2012.83.90
 
Received: January 11, 2012; Accepted: April 03, 2012; Published: May 15, 2012



INTRODUCTION

Germination is pivotal in plant life cycle and its completion sets in motion the growth of the seedling especially under unfavorable environments (Song et al., 2006; Millar et al., 2006). Seed germination begins when a seed uptakes water and is completed with the elongation and emergence of the radicle (Finch-Savage and Leubner-Metzger, 2006). This process is a very complex physiological event that is controlled by the genetic make-up of the seed and a range of developmental and external cues (Gusta et al., 2004). Schanginia aegyptiaca (Hasselq.) is common halophytic plants in lower Iraq and it is a well adopted to harsh environment conditions of many arid zones. It is among the commonest on salty ground and occupy the spaces between the bushes (Guest and Al-Rawi, 1966). It belongs to the family Chenopodiaceae. It grows in rather different plant communities and has been seen in various types of salt-marshes, along ditches and even as a weed in irrigated gardens and fields. It has been known that some halophytes have allelopathic potential which might have been caused either by fallen leaves or plant leachates or root exudates (Rice, 1984). Consequently, the release of allelochemicals into the soil have harmful effects on the crops in the ecosystem resulting in the reduction and delaying of germination, mortality of seedling and reduction in growth and yield (Ghafar et al., 2000). The allelopathic effects of some plants were studied including germination inhibition and seedling growth (Djurdjevic et al., 2004; Siddiqui et al., 2009; Dhole et al., 2011) and other growth parameters (Tobe et al., 2000; Turk and Tawaha, 2003; Rafique et al., 2003). It has been shown that the aqueous extracts obtained from some plants are rich in phenol compounds which inhibit the germination of seeds and cotyledons of different species of plants (Macias et al., 1993; Burhan and Shaukat, 2000; El-Darier, 2002; El-Refai and Moustafa, 2004; Khan et al., 2007). On the other hand, some investigators have shown that the negative effect of some halophytes extract on seed germination and seedling growth might be due to the existence of sodium ions (Zia and Khan, 2004). The decrease in germination due to the presence of salinity in the growth media would induce disturbance of metabolic process leading to increase in phenolic compounds (Ayaz et al., 2000). The objective of conducting this study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of Schanginia aegyptiaca extract on seed germination and seedling growth of two cultivars of roselle.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Plant material: Samples of halophyte plant; Schanginia aegyptiaca (Chenopodiaceae) was collected locally in the autumn of 2010 from Al-Nuriya region, Al-Qadisiyah Province, south of Iraq. Seeds of two cultivars of roselle, red and lined, were used for germination and seedling growth tests which was obtained locally too. Seeds were selected as healthy and uniform in size with initial moisture content of 11.5%.

Extraction: The whole aerial part of the Schanginia aegyptiaca was used. After washing, parts were air dried first for three days and then they were dried using an oven at 70°C for 72 hours. Samples were powdered by grinder. Then, 10 g of powder plant was added to 100 mL distilled water and stirred gently for 24 h by a shaker. The suspension was filtered twice by Whatman filter paper No. 2 to remove debris. After preliminary treatments, the test solution was diluted to obtain concentrations of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% while distilled water was used as a control treatment.

Germination tests: Seeds of roselle were surface-sterilized for 3 min with 5% sodium hypochlorite and then rinsed with distilled water and dried to eliminate fungal attack. Seed germination was performed in sterile plastic 9 mm diameter petri dishes. Twenty five seeds were germinated on filter paper soaked in 10 mL of aqueous leachates of different concentrations as mentioned above, while distilled water was used for control. The Petri dishes were kept at room temperature at 27°C. The filter papers were moistened daily using the aqueous extract. There were three replicates for each extract dilution. The number of germinated seeds was counted (rupture of seed coat and emergence of radicle) daily for seven days after which no further seed germination was occurred. Final germination percentages (FGT) were obtained at the end of the experiment. Mean germination time (MGT) was calculated as follows, according to Ellis and Roberts (1981):

Image for - Effect of the Extract of Schanginia aegyptiaca on Seed Germination 
  and Seedling Growth of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

where, n is the number of seeds which were emerged on day D and D is the number of days counted from the beginning of emergence.

Germination index (GI) was calculated as described in the Association of Official Seed Analysts (Anonymous, 1983) using the following formulae:

Image for - Effect of the Extract of Schanginia aegyptiaca on Seed Germination 
  and Seedling Growth of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Coefficient of uniformity of emergence (CUE) was calculated using the following formulae of Bewley and Black (1994):

Image for - Effect of the Extract of Schanginia aegyptiaca on Seed Germination 
  and Seedling Growth of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

where, t is the time in days, starting from day 0, the day of sowing and n is the number of seeds completing emergence on day t and t' is equal to GET.

The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The treatments means were compared by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test at 0.05 probability level (Steel and Torrie, 1984).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Germination percentage of roselle was strongly inhibited by all halophyte extract concentrations bioassayed (Table 1). The germination rate was more reduced by increasing the percent of the extract. The inhibition being strongest particularly at the higher concentrations of extract compare to control. The maximum germination rate was observed at the control treatment (98.66%). However, the two cultivars did not differ significantly from each other in the germination rate. The negative effect on germination might be due to the allelochemical activity of the halophyte used (Rice, 1984). This result agrees with previous ones obtained by other investigators which emphasized that extracts of some plants inhibit germination of other plants (Shaukat et al., 2003; Siddiqui et al., 2009; Dhole et al., 2011). Oudhia (1999) found that extracts of Calotropis gigantea weed has allelopathic effects on germination and growth of Lathyrus sativus. Also, Allolli and Narayanareddy (2000) observed that treatment with 10% aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus resulted in 41% lesser germination in cucumber.

Some investigators have attributed the adverse effect of some halophytes on seed germination due to the existence of sodium ions (Zia and Khan, 2004). It appears that a decrease in germination is related to salinity induced disturbance of metabolic process leading to increase in phenolic compounds (Ayaz et al., 2000; Pujol et al., 2000).

Table 1: Effect of percent extract of Schanginia aegyptiaca treatments on final germination percent (FGP) and mean germination time (MGT) of roselle
Image for - Effect of the Extract of Schanginia aegyptiaca on Seed Germination 
  and Seedling Growth of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Results of Ghoulam and Fares (2001) on sugar beet; Soltani et al. (2001) on chickpea; Abbad et al. (2004) on Atriplex halimus; Yuesf (2007) on doum and Heidari (2009), on canola (Brassica napus L.) emphasize the effect of salinity on germination. Interaction between cultivars and extract concentrations revealed that the maximum seed germination was obtained at 0.5% of the extract on lined cultivar and the lower percent was obtained at the same cultivar treated with 2% of the extract.

Mean germination time (MGT) was increased at the lower levels of the extract used but it decreased at the higher levels. The two cultivars differ significantly from each other in MGT, as the red cultivar has the lower MGT (1.95). It is known that MGT is related to the time (day) in which the radicle appeared, the lower the MGT, the rapid the germination is. These results are in agreement with the results of Bayuelo-Jimenez et al. (2002) who found that MGT of some species of Phaseolus increased in proportional to the increase in NaCl concentration. Also, Ghafar et al. (2000) reported that allelochemicals produced by sunflower reduce wheat seed germination and seedling growth.

For the interaction, the maximum MGT was obtained at the combination treatment of 1% of the extract on the lined cultivar (3.04) and the lower MGT was obtained at the combination treatment of 1.5% of the extract on red cultivar (1.63).

Results in Table 2 show that as the percent of the halophyte extract increases, the germination index decreases. The highest index was at the control (12.81) whilst the lowest was at 2% of the extract (6.35). The reduction in GI at the highest extract concentration treatment was more than 100% over the control. Red cultivar shows higher GI (10.92) than the lined cultivar (8.51). Coefficient Uniformity Emergence (CUE) shows no significant differences at all extract concentrations used and at both cultivars. Enhanced germination index and CUE appeared to be linked to the efficient mobilization and utilization of seed reserves (Lee and Kim, 2000; Basra et al., 2005), thereby leading to earlier commencement of germination events. It appears that this is not the case with our results. Maximum GI was at the combination treatment of 0.5% of the extract on red cultivar and the minimum GI was at the combination treatment of 2% of the extract on lined cultivar. The results indicated that all leaf extract treatments have resulted in retardation in root and shoot elongation. The average length of root and shoot of seedlings of both cultivars decreased in proportional to increasing levels of the extract used (Table 3). The magnitude of the decrease in length was more than 100% for both cultivars. Lined cultivar shows less root length in compare to red cultivar. However, the two cultivars show no significant differences in shoot length.

Table 2: Effect of percent extract of Schanginia aegyptiaca treatments on germination index (GI) and coefficient uniformity emergence (CUE) of roselle
Image for - Effect of the Extract of Schanginia aegyptiaca on Seed Germination 
  and Seedling Growth of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Table 3: Effect of percent extract of Schanginia aegyptiaca treatments on root and shoot length (cm) of roselle
Image for - Effect of the Extract of Schanginia aegyptiaca on Seed Germination 
  and Seedling Growth of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Table 4: Effect of percent extract of Schanginia aegyptiaca treatments on root and shoot dry weight (g) of seedlings of roselle
Image for - Effect of the Extract of Schanginia aegyptiaca on Seed Germination 
  and Seedling Growth of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

These results agree with the results of Oudhia (1999) who found that the extracts of C. gigantea inhibit radicle and plumule growth of Lathyrus sativus. Also, it was found that the aqueous extract of Conyza canadensis; Parthenium hysterophous L., or some cruciferous seeds had strong inhibitory effect on the growth of root and shoot development in some cultivated crops (Shaukat et al., 2003; El-Refai and Moustafa, 2004; Dhole et al., 2011). El-Darier and Youssef (2000) found a negative relationship among the different concentrations of alfalfa extract on plumule and radicle elongations of Lepidium sativum. However, it is worth to note that both root and shoot respond in the same manner to halophyte extract. These results disagree with other studies reporting that water extracts of allelopathic plants had more pronounced effects on radicle growth than on plumule growth (Turk and Tawaha, 2002, 2003). Interaction between the two factors reveals that the use of the highest concentration of the extract on Red cultivar gave the lowest values for both root and shoot length.

Increasing in concentrations of the halophyte extract caused significant reduction in root and shoot dry weights (Table 4). The reduction in dry weight at 2% of the extract over the control was 192.85% for root and 131.03% for shoot. Lined cultivar was more affected than red cultivar. This reduction in shoot and root dry weight may be due to the effect of salinity in the halophyte tissue. This result agrees with the result of Alam et al. (2004) and Razzaque et al. (2009) who found that seedling growth and roots and shoot total dry matter of rice were significantly decreased by the application of salinity. Akita and Cabuslay (1990) mentioned that by increasing salinity, plumule dry weight decreased which might be attributed to decrease in remobilization of the seed reserves from cotyledons to the embryonic axis. In addition, Lyu et al. (1990) stated that, a part of the direct effect of seed germination, some phenols can effect root elongation and accumulation of dry material in shoots and roots of cucumber. Also, El-Darier (2002), attributed the reduction in germination, shoot and root lengths and total dry weight of faba bean and maize using Eucalyptus leaf-litter water extract due to the presence of phenols and terpenoid compounds.

In conclusion, it is clear that the Schanginia aegyptiaca extract have an adverse effect on all parameters studied which emphasize the fact of its allelochemical potential. The highest the concentration used, the more the effect was.

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