Micronutrients, B-Vitamins and Yeast in Relation to Increasing Flax Linum usitatissimum L.) Growth, Yield Productivity and Controlling Associated Weeds
The results of applying (post-em.) micronutrients (1.5
mg L-1), yeast (2.5, 5, 7.5 g), thiamine and riboflavin (25,
50, 75 mg/each) have shown great activity on increasing growth and yield
productivity of flax cv. Giza 5 with no advantage set of one upon another,
particularly when applied individually not in mixture. Yet, the combined
application of the two vitamins plus micronutrients was, to some extent,
much more effective. Applying riboflavin plus micronutrients precisely
at the moderate concentration of riboflavin (50 mg L-1) was
the best in this regard. The data recorded in that 13.33-189.74% increment
in growth and up to 63.23% in yield productivity. Hand weeded was almost
good, causing significant increments in crop growth and yield productivity
estimated by up to 163.15 and 92.25%, respectively. Significant results
were also reported on increasing oil yield percentage of all crop treatments.
On the opposite side of the activity, weeds growth were also affected
(a reduction effect was occurred) and the most significant results (76.19-85.71%
inhibition) were also obtained with applying riboflavin plus micronutrients
at 50+1.5 mg L-1. There is a strong thought to be believed
that increasing the competitive and/or the allelopathic ability of flax-treated
plants could be the real reason behind this authority. Increasing growth
vigor of flax plants representing in the plant height, fresh and dry weights
of shoot biomass is a strong evidence of the first assumption. The in
vitro investigation of flax-yielded seeds strengthens the second vision.
The results of that showed a significant decreasing in the seed germination
percentage (7.44-42.26%) and seedling root (16.41-54.07%) and shoot (10.58-57.64%)
growth of the two seeds selected for the investigation, including Portulaca
oleracea L. and Echinochloa crus-galli L. Upon the results
obtained and drawn conclusions, using such naturally sources of crop treatments
either alone or in combination is hardly required not only for the best
yield could be obtained, but also in term of continuous searching for
more friendly and economically sounder agro-chemicals. We may, therefore,
recommend riboflavin plus micronutrients at 50+1.5 mg L-1 as
the best treatment could be chosen for the best results could be obtained
over the two sides of action; combating weeds and increasing crop productivity.
to cite this article:
T.A. El-Shahawy, K.G. El-Rokiek, L.K. Balbaa and S.M. Abbas, 2008. Micronutrients, B-Vitamins and Yeast in Relation to Increasing Flax Linum usitatissimum L.) Growth, Yield Productivity and Controlling Associated Weeds. Asian Journal of Agricultural Research, 2: 1-14.
When we are talking about the dual purpose crops for producing fibers
and oil, flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is coming quickly
to mind after cotton as one of the most economic important crop all-over
the world. The history of flax is too old and no evidence is stronger
than those discovered in the Pharaonic caves where the plant and its products
were perfectly used in embalming human bodies of Pharaonic kings. From
that time on, flax has a special value within the Egyptian community for
its multifarious utilizations. It is implicated in several household and
industrial tasks such as making ropes, textile, spinning and wearing materials
as well as twines and extracting oils. The oil of the plant is an edible
for human feeding and also common in fabricating paints and different
types of varnishes. Nowadays, the benefits of flax have passed all expectations.
Regardless the well-known ordinary uses, the crop has more benefits in
producing feeding stuff for animals and poultry and moreover in producing
some kinds of compact wood, popular in name particle board. The crop is
also popular in several fine industries in which making electric insulations
and non-textile medical materials are the most important. More valuable
is that related to producing bank note papers. These all and more in reasons
are created a good basic for researchers and governments to work on enhancing
and developing such impressive plant. The selection of new varieties had
a great impact in this regard. Preserving plants from pest hazards was
an obligatory of all strategies of development and progress and the results
were magnificent. Subjugating the plant to the different programs of fertilization
had also a large stride of digging and research (El-Gazzar, 2000; El-Hariri
et al., 2002). Using growth regulators had also a great history of
examination (El-Hariri et al., 1998; El-Gazzar, 2006).
Weeds like many other pests are so dangerous. It causes crop growth and
hence its productivity reduced to a minimum. In a crop like what we have
(flax), the losses in yield were estimated in between 67 and 70%, to complete
crop failure as in many cases of heavy infestation (Al-Kaisi, 1987; Wall
and Smith, 2000). To be in or under the economic threshold of infestation
is then an obligatory to keep our crops safe and healthy. The way for
that to be achieved is multifarious. The agricultural, mechanical and
chemical methods for controlling weeds were killed in research and still
to be in a circus of interest. Searching for new friendly chemicals for
weed control is the new hope for the coming future. Great efforts are
given now to use natural products from plants and microbes as a new approach
of commercial herbicides. Great successes were obtained in some cases
and great failure was recorded in others (Lydon and Duke, 1989; Duke et
al., 2002). As a new prospect, allelopathy (the main source of natural
products with herbicidal potential) has also received all concern. As
a cheapest, effective and friendly tool, it is gained all respect of researcher`s
side. Allelopathy has been used in several agricultural practices such
as controlling weeds, intercroppings, nutrient recycling and low external-input
farming practices (Rizvi and Rizvi, 1987). Developing such ability within
our economic crops is a new point of research. Quintessential example
is that released by El-Shahawy et al. (2007), who showed great
influence of glutathione and ascorbic acid in their applying of marjoram
plants. The main conclusion of the author and his colleagues is that the
resultant plants have become more virulence and competitive than their
correspondence of untreated plants.
Growth regulators were always a matter of researchers` concern for solving
many agricultural problems related to inferior growth and less in productivity
due to environment tough and/or contaminating its factors including air,
water and soil. It composes hundreds of compounds differed in their properties
and physiological activities. This includes hormones, vitamins, micronutrients
and different others of miscellaneous compounds. They are well-known by
managing and regulating many of pivotal positions e.g., photosynthesis,
chlorophyll biosynthesis and enzymes activity (Samiullah et al.,
1988; Belanger et al., 1996; Gamal El-Din et al., 2004;
Gamal El-Din, 2005). They also have an amazing role of making plants tolerant
to any of undesirable conditions like lack of nutrients, salinity, drought,
pollution, frosting or any of other environmental stresses (Hausladen
and Alscher, 1993; Sayed and Gadallah, 2002). These benefits are all,
undoubtedly, pouring in the good of the plant. Increasing mass vegetative
growth, root growth and hence yield productivity is then expected upon
response. In growth regulators research, weeds growth and its direct or
indirect influence by such chemicals was always the absent side, although
of its extreme importance in the productivity of the crops.
The objective of the present study is, therefore, to study the effect
of certain vitamins (e.g., thiamin and riboflavin), yeast (in its active
form) and micronutrients on the growth and development of flax as it is
considered one of the most economic important crops in Egypt, beside making
a note on the effect of the associated weeds.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Two greenhouse experiments were conducted in this regard. The experiments
were taken place at the screening house of National Research Center, Egypt
during the two successive seasons 2003-2005. Flax (Linum usitatissimum
L. cv. Giza 5) seeds were obtained from Agricultural Research Center,
Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt. The seeds were sown simultaneously with
certain broad and narrow-leaved weeds in 30 cm diameter pottery pots (10
seeds/each). The weed seeds under investigation were lambsquarter, Chenopodium
album L. and oat, Avena fatua L. The two species were selected
as assay species because it is often found in the fields of flax growth.
The soil content of any others of weedy species was also considered. The
soil texture has been defined as a sandy loam soil of a sand representing
(39.8%), silt (28.4%) and clay of about (31.8%). The emerged plants of
flax have received all necessary care of watering and fertilization. Thiamine,
riboflavin and yeast foliar application treatments were prepared in three
concentrations; micronutrients were set in only one, that recommended
by the producing company (Table 1). All possible combinations
between the two vitamins and micronutrients were also considered. The
treatments were all applied as a post-emergence 30 days after sowing.
After three weeks of the treatment, all data and other observations on
flax and weeds growth were taken thoroughly. The data included several
measurements on the plant height (cm), fresh and dry weights (g) of shoot
biomass of flax and fresh and dry weights of weeds only. At harvest stage,
the data on yield (g/plant) and its components including number of fruiting
branches/plant, number of capsules/plant, weight of capsules/plant (g)
weight of 1000 seeds (g) and biological yield/plant (g) were estimated
of all grown plants. Certain other vegetative and chemical characteristics
were also considered including total length (cm), technical length (cm),
fruiting zone length (cm), straw yield/plant (g) and oil seed percentage.
Six pots were used for each treatment in a completely randomized design;
water was used as a control. The pots of each treatment were divided equally
between taken weed and crop samples.
||The wholly foliar application treatments
|*: Yeast has a special way of preparation including
dissolving with an equal amount of sucrose (50 g) in 500 mL of distilled
water and left to stand at room temperature (25°C) till complete
fermentation (12 h) to release growth substances (Methods established
by Skook and Miller, 1957)
The chemical analysis of the oil seed content in the treated and untreated
seeds was carried out by imbedding 1 g of all ground seeds in 50 mL of
petroleum ether (40-60°C) and then allowed to extract overnight using
Soxhlet apparatus (AOCS, 1964).
Screening Test for the Allelopathic Activity of Flax-Yielded Seeds
This experiment was carried out to measure any substantial changes
in the allelopathic activity of flax-yielded seeds in response to the
different foliar application treatments. Two seeds were examined for such
ability representing certain broad-(purslane, Portulaca oleracea
L.) and narrow-(barnyard-grass, Echinochloa crus-galli L.) leaved
weeds. The selection of the two assayed species was based on the sensitivity
to the natural phytotoxins not on their existence or nonexistence in flax
fields. Ten of each of flax and weed seeds were sown simultaneously in
12 cm glass Petri dishes with continuous supplying of distilled water
(3 mL at the beginning of the experiment followed by 1 mL/3 days) for
a total of 15 days. The seed germination (%) was estimated within the
first 5 days of the experiment; meanwhile the root and shoot length (cm)
were estimated 10 days later. Three replicates were used for each treatment
in a completely randomized design. An additional three replicates of distilled
water treatments were used as a control.
All data were subjected to analysis variation using ANOVA, followed by
the least significant differences test (LSD, p = 0.05) according to the
methods of Gomez and Gomez (1984). The biological activity of wholly crop
treatments on weeds and crop development was also estimated following
the equation of Itokawa et al. (1982).
The effect of applying the different treatments on growth and development of
flax is shown in Table 2. It was obvious that the different
treatments either applied alone or in combination, have significantly increased
the mass vegetative growth of the plant including the plant height, number of
branches/plant and fresh and dry weights of shoot biomass. Applying micronutrients
alone at 1.5 mg L-1 had a good impact in this regard, estimated in
respect to the control by 29.59 to 136.48%.
||Effect of different treatments and their combinations on the
growth and development of flax (Combined analysis of two successive seasons,
|NS: Not Significant
||The biological response of different treatments on increasing
growth and development of flax
Applying thiamine and riboflavin alone at the different concentrations was
less in efficiency particularly of increasing the plant height and fresh and
dry weights of shoot biomass. However, the best result could ever be obtained
with applying thiamine and riboflavin (alone) is that estimated on increasing
the number of branches/plant which was estimated by 61.53% increment over control
(Table 3). Using yeast (alone too) at the different concentrations
was also in superior which had effect in equal or more efficiency (up to 142.10%
increasing) of applying micronutrients or even the two vitamins under the study.
The best results could ever be obtained is that reported with the highest concentration
(7.5 g L-1) of it.
Applying the two vitamins in combination with micronutrients at the different
concentrations hasn`t offered a new of applying either of them separately.
However, using riboflavin plus micronutrients was far good on increasing
growth if compared with its correspondence of thiamine/micronutrients
mixed one. The effect on total length, technical length, fruiting zone
length and straw yield of the plant at harvest stage has also taken a
similar trend of all treatments and attributes mentioned before. Hand
weeded was of great efficiency as well. It caused crop growth to increase
by up to 163.15% in comparison with control.
The effect on associated weeds is shown in Table 4 and 5.
It was clear the significant effect of all treatments either applied alone or
in combination in reducing the growth of the different associated weeds including
broad and narrow-leaved species at both stages of growth, seedling and harvest
stages. The weed growth with applying micronutrients alone was reduced by 57.15
to 79.11% in comparison with control. The weed reduction in thiamine and riboflavin
foliar application was estimated in between 7.04 and 73.36%. Meanwhile, the
results recorded 47.62-78.32% with applying yeast at the different concentrations.
Overall, the activity was increased as the concentration increased. Applying
the two vitamins in combination with micronutrients was, to some extent, much
more effective than the individual application of either of them, particularly
when to be used at the moderate (50 mg L-1) and highest (75 mg) concentrations.
||Effect of different treatments and their combinations on the
growth and development of flax accompanying weeds. (Combined analysis of
two successive seasons, 2003-2005)
||The biological responses on inhibiting flax accompanying weeds
However, still to be using riboflavin plus micronutrients was much more efficient
(65.31-85.71% growth reduction) than in using thiamine plus micronutrients (28.57-55.83%);
irrespective of the rate of application. Hand weeded is to be the best overall,
entirely eradicated all grown weeds of all types and species.
The effect on yield and its components had a similar trend of increasing as
much as those of mass vegetative growth Table 6 and 7.
Micronutrients (in its single application) have caused crop yield per plants
to increase by 39.70% and its components by 22.12 to 86.06%.
||Effect of different treatments on yield and its components
including oil seed yield. (Combined analysis of two successive seasons,
||The biological responses on increasing yield and its components
including oil yield (%)
Applying riboflavin alone was far good than its similar of thiamine applied
alone, too. The crop yield and its components was increased by 29.41-35.29 and
16.44-79.93%, respectively for applying riboflavin in comparison with 7.35-17.64
and 2.61-67.68% for applying thiamine. However, seeming to be clear that the
best results be obtained are those of applying the moderate concentration (50
mg L-1) of the two compounds. Applying yeast alone was also good
in increasing yield and its components at either of the three concentrations
have been used. However, the best results be obtained of micro-organism solution
are those of applying the highest concentration (7.5 g L-1) of it.
The data estimated in this regard 45.58% increasing in crop yield and up to
89.89% in its components.
Applying thiamine and riboflavin in combination with micronutrients was
fluctuated in their response of increasing yield and its components. Riboflavin
in combination with micronutrients had the best results in this regard
than thiamine/micronutrients mixed one. Of that, the data recorded up
to 63.23% increasing in yield and 118.98% in its components for applying
riboflavin plus micronutrients at the different rates of concentration
compared to 25 and 66.15%, respectively for applying thiamine/micronutrients
mixed one. However, it is worthy to mention that the moderate (50+1.5
mg L-1) concentration in either two cases of applying the two
vitamins plus micronutrients is the best overall particularly when compared
with the two other mixed concentrations (lowest, 25+1.5 and highest, 75+1.5
mg, ones) either for increasing yield or its components. Hand weeded was
of equal or more efficiency of the others including single and combined
applications. It caused crop yield to increase by 55.88% and its components
by up to 95.25% in comparison with control.
On oil content of yielded seeds, the data recorded the best results with
applying the combined application treatments of riboflavin plus micronutrients
particularly at 50+1.5 mg L-1; that result was estimated by
47.7% increasing over control. Applying yeast alone at 7.5 g L-1
and hand weeded was the second in proficiency, scoring in respect to the
control 45.70 and 36.09% increasing, respectively.
Enhancing the allelopathic ability of flax plants received treatments
is the dominant action in Table 8. Applying the different
treatments of flax yielded seeds significantly affected the growth and
development of the two assayed species (a reduction effect was estimated),
including purslane and barnyard-grass weeds. The effect was more pronounced
on root and shoot growth rather than on the seed germination percentage.
No much significant differences were observed between the two species
with respect to certain reservation upon purslane seedlings which relatively
was more sensitive than its similar of barnyard-grass.
||The allelopathic effect of flax yielded seeds under the different
treatments of micronutrients, vitamins B1 and B2 and yeast applications
|G, germination; R, root length; S, shoot length; NS,
The situation did not differ too much between the single and combined
applications of their influencing the allelopathic ability of flax yielded
seeds. Applying, micronutrients alone has caused flax seeds in more virulence,
resulted in reducing seedling growth of both weedy types by up to 45.49%
in comparison with control. Flax seeds with foliar application by thiamine
and riboflavin alone have generally reduced growth by 16.21-54.07% and
seed germination percentage by 7.44-42.26%. Using yeast alone was in similar
position to thiamine and riboflavin foliar application. Applying thiamine
and riboflavin in combination with micronutrients was also far good, but
was not surpass any of their correspondence of the different individual
application treatments listed in the study. As a common feature of all
treatments, the efficiency increased as the concentration increased.
Drawn conclusions from the different treatments revealed of the reliability
of the micronutrients, riboflavin, thiamine and yeast treatments on increasing
growth and yield productivity of flax, our main target crop, either they applied
alone or in combination. The physiological and/or nutrient role of such compounds
and/or biological organs (e.g., yeast) entirely has a direct impact with such
findings all. The supported publications are numerous and can be reviewing in
Applying vitamins, recently, has the same importance beside growth regulators
for being used in enhancing growth and overcoming many of undesirable conditions
against growth. Researchers see vitamins as endemic growth factors influencing
many of pivotal positions, of which increasing the metabolic rate within the
plants is the most important all-over the others. Altering the redox system
is the main mechanism of which they are thought to be acting through (Chailakhyan,
1957; Kydrev, 1966). Vitamins could then be considered as a basic part of plant
growth regulators, which in a brief word functioned originally in regulating
growth and development processes of the plants via altering the endogenous plant
hormones level or by changing the capacity of the plant to respond to its natural
Regarding thiamine (vitamin B1), the data showed great activity of the
compound in enhancing the growth and productivity of the plant. Of the
many functions ascribed to thiamine, relatively few are well characterized.
It is clear, however, that thiamine is a major primary component for carbohydrates
and fats biosynthesis (Robinson, 1973; Bidwell, 1980). In addition to
its importance in maintenance growth and preserving activated status within
the plants (Kawasaki, 1992; Belanger et al., 1996). Certain other
modifications (e.g., increasing protein, amino acids, fixed and essential
oil components) were also reported with the different applications of
thiamine (Youssef and Talaat, 2003; Reda and Gamal El-Din, 2005). Zaki
and Tarraf (1999) found great activity of thiamine in oilseed sesame to
be considered in all similar crops as flax.
The physiological roles of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) and its position in
regulating growth are also well recognized. Riboflavin is a cofactor for
several enzymes in which isoalloxazine nucleus are transferable between
reduced and oxidized form (Ruhland et al., 1961). Kodendaramaiah
and Gopala (1985) found a strong correlation between B-vitamins and increasing
growth within the plants. The authors attributed such authority to the
motivating effect on the endogenous levels of the plant hormones including
cytokinins and gibberellins. The compound has also essential role in increasing
the photosynthetic rates within the plants. The role of vitamins B-complex
is also well documented (Samiullah et al., 1988). This includes
many activities of controlling plant photosynthesis, biosynthesis of chlorophyll,
germination and enzymes reaction (Chen and Chen, 1995; Montez-Lopez and
Rodriguez, 2001; Sayed and Gadallah, 2002). These facts are all strengthen
our findings regarding the reliability of thiamine and riboflavin on increasing
growth and yield productivity of flax.
Considerable attention also has been given to micronutrients and yeast
micro-organisms for increasing growth and yield productivity of the plants.
So far, the results obtained were coincided with those of many researchers.
Reviewing the research reports could explain many inquiries about such
Of micronutrients, subsequent experiments have proved the reliability
of such components on increasing growth and yield productivity of flax
including oil and fiber quality (Moawed, 2001; Mostafa and El-Deeb, 2003).
Micronutrients play a great part in plant growth, although of its small
needed by the plants. It is entering in many critical positions of managing
growth and development within the plants. Of those especially of our concern
(Fe, Mn and Zn), they are considered a basic part of several enzymes that
control redox reactions within the plants (Mengel and Kirkby, 1982). They
are also essential for plant metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, phosphate,
RNA, chlorophyll synthesis, nucleic acid biosynthesis and ribosome formation
(Bidwell, 1980; Marschner, 1995; Mohr and Schopfer, 1995). In addition
to their valuable role as precursors of several phytohormones.
On the other hand, literature is full of yeast researches. Its highly
composition of bioorganic matters/nutrients is the essence of all researches.
The chemical analysis of yeast revealed of affluent amounts of protein
(47.2%) and less in quantity of arginine (2.6%), glysin (2.6%), histidin
(1.4%), isolysine (2.9%), leucine (3.5%), lysine (3.8%), methionine (2.3%),
cystine (0.6%), phenyl-alanine (3%), tyrosine (2.1%), therionine (2.6%),
treptophan (0.5%) and vitamin B-complex in a percentage of about 2.9%
of the total (NRP, 1977). In addition to its valuable containing of carbohydrates,
sugars, fatty acids, hormones and macro-and micro-elements in a suitable
balance for achieving the best results of growth (Ahmed et al.,
1997; Khedr and Farid, 2000). Researchers, therefore, found yeast as an
attractive medium of bio-fertilization researches for increasing growth
and productivity of many of our economic crops (Fathy et al., 2000;
Ali, 2001; Wahba, 2002). With these, many of our findings regarding yeast
and micronutrients could then find a reasonable way for explanation which
in most cases came in agreement with those of the different researchers
dealing with this point.
Another direct reason that couldn`t be ignored on increasing flax growth
is that related to the great injuries have been found on the associated
weeds. As it is well-known, weeds are one of the most serious pests influencing
flax growth, reaching in some cases to complete crop failure as we know,
so eliminating such interacting factors are, undoubtedly, reflected on
increasing growth and yield productivity of our main target crop. The
mechanism of action is not definitely clear; as should be the physiological
effect on crop and weed is to be the same. On converse the truth, flax
growth was dramatically increased in while weeds were headed down on the
opposite side of the activity, a reduction influence was recorded. Increasing
the competitive ability of flax plants upon the others of weeds could
be one effective reason of what actually happened. The review has provided
the proof on this assumption, since many cases of vitamins, micronutrients
as well as yeast applications have caused significant increments in stem
length, total biomass, No. of branches, No. of leaves and total leaf area
of the different of treated plants (Modak et al., 1989; Naguib
and Khalil, 2002; Mostafa, 2004). These all, of course, are the factors
determined the competitive ability of one plant to be more virulence upon
Increasing the allelopathic ability of flax is another possible reason of action.
However, any conclusion drawn with allelopathy as a sole reason for the observed
inhibition would be unfair of the explanation. Willis (1985) listed a six-point
protocol of allelopathy to be done. Most of them are coming in close contact
with our findings. The one of great interest that could offer certain explanations
of our results is that related to ‘The observed pattern of inhibition
can not be explained solely by physical factors or other biotic factors, especially
competition or herbivory’. There is something should be like a chemical
interaction is involved beside such factors (Olofsdotter et al., 1997).
The observed pattern of inhibition is then better explained by a synergistic
action of several mechanism of interference including allelopathy, competition
and microbial interaction (may be). We agreed on this point as nature is too
dynamic to be solely explained by a mechanism of plant interference (Blum, 1999).
The present results provided the proof of this assumption, although there is
no research work has been done on microbial interfering. The consistency between
lab and greenhouse tests is a good finding strengthens this fact of the two
factors could be involved in the study, allelopathy and competition.
||The two most bioactive treatments, riboflavin plus micronutrients
and hand weeded, in regard to increasing seed yield (□) and oil seed
Researchers of allelopathy concern are always considering lab and field tests
for well separation between allelopathy and competition (Olofsdotter et al.,
1997; El-Shahawy et al., 2007). This explains why we are often going
through such two ways of examination.
Not too much significant differences were observed between the different
treatments of using vitamins, micronutrients and yeast either for controlling
weeds or enhancing crop productivity. Comparison made between the individual
applications of the different materials didn`t favor one upon another.
Yet, using the combined application treatments particularly those of riboflavin
plus micronutrients at 50+1.5 mg L-1 was, to a large extent,
much more better. It wasn`t only good in term of improving yield productivity,
but also had from the positive side on increasing oil yield content to
be considered in highly position of grading. In converse to the highest
concentration of such mixtures all, which headed down in most cases of
the study (Fig. 1). We may conclude that mixing them
in the right suitable balance is the main point of one mixture getting
superior upon another. There is adequate literature of using riboflavin
in aid of different adjuvant e.g., yeast and micronutrients and evidences
accumulated of the proficiency of such combinations all on increasing
growth and productivity of the plants (Rafaat and Balbaa, 2001; Naguib
and Khalil, 2002).
From the results obtained and drawn conclusions, we may in suggestion
of recommend riboflavin plus micronutrients at 50+1.5 mg L-1
as the best treatment for the best results could be obtained. Such treatment
of crop application is not only quit useful, as we think, in increasing
crop productivity or eliminating weeds growth, but also is highly appreciated
in term of conserving our health and environments safely from any hazards
of herbicidal uses.
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