Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Standardization of Sieve Size for Grading of Olitorius Jute Seeds



R. Jerlin, C. Menaka, K. Raja, K. Rama Moorthy and P. Tamilkumar
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out to find out the optimum sieve size for size grading of seeds of olitorius jute cv. JRO 524 and JRO 8432. Pre cleaned seeds of both the cultivars were size graded using BSS 12x12, BSS 14x14 and 16x16 wire mesh sieves. The jute cv. JRO 524 seeds graded with BSS 16x16 recorded high seed recovery (59.45%) than other sieves used with required germination (96%), seedling length (11.75 cm), drymatter production (7.5 mg/10 seedlings) and vigour index (1132). The same trend was also observed in JRO 8432. Hence, seeds of olitorius jute cv. JRO 524 and JRO 8432 could be size graded using BSS 16x16 sieves for more seed recovery with required seed quality standards.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

R. Jerlin, C. Menaka, K. Raja, K. Rama Moorthy and P. Tamilkumar, 2010. Standardization of Sieve Size for Grading of Olitorius Jute Seeds. Asian Journal of Agricultural Research, 4: 15-19.

DOI: 10.3923/ajar.2010.15.19

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2010.15.19
 

INTRODUCTION

For a successful crop production, the use of good quality seed is very essential, which increase the yield by 15-20%. The extent of this increase is directly proportional to the quality of seed that is being sown. The seeds of a seed lot may differ by size, weight and density due to production environment and cultivation practices. The objective of seed cleaning is to improve the purity by eliminating non seed material and foreign seed from the seed lot. Apart from seed cleaning, size grading can be useful to assure more uniform germination. Size is a widely accepted measure of seed quality and large seeds have high seeding survival, growth and establishment (Jerlin and Vadivelu, 2004). According to the resource allocation principle, increased investment in seed size results in decreased investments to other functions when resources are limited. The importance of seed size grading in improving physical and physiological quality of the seeds was reported by Sabir-Ahamed (1989) in soybean and Sokolowska et al. (1997) in carrot. Suresha et al. (2007) reported that in soap nut, the larger size seeds possessed higher percentage (98%) of germination. In canola and wheat, large seeds showed early germination and vigorous plants that are more likely to produce higher yields (CSIRO, 2005). Bicer (2009) stated that in chickpea effect of seed size on yield and 100 seed weight was positive. Stougaard and Xue (2005) opined that 18% of increased yield could be obtained by larger seeds in wheat. Tawaha and Turk (2004) in field pea noted that plants produced from heavier seeds had 100 seed weight that is 12% greater than those produced from lighter seeds. Menaka and Balamurugan (2008) proved that larger seeds of amaranthus possess higher physiological quality. With these backgrounds, present study was carried out to find out the optimum sieve size for grading of seeds of jute var JRO 529 and JRO 8432 and its effect on sowing quality of seeds.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The bulk seeds of olitorius Jute cv. JRO 524 and JRO 8432 harvested from the crop raised at the Seed Centre, TNAU, Coimbatore during 2007-08 constituted the materials for the present study. Pre cleaned seeds of both the cultivars were size graded using BSS 12x12, BSS 14x14 and 16x16 wire mesh sieves. The seeds retained in each of the sieves were weighed and expressed as respective percentage of total quantity of seeds processed. The retained seed of BSS 12x12, BSS 14x14 and BSS 16x16 sieves were denoted as 12x12 (R), 14x14 (R), 16x16 (R) and passed seeds from BSS 16x16 sieves denoted as 16x16 (P). The following determination were made on the above size grades as well as the control (precleaned but not size graded) viz., 100 seed weight (International Seed Testing Association, 1999) was determined by recording the mean of eight replications and expressed in gram. For germination percentage 100 seeds were germinated at the temperature of 25±2°C and 90±2% of relative humidity in four replications. After 5 days the seedlings were evaluated and the normal seedlings produced were counted and expressed in percent as by International Seed Testing Association (1999). From the germinated seedlings, root length (cm), shoot length (cm), dry matter production (mg/10 seedlings) were observed. The vigour index was calculated using the following formula as per Abdul-baki and Anderson (1973) and expressed in whole number:

Image for - Standardization of Sieve Size for Grading of Olitorius Jute Seeds

The results were subjected to analysis of variance and tested for significance according to Panse and Sukatme (1985). Data were analyzed using an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Means were separated on the basis of Least Significant Difference (LSD) only if F-test of ANOVA for treatments was significant at the 0.05 or 0.01 probability level. Percentage data were arcsine transformed before analysis.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The purpose of grading is to improve the homogeneity of the seed lot by removing seeds of the same species with low quality. During size grading, the small seeds are discarded which are believed to include empty, underdeveloped and low vigour seeds. The importance of seed size has been reported by Ramesh (1996) and Menaka and Balamurugan (2008). The seeds retained by BSS 16x16 sieve recorded more recovery in both the varieties 59.45 and 55.16%, respectively than those seeds retained by BSS 12x12 and BSS 14x14 sieves. Menaka and Balamurugan (2008) reported that in amaranthus cv CO5, the seeds retained in BSS 22x22 sieve recorded higher recovery (54%) than those seeds retained by BSS 18x18 and BSS 20x20 sieves. The 100 seed weight showed distinct and consistent decrease with reduction in seed size in both JRO 524 and JRO 8432 jute varieties. The seeds retained by BSS 12x12, 14x14 and 16x16 sieves recorded more weight than by BSS 16x16 passed seeds. Sabir-Ahamed (1989) in soybean, Jerlin (1998) in Pungam reported a positive association between size and weight of seeds.

Image for - Standardization of Sieve Size for Grading of Olitorius Jute Seeds
Fig. 1: Germination of size graded seeds using BSS 16x16 sieve in jute cv. 524

Table 1: Seed quality as influenced by size of seeds in jute variety JRO 524
Image for - Standardization of Sieve Size for Grading of Olitorius Jute Seeds

Table 2: Seed quality as influenced by size of seeds in jute variety JRO 8432
Image for - Standardization of Sieve Size for Grading of Olitorius Jute Seeds

The germination increased progressively (Fig. 1a, b) with increasing seed size. In Jute var. JRO 524, the larger seeds retained by BSS 12x12 sieve recorded the highest germination (97%) followed by the seeds retained by BSS 14x14 and 16x16 sieves and ranged between 95 and 94% (Table 1), respectively. Whereas the control seeds recorded 85% of germination. Similar trend was also observed in the Jute var. JRO 8432 (Table 2). This is in conformity with the research findings of Palanisamy and Karivaratharaju (1989) in tomato. The higher germination in large seeds may be due to the higher amount of food reserves and increased activity of redox-enzymes in the seeds helping in breaking down the complex food reserve into simple soluble sugars (Gurbanov and Berth, 1970).

The root length of different grade of seeds differed significantly. The present investigation revealed that the larger seed tends to produce longer roots. In JRO 524 the lengthiest root of 5.47 cm was recorded by the seeds retained in BSS 12x12 sieves followed by the seeds retained in BSS 14x14 and 16x16 sieves. The control seeds recorded the root length of 4.75 cm. In case of JRO 8432, the seeds retained by BSS 12x12, 14x14 and 16x16 recorded the lengthiest root of 5.61, 5.34 and 5.31 cm, respectively. Shoot length of the graded seeds also followed similar trend as that of root length in both varieties.

Image for - Standardization of Sieve Size for Grading of Olitorius Jute Seeds
Fig. 2: Vigour index of different size grade seeds in jute varieties. R: Retained seeds, P: Passed seeds

The dry matter production varied significantly between different size of seeds. In the case of JRO 524 jute variety those seedlings produced from the seeds retained in BSS 12x12, BSS 14x14 and BSS 16x16 sieves recorded maximum dry weight and it ranged between 7.2-8.0 mg/10 seedlings. Whereas ungraded bulk seeds (control) recorded 6.6 mg/10 seedlings of drymatter production. The seeds which passed through the BSS 16x16 sieve were found to be inferior in quality and recorded the drymatter production of 4.9 mg/10 seedlings. The similar results also observed in jute variety JRO 8432.

The size of the seeds significantly influenced the vigour of the seeds. The vigour of the seed is directly proportional to the size of the seeds (Fig. 2). In JRO 524, the vigour index value was maximum (1185) in seeds retained in BSS 12x12 sieve and it was 1116 and 1107 in the seeds retained by BSS 14x14 and BSS 16x16 sieves. In the case of control seeds it was 839 whereas in JRO 8432, the seeds retained by 12x12 sieves recorded the highest vigour index value of 1257, followed by the seeds retained in BSS 14x14 and BSS 16x16 which gave the vigour index value of 1146 and 1132, respectively. The seeds passed by BSS 16x16 sieve recorded the lowest vigour index value (622) when compared to control (820) and other size grades. This could be ascribed to the more mature embryo containing adequate nutrient reserves both contributing its physiological stamina or vigour factors residing in it (Pollack and Roos, 1972). The same result also reported by Anuradha et al. (2009) and they stated that larger seeds retained on 19/64 round perforated metal sieve recorded the maximum germination and seedling vigour in bengalgram. But in soybean the size had not significant influence on the seed quality and yield potential (Pedersen, 2006).

CONCLUSION

It is concluded that though, the seed quality was high in BSS 12x12 retained seeds, the seed recovery was very low. Since, the seeds graded with BSS 16x16 recorded high seed recovery with required seed quality, it may be recommended for grading of Olitorius jute seed.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are thankful to Dr.Sitangsu Sarkar, Principal Scientist and also the Director of Central Research Institute of Jute and Allied Fibres and ICAR for funding the scheme under Jute Technology Mission.

REFERENCES

1:  Abdul-Baki, A.A. and J.D. Anderson, 1973. Relationship between decarboxylation of glutamic acid and vigour in soybean seed. Crop Sci., 13: 227-232.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  Anuradha, R., P. Balamurugan, P. Srimathi and S. Sumathi, 2009. Influence of seed size on seed quality of chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.). Legume Res. Int. J., 32: 133-135.
Direct Link  |  

3:  CSIRO, 2005. Size does matter and it's in the genes. http://www.grdc.com.au/Media-Centre/Ground-Cover/Ground-Cover-Issue-61/Size-does-matter-and-its-in-the-genes.

4:  Gurbanov, Y.V. and Z.G. Berth, 1970. Effect of seed size and chemical composition on germination and seedling growth in triticale. Ind. J. Plant Physiol., 25: 427-431.

5:  International Seed Testing Association, 1999. International rules for seed testing. Seed Science and Technology, 27. Supplement, pp: 27-31.

6:  Jerlin, R. and K.K. Vadivelu, 2004. Effect of fertilizer application in nursery for elite seedling production of Pungam (Pongamia pinnata L. Picrre). J.Trop. Agric. Res. Extension.

7:  Jerlin, R., 1998. Seed technological studies in pungam (Pongamia pinnata L. Pierre). M.Sc. Thesis, TNAU, Coimbatore.

8:  Menaka, C. and P. Balamurugan, 2008. Seed grading techniques in Amaranthus cv. CO5. Plant Arch., 8: 729-731.
Direct Link  |  

9:  Palanisamy, V. and T.V. Karivaratharaju, 1989. Effect of humidity levels and periods of storage on seed quality in different genotypes of tomato. South Ind. Hortic., 38: 28-34.

10:  Panse, V.G. and P.V. Sukatme, 1985. In: Statistical Methods for Agricultural Workers. ICAR Publication, New Delhi, India pp: 327-340

11:  Pedersen, P., 2006. Soybean seed quality in 2006. http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/icm/2006/4-3/seedquality.html.

12:  Pollack, B.M. and E.E. Roos, 1972. Seed and Seedling Vigour. In: Seed Biology I, Kozlowaski, T.T. (Ed.). Academic Press, New York, USA., pp: 313-387

13:  Ramesh, D., 1996. Studies on enhancement of seed germination and vigour in carrot (Daucus carota L.) cv. Zino. M.Sc. Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.

14:  Sabir-Ahamed, A., 1989. Studies on the production of quality seed and storage in soybean (Glycine max (L.). Merrill). M.Sc. Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.

15:  Sokolowska, A., A. Sizafirowska and R. Janas, 1997. The effect of seed size on germination and field emergence of carrot. Seed Abstr., 21: 1833-1833.

16:  Stougaard, R.N. and Q. Xue, 2005. Quality versus quantity: Spring wheat seed size and seeding rate effects on Avena fatua interference, economic returns and economic thresholds. Weed Res., 45: 351-360.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Suresha, N.L., H.C. Balachandra and H. Shivanna, 2007. Effect of seed size on germination viability and seedling biomass in Sapindus emerginatus (Linn). Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 20: 326-327.

18:  Tawaha, A.M. and M.A. Turk, 2004. Field pea seeding management for semi-arid mediterranean conditions. J. Agron. Crop Sci., 190: 86-92.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

19:  Bicer, B.T., 2009. The effect of seed size on yield and yield components of chickpea and lentil. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 8: 1482-1487.
Direct Link  |  

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved