Standardization of Sieve Size for Grading of Olitorius Jute Seeds
K. Rama Moorthy
An investigation was carried out to find out the optimum sieve size for size grading of seeds of olitorius jute cv. JRO 524 and JRO 8432. Pre cleaned seeds of both the cultivars were size graded using BSS 12x12, BSS 14x14 and 16x16 wire mesh sieves. The jute cv. JRO 524 seeds graded with BSS 16x16 recorded high seed recovery (59.45%) than other sieves used with required germination (96%), seedling length (11.75 cm), drymatter production (7.5 mg/10 seedlings) and vigour index (1132). The same trend was also observed in JRO 8432. Hence, seeds of olitorius jute cv. JRO 524 and JRO 8432 could be size graded using BSS 16x16 sieves for more seed recovery with required seed quality standards.
For a successful crop production, the use of good quality seed is very essential,
which increase the yield by 15-20%. The extent of this increase is directly
proportional to the quality of seed that is being sown. The seeds of a seed
lot may differ by size, weight and density due to production environment and
cultivation practices. The objective of seed cleaning is to improve the purity
by eliminating non seed material and foreign seed from the seed lot. Apart from
seed cleaning, size grading can be useful to assure more uniform germination.
Size is a widely accepted measure of seed quality and large seeds have high
seeding survival, growth and establishment (Jerlin and Vadivelu,
2004). According to the resource allocation principle, increased investment
in seed size results in decreased investments to other functions when resources
are limited. The importance of seed size grading in improving physical and physiological
quality of the seeds was reported by Sabir-Ahamed (1989)
in soybean and Sokolowska et al. (1997) in carrot.
Suresha et al. (2007) reported that in soap nut,
the larger size seeds possessed higher percentage (98%) of germination. In canola
and wheat, large seeds showed early germination and vigorous plants that are
more likely to produce higher yields (CSIRO, 2005). Bicer
(2009) stated that in chickpea effect of seed size on yield and 100 seed
weight was positive. Stougaard and Xue (2005) opined
that 18% of increased yield could be obtained by larger seeds in wheat. Tawaha
and Turk (2004) in field pea noted that plants produced from heavier seeds
had 100 seed weight that is 12% greater than those produced from lighter seeds.
Menaka and Balamurugan (2008) proved that larger seeds
of amaranthus possess higher physiological quality. With these backgrounds,
present study was carried out to find out the optimum sieve size for grading
of seeds of jute var JRO 529 and JRO 8432 and its effect on sowing quality of
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The bulk seeds of olitorius Jute cv. JRO 524 and JRO 8432 harvested from the
crop raised at the Seed Centre, TNAU, Coimbatore during 2007-08 constituted
the materials for the present study. Pre cleaned seeds of both the cultivars
were size graded using BSS 12x12, BSS 14x14 and 16x16 wire mesh sieves. The
seeds retained in each of the sieves were weighed and expressed as respective
percentage of total quantity of seeds processed. The retained seed of BSS 12x12,
BSS 14x14 and BSS 16x16 sieves were denoted as 12x12 (R), 14x14 (R), 16x16 (R)
and passed seeds from BSS 16x16 sieves denoted as 16x16 (P). The following determination
were made on the above size grades as well as the control (precleaned but not
size graded) viz., 100 seed weight (International Seed Testing
Association, 1999) was determined by recording the mean of eight replications
and expressed in gram. For germination percentage 100 seeds were germinated
at the temperature of 25±2°C and 90±2% of relative humidity
in four replications. After 5 days the seedlings were evaluated and the normal
seedlings produced were counted and expressed in percent as by International
Seed Testing Association (1999). From the germinated seedlings, root length
(cm), shoot length (cm), dry matter production (mg/10 seedlings) were observed.
The vigour index was calculated using the following formula as per Abdul-baki
and Anderson (1973) and expressed in whole number:
The results were subjected to analysis of variance and tested for significance
according to Panse and Sukatme (1985). Data were analyzed
using an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Means were separated on the basis of
Least Significant Difference (LSD) only if F-test of ANOVA for treatments was
significant at the 0.05 or 0.01 probability level. Percentage data were arcsine
transformed before analysis.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The purpose of grading is to improve the homogeneity of the seed lot by removing
seeds of the same species with low quality. During size grading, the small seeds
are discarded which are believed to include empty, underdeveloped and low vigour
seeds. The importance of seed size has been reported by Ramesh
(1996) and Menaka and Balamurugan (2008). The seeds
retained by BSS 16x16 sieve recorded more recovery in both the varieties 59.45
and 55.16%, respectively than those seeds retained by BSS 12x12 and BSS 14x14
sieves. Menaka and Balamurugan (2008) reported that
in amaranthus cv CO5, the seeds retained in BSS 22x22 sieve recorded higher
recovery (54%) than those seeds retained by BSS 18x18 and BSS 20x20 sieves.
The 100 seed weight showed distinct and consistent decrease with reduction in
seed size in both JRO 524 and JRO 8432 jute varieties. The seeds retained by
BSS 12x12, 14x14 and 16x16 sieves recorded more weight than by BSS 16x16 passed
seeds. Sabir-Ahamed (1989) in soybean, Jerlin
(1998) in Pungam reported a positive association between size and weight
of size graded seeds using BSS 16x16 sieve in jute cv. 524|
quality as influenced by size of seeds in jute variety JRO 524|
Seed quality as influenced by size of seeds in jute variety
The germination increased progressively (Fig. 1a, b)
with increasing seed size. In Jute var. JRO 524, the larger seeds retained by
BSS 12x12 sieve recorded the highest germination (97%) followed by the seeds
retained by BSS 14x14 and 16x16 sieves and ranged between 95 and 94% (Table
1), respectively. Whereas the control seeds recorded 85% of germination.
Similar trend was also observed in the Jute var. JRO 8432 (Table
2). This is in conformity with the research findings of Palanisamy
and Karivaratharaju (1989) in tomato. The higher germination in large seeds
may be due to the higher amount of food reserves and increased activity of redox-enzymes
in the seeds helping in breaking down the complex food reserve into simple soluble
sugars (Gurbanov and Berth, 1970).
The root length of different grade of seeds differed significantly. The present investigation revealed that the larger seed tends to produce longer roots. In JRO 524 the lengthiest root of 5.47 cm was recorded by the seeds retained in BSS 12x12 sieves followed by the seeds retained in BSS 14x14 and 16x16 sieves. The control seeds recorded the root length of 4.75 cm. In case of JRO 8432, the seeds retained by BSS 12x12, 14x14 and 16x16 recorded the lengthiest root of 5.61, 5.34 and 5.31 cm, respectively. Shoot length of the graded seeds also followed similar trend as that of root length in both varieties.
index of different size grade seeds in jute varieties. R: Retained seeds,
P: Passed seeds|
The dry matter production varied significantly between different size of seeds. In the case of JRO 524 jute variety those seedlings produced from the seeds retained in BSS 12x12, BSS 14x14 and BSS 16x16 sieves recorded maximum dry weight and it ranged between 7.2-8.0 mg/10 seedlings. Whereas ungraded bulk seeds (control) recorded 6.6 mg/10 seedlings of drymatter production. The seeds which passed through the BSS 16x16 sieve were found to be inferior in quality and recorded the drymatter production of 4.9 mg/10 seedlings. The similar results also observed in jute variety JRO 8432.
The size of the seeds significantly influenced the vigour of the seeds. The
vigour of the seed is directly proportional to the size of the seeds (Fig.
2). In JRO 524, the vigour index value was maximum (1185) in seeds retained
in BSS 12x12 sieve and it was 1116 and 1107 in the seeds retained by BSS 14x14
and BSS 16x16 sieves. In the case of control seeds it was 839 whereas in JRO
8432, the seeds retained by 12x12 sieves recorded the highest vigour index value
of 1257, followed by the seeds retained in BSS 14x14 and BSS 16x16 which gave
the vigour index value of 1146 and 1132, respectively. The seeds passed by BSS
16x16 sieve recorded the lowest vigour index value (622) when compared to control
(820) and other size grades. This could be ascribed to the more mature embryo
containing adequate nutrient reserves both contributing its physiological stamina
or vigour factors residing in it (Pollack and Roos, 1972).
The same result also reported by Anuradha et al.
(2009) and they stated that larger seeds retained on 19/64 round perforated
metal sieve recorded the maximum germination and seedling vigour in bengalgram.
But in soybean the size had not significant influence on the seed quality and
yield potential (Pedersen, 2006).
It is concluded that though, the seed quality was high in BSS 12x12 retained seeds, the seed recovery was very low. Since, the seeds graded with BSS 16x16 recorded high seed recovery with required seed quality, it may be recommended for grading of Olitorius jute seed.
The authors are thankful to Dr.Sitangsu Sarkar, Principal Scientist and also the Director of Central Research Institute of Jute and Allied Fibres and ICAR for funding the scheme under Jute Technology Mission.
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