Sustainable Energy Resources from Chicken
Biby T. Edwin,
S. Jusin Raj,
Sheeja S. Rajan,
R. Mini Priya,
The energy sector is one of the most important sectors in the nation. This sector has contributed to the development and economic well being of the country. But power generation is a difficult task without causing environment pollution. Non-renewable energies like coal, atomic energy and hydrothermal are the current scenario in power generation. Even, when fossil fuels burn they leave by-products that damage both the environment and health, causing misery for millions of people. Currently, science and technology establish novel methods on waste recycling, which provides the way to study the utilization of animal wastes for biogas with low level emission of carbon pollutants and energy production. It putforth some novel ideas on the production of electric energy from chicken litter and biodiesel production from its feathers which has high impact value on renewable bioresource management. This segment of the energy market is likely to grow rapidly and utilities will adapt to the opportunity with challenges. The future of day-lighting as a renewable energy resource applied in buildings is, therefore, very promising and eventually, it assures 100% energy production process with less expensive and helps in high environmental protection.
to cite this article:
Baby Joseph, P. Sankarganesh, Biby T. Edwin, S. Jusin Raj, M.V. Jeevitha, S.U. Ajisha, Sheeja S. Rajan, R. Mini Priya, D. Jini and Vrundha Nair, 2011. Sustainable Energy Resources from Chicken. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 4: 355-361.
Received: November 01, 2010;
Accepted: November 11, 2010;
Published: February 22, 2011
Energy sector is a vital sector for the economic and social development of
a country. The Central Electricity Authority has estimated that India would
need a total installed capacity of 212000 MW by 2012 (Eleventh National Power
Survey) i.e., the need for creating additional capacity of 1,00,000 MW by 2012.
But now we are facing lack of non-renewable resources like coal, petroleum reserves.
Renewable energy sources offer viable option to address the energy security
concerns of a country. There is a significant potential in India for the generation
of power from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro project, biomass
and solar energy. But we should keen about its adverse effect on environment
when used as renewable sources. Greater reliance on renewable energy sources
offers enormous economic, social and environmental benefits (Joseph
and Selvanayagam, 2001). Over the last four decades there has been rapid
growth in livestock production in India as shown in Fig. 1
and a rapid change in how animal products are consumed as in Fig.
Growth in livestock production in both developed and developing countries has
been led by poultry (Clare et al., 2007). This
results in the increase in the production of poultry wastes like chicken litter
|| Poultry meat production from 1990-2030 (projected)
||Poultry meat consumption in India. Source: Figure
1 and 2- FAOSTAT accessed on October 2007. Projections
to 2030 are from IFPRIs International Model for Policy Analysis of
Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPCT) model projections, October 2007
It may results in air pollution, soil pollution and pollution of water (Joseph
et al., 2010). This study is looking for energy production from pollutants
based on ecofriendly manner.
Poultry litter consists of bedding material mixed with manure, feathers, spilled
water and waste feed accumulated during the production cycle. The bedding material,
primarily have high carbon content biomass and this contributes to the energy
content of litter (Reardon et al., 2001). Materials
used include straw, sawdust, wood shavings, shredded paper and peanut or rice
hulls (Kelleher et al., 2002). Because of its
high plant nutrient levels, it is a valuable organic fertilizer providing plant
nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Applying poultry
litter residues to crop soil will increase organic matter and as a result the
soils water-holding capacity and improve soil tilth. However, one of the
main risks related to agricultural field is the imbalance of N and P in poultry
manure. These two nutrients in poultry litter are not in the same proportion
as needed by crops (Edwards and Daniel, 1992). A soil
analysis is important to determine the appropriate balance of N-P-K and Ca for
the desired crop and although poultry litter contains many of the valuable macronutrients
found in expensive commercial fertilizers, the NPK ratios may not be ideally
suited to the soil nutrient needs (Reardon et al.,
2001). Chemical and physiochemical characterization of poultry manure are
summarized in Table 1 (Guerra-Rodriguez
et al., 2001).
ENERGY GENERATION FROM POULTRY LITTER
Biogas production: The anaerobic digestion of organic wastes leads in
the generation of biogas, which contains of approximately 60% CH4
and 38% carbon dioxide (CO2) (Smith, 1980).
The remaining 2% is water vapor, NH3 and hydrogen sulfide. CH4
has a range of possible uses as an energy source, but it has primarily been
used by direct burning for heat or as fuel for internal combustion engines (Hashimoto
et al., 1980). Possible uses for the digester effluent include fertilizer
and feed supplement for animals, although the nutritive value of the effluent
is dependent on the digestion system and operation method (Lacey
et al., 1980) as well as the method of collection (Hashimoto
et al., 1980).
|| Chemical and physiochemical characterization of poultry manure.
|| Chicken waste to fuel conversion system
Studies of biogas generation by anaerobic digestion of a number of animal wastes,
including poultry waste, points that several variables influence biogas generation.
A number of researchers have described the method of digestion systems for poultry
manure (Converse et al., 1977, 1980;
Yang and Chan, 1977; Rockey et al.,
1978; Jantrania and White, 1985; Safley
et al., 1985; Mahadevaswamy and Venkataraman,
1986; Shih, 1988). Most of these systems were designed
to operate in the mesophilic range (approximately 35°C), as recommended
by Smith (1980) for on-farm systems (Fig.
Net energy produced during digestion has been reported to range from approximately
60% (Converse et al., 1980) to 75% (Morrison
et al., 1980) of gross output. While the theory of biogas generation
is well established, there have been several reports of operational difficulties
accompanying anaerobic digestion of poultry manure, which must be diluted for
hydraulic transport. The major problems include mechanical aspects such as mixing,
screening, pumping and plumbing (Sweeten, 1978), formation
of scum (Converse et al., 1977; Rockey
et al., 1978), grit accumulation (Safley et
al., 1985) and others. In addition, the equipment is not simple (Fontenot
et al., 1983) and the digesters must often be operated without skilled
technicians (Smith, 1980). These problems may influence
the economic feasibility of biogas generation. Barth and Hegg
(1979) state that biogas production is economically justifiable when the
digestion systems operate at design capacity, but found that none of eight plants
they visited was operating at capacity. The primary reason cited was operators'
lack of familiarity with the technology; when confronted with a problem, the
digestion system was simply shut down (Edwards and Daniel,
Mass burn combustion: Chicken litter is one of the wastes comes from
the Chicken poultry farms (Zaigham and Nayyer, 2005)
that constitute a complex source of organic nutritive ingredients with environmental
||Comparison of heat energy production of different animal wastes
with Chicken wastes(Junichi, 2005)
These wastes can be used to make the energy generation. Percentage of heat
energy of produced by the Laying hen and Broilers are more than other farm cattles
The most effective and successful conversion of poultry litter to energy involves
the use of mass burn combustion and, in particular, step-grate combustion systems
(Kelleher et al., 2002). The wastes can be burnt
in purpose-built incinerators. The heat can then be used to produce electricity,
or to provide heating for the buildings. Advanced technologies can be employed
to ensure that the waste gases emitted from these facilities will reduce the
In Britain, the Thetford Power Station in Norfolk utilizes the chicken litter
waste from local chicken farms. This usefully disposes of about 400,000 tonnes/year
of poultry litter to produce 38.5 MW of electricity (Zaigham
and Nayyer, 2005). Fibropower officially opened their poultry litter- fired
power plant, thought to be the first commercial plant of its type in the world,
at Eye in Suffolk UK in November 1993. The plant generates a gross output of
14 MWe. After in-house use of electricity, a net output of 12.5 MWe is supplied
to a 33 kV power line for distribution through local electricity networks. The
poultry litter itself comes from barn reared broiler hens and is a mixture of
wood shavings, straw and chicken droppings. The wood shavings and straw improves
the burning process and permits control of the moisture content. The high calcium
content of the litter produces a self-cleansing effect and reduces the need
to introduce calcium as a cleaning agent for gaseous emissions. The release
of odours from the storage facility is minimized by the use of negative pressure.
Fuel is fed into a boiler through a stepped-grate system, which ensures that
the material has a residence time of 2 sec at 850°C there by killing pathogens
and preventing the emission of odour. The system is operated by automatic cranes
that mix the Chicken litter and load to elevators. The fuel is then pumped through
the furnace by the step-grate system. Then, the Electrostatic precipitator used
to minimize the dust emissions (Staff, 2000).
Fluidised bed combustion: In fluidized bed combustion is devise contains
three main types of fluidised beds, bubbling, turbulent or circulating bed types.
All designs consist of a bed of sand in a refractory-lined chamber through which
primary combustion air is blown from below. Adjusting the airflow fluidises
the sand particles. Cyclones are placed within the freeboard to re-circulate
the sand to the bed. Annamalai et al. (1985)
investigated the direct combustion of poultry litter in a fluidised bed combustor.
The fluidised bed reactor facilitates the dispersion of incoming fuel, where
it is quickly heated to ignition temperature and provides sufficient residence
time in the reactor for complete combustion. Fluidised beds are compact and
have high heat-storage and heat transfer rates and thus allow faster ignition
of low combustible waste to recover the heat (Williams, 1999).
Using poultry litter as an energy resource (combined heat and power), combustion
studies of poultry litter on its own or mixed 1:1 with peat were carried out
in an atmospheric bubbling fluidised bed (Abelha et al.,
2002). The high moisture content of chicken litter provided uncertainty
as to whether combustion could be sustained on 100% chicken litter therefore,
a mixture with peat was considered to help improve combustion. The study found
that as long as the moisture content of chicken litter is kept below 25%, the
combustion will not need the addition of peat. Leachability tests were carried
out with the ashes collected to verify whether or not they could safely be used
in agricultural lands. The results showed little tendency to leach. These studies
illustrate that fluidised bed technology can be used for the direct combustion
of poultry litter. The minimization of moisture content at low cost is obviously
desirable and worthy of investigation for all combustion techniques. The manipulation
of diet to lower the moisture content of poultry litter may be an approach worth
considering. One such investigation was carried out by Svihus
et al. (1995). High moisture barley, which is sometimes included
in the feed given to broiler chickens in Norway, was stored under different
conditions to study the effect on the digestive tract and, consequently, the
moisture content of the poultry manure. The barley was preserved anaerobically
by ensiling using different additives, aerobically with propionic acid, or by
drying (Kelleher et al., 2002).
Chicken feather meal, a mix of processed chicken feathers, blood and innards,
is one of the nastiest by products of the poultry processing industry. A new
study from scientists at the University of Nevada indicates that the feather,
blood, innard might be better suited as a non-food based feedstock for biofuels.
The biodiesel process, which involves extracting fat from feather meal with
boiling water, has the potential to generate 153 million gallons of biofuel
in the US and 593 million gallons of biodiesel worldwide based on the amount
of poultry waste produced each year. According to the researchers, feather meal
biofuel is of comparable quality to other popular biofuel feed stocks (Biodiesel
on the Wing, 2009).
Poultry litter is a renewable energy resource. Displacement of fossil fuels used in heating, lighting and ventilation of poultry houses with gas and electricity of poultry litter from an on-farm litter-to-energy scheme have a great impact on environmental, societal and economic benefits. This farm-scale litter to energy scheme, would give poultry growers an alternative litter management with favorable economics.
The current utility grid mix in Arkansas has less than 2.7% non-hydroelectric
renewable energy and more than 78% of the grid mix is supplied by fossil energy.
Implementation of a farm scale litter-to-energy scheme in Missouri could result
in more than 80% increase in the renewable energy fraction of this state. The
total annual energy supplied to 9600 broiler houses and 2700 market turkey houses
in Arkansas was 253,000 MWhe (0.6% of the utility grid energy) and ~62 Million
gallons of LPG equivalent (assuming 5,000 gallons/house). Supplying all the
poultry houses with litter-derived renewable energy would result in a 20% growth
in (nonhydro) renewable energy forhe state and result in a conservation of 62
million gallons of fossil derived LPG fuel (Reardon et
al., 2001). Bitzer and Sims (1988) reported
that excessive application of poultry litter in cropping systems can result
in nitrate (NO3) contamination of groundwater. High levels of NO3
in drinking water can cause methaemoglobinaemia (blue baby syndrome), cancer
and respiratory illness in humans and fetal abortions in livestock (Stevenson,
1986). These all can be reduced by this application.
Chicken litter have a great capacity to pollute water, land and air and also helps
in the production of green house gases (CH4 and N2O) leading
to global warming (Monteny et al., 2006). So in
order to reduce these issues we should adopt some novel techniques which is ecofriendly.
Energy production from litter has great importance in this. By practicing this
technique we could reduce green house gas emission from chicken litter which will
give benefits to environment and the power generation will help us to maintain
economic stability and the reduction of odour will gave benefits to society too.
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