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Articles by Zhe-Ming Lu
Total Records ( 22 ) for Zhe-Ming Lu
  Lin-Lin Tang and Zhe-Ming Lu
  Multiple Description Coding (MDC) is one of the promising methods for robust transmission over non-prioritized and unpredictable networks. Based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and the Set Partition in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) compression method, this study proposes a new MDC framework. We make full use of the energy concentration of DCT and the similarity among the blocks composed of reordered DCT coefficients to apply the SPIHT algorithm to the transform-domain images composed of reordered DCT blocks. The purpose of using the reordered coefficients is to realize the energy redistribution. Redundancy is introduced by the full and partial encoding method which means the three descriptions, each using different bit rates to encode the information from three different orientations, i.e., vertical, horizontal and diagonal directions. For transmission we adopt three channels, each containing the hybrid information from three different directions. Experimental results demonstrate that present technique is effective and practical.
  Zhenfei Zhao , Hao Luo and Zhe-Ming Lu
  This study proposes an improved image secret sharing scheme based on the discrete fractional random transform. In this (r, n)-threshold prototype, the shadow size is reduced to 1/r of the secret image. In contrast, all shadows are of the same size as that of the secret image in the original scheme. Consequently, much storage space and transmission time is saved. Besides, our scheme can be naturally extended to multi-image secret sharing, i.e., r secret images can be encrypted in n shadows at a time. Meanwhile, the security is perfectly preserved due to the randomness of the discrete fractional random transform. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our scheme.
  Yu-Chun Wen , Fa-Xin Yu , Xiao-Lin Zhou and Zhe-Ming Lu
  This study presents a novel fire detection method based on vector quantization. Before online fire detection, we generate a fire codebook and a non-fire codebook by the LBG algorithm based on the training set that are selected from 10 video clips under different scenes and conditions. For encoding convenience, we merged the two codebooks into one codebook and sorted the codewords in the ascending order of their mean values for the future Equal-average Equal-variance Equal-norm Nearest Neighbor Search (EEENNS) based fast encoding process. In the online fire detection process, the video to be detected was first segmented into successive frames and we performed the VQ (Vector Quantization) encoding process to find fire-colored frames and recorded the grade of each fire-colored area. Then, the moving pixel detection process was performed on each fire-colored frame to find candidate fire frames. Finally, we verified whether a fire occurs or not and graded the fire by analyzing the change in the number of blocks belonging to each grade between consecutive frames. Experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and a 93.3% detection rate was obtained with 25 test video clips.
  Fa-Xin Yu , Jia-Rui Liu , Zheng-Liang Huang , Hao Luo and Zhe-Ming Lu
  With the development of astronautic techniques, the radiation effects on Integrated Circuits (ICs) have been cognized by people. Environments with high levels of ionizing radiation create special design challenges for ICs. To ensure the proper operation of such systems, manufacturers of integrated circuits and sensors intended for the military aerospace markets adopt various methods of radiation hardening. An overview of radiation hardening techniques for IC design is given in this study. First, seven major radiation damage sources, two fundamental damage mechanisms, five sorts of end-user effects and six types of single-event effects are introduced, followed by the brief introduction of radiation hardening techniques. Secondly, typical physical radiation hardening techniques are introduced. Thirdly, typical logical radiation hardening techniques are introduced. Fourthly, we propose our radiation hardening scheme for microwave power amplifier chip design. Here, a Radio-Frequency (RF) Power Amplifier (PA) is a sort of electronic amplifier employed to convert a low-power radio-frequency signal into a larger signal of significant power, typically for driving the antenna of a transmitter. Finally, we concluded the whole study.
  Yong Zhang , Zhe-Ming Lu and Dong-Ning Zhao
  This study presents a Hadamard transform based blind digital watermarking scheme whose extraction process doesn’t require the original image. In this scheme, we use a binary image as the original watermark. During the embedding process, the original cover image is first partitioned into non-overlapped 8x8 blocks and the Arnold transform is performed on the original watermark to make the scheme more robust. Secondly, the Hadamard transform is applied to the blocks. Thirdly, one bit information is embedded in each block by modifying the relationship of two coefficients in the transformed matrix. Finally, the inverse Hadamard transform is performed on the modified coefficient matrix to obtain the watermarked image. The experimental results show that the proposed watermarking method performs well in both security and robustness against general image processing operations and various kinds of attacks, while keeping the invisibility very well.
  Yong Zhang , Zhe-Ming Lu and Dong-Ning Zhao
  Although, many fragile video watermarking techniques have been proposed as an effective solution to content authentication problems, they cannot effectively distinguish between legal attacks and illegal attacks. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel semi-fragile video watermarking algorithm for H.264 video. Traditional fragile video watermarking methods often select the motion vectors as the embedding positions, while our scheme adopt the intra-prediction residuals after Integer DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) and quantization to be embedding locations. During the watermark embedding process, we modify the standard H.264 quantizer and we embed the watermark based on the dither modulation technique in order to extract the watermark blindly. In the watermark extraction process, this paper adopts a threshold to distinguish between illegal attacks and legal attacks performed on the video clip. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm and the proposed scheme can survive legal recompression operations and recognize illegal filtering operations.
  Mei-Lei Lv and Zhe-Ming Lu
  Perceptual hashing has been proved to be an effective solution for multimedia indexing, authentication or watermarking. Traditional perceptual hashing schemes are typical designed only for one purpose. This study presents a multipurpose image-hashing scheme based on Mean-Removed Vector Quantization (MRVQ) for both copyright protection and content authentication. The main idea is to perform MRVQ on the original image to yield two index tables, one for copyright protection and the other for content authentication. The original gray-level image is first divided into non-overlapping small blocks. The mean value for each block is calculated and quantized by the scalar quantizer to get a mean index and the quantized mean is removed from the image block to obtain the residual vector that is further quantized by the vector quantizer to obtain the residual index. All obtained mean indices constructed the mean index table and all obtained residual indices construct the residual index table. The obtained two index tables are then transformed into two intermediate binary images based on two different mapping functions, respectively. One mapping function is based on the variance of indices in a 3x3 neighborhood and the other mapping function is based on the number of indices larger than the mean of indices in a 3x3 neighborhood. Finally, the authentication mark and permuted copyright logo are respectively XOR-ed with the two intermediate binary images to obtain final authentication and protection fingerprints. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
  C.H. Wu , Yen Zheng , W.H. Ip , Zhe-Ming Lu , C.Y. Chan and K.L. Yung
  Due to the explosion of data sharing on the internet and the massive use of digital media, especially digital images, there is great interest by image owners in copyright protection. The genetic watermarking methods were previously shown to optimize the conflicting requirements of robustness and invisibility. However, the genetic watermarking methods have limitation in considering perceptually significant or non-significant regions in the selection process, so they do not always offer better imperceptibility. In addition, the computational resource required by Genetic Algorithm (GA) is high when comparing it to other heuristic methods. Thus, the current study is focused on an optimization-based Dither Modulation watermarking scheme for digital images in a more efficient and effective manner. The watermark imperceptibility and robustness are taken into consideration at the same time. A hill climbing algorithm, which has a simple computational process, is employed for optimizing these two conflicting requirements. Since, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) may not be an effective imperceptibility measure presented previous genetic watermarking methods, Watson’s perceptual model is employed to quantify the watermarked image distortion as it is consistent with Human Visual System (HVS). Several commonly used watermarking attacks are considered in the optimization process. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is robust and more time efficient than the previous GA based methods.
  Mei-Lei Lv and Zhe-Ming Lu
  This study presents a new multipurpose image hashing scheme based on Block Truncation Coding (BTC). Vector Quantization (VQ) and BTC are both block-based lossy image compression techniques for gray-level images, but BTC can maintain the mean and standard deviation after compression. In our scheme, the original gray-level image is first partitioned into non-overlapping small blocks. BTC is then performed on each block to yield two mean values, i.e., a lower mean and a higher mean, as well as a bit plane. The relationship between two mean values are utilized to generate the intermediate binary image for copyright protection, while the number of ‘1’s in the bit plane is compared with a threshold to generate the intermediate binary image for content authentication. Finally, the authentication mark and permuted copyright logo are respectively XOR-ed with the two intermediate binary images to obtain final authentication and protection fingerprints. Because BTC is a fast encoding scheme, our proposed method is therefore with lower complexity compared to VQ-based multipurpose image hashing schemes. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed scheme.
  Xiao-Lin Zhou , Fa-Xin Yu , Yu-Chun Wen and Zhe-Ming Lu
  With the rapid development of the Internet and extraordinary increase of bandwidth requirement, fiber based networks emerge and become more and more popular. The EPON (Ethernet Passive Optical Network) technology, which combines the mature Ethernet technology and high-bandwidth PON technology, is an ideal access method to achieve fiber based network service and appears to be the most widely-used access network. Thus, information reliability is becoming more and more important, making the protection of fiber based networks more and more necessary and crucial. Nowadays most EPONs are protected against failures by adopting redundant network equipments. This study proposes a novel protection method for EPON, which is more reliable and safer than existing schemes. This protection architecture scheme is able to provide protection for EPON and point out the exact failure reason for further physical recovery and repairing by the Network Management (NM) Server. Actual operations show that the proposed scheme can provide protection for at least three types of failures, i.e., the ONU link failure, the OLT link failure and the OLT failure.
  Hao Luo , Zhenfei Zhao and Zhe-Ming Lu
  This study proposed a scheme that incorporates secret sharing and data hiding techniques for block truncation coding compressed image transmission. The bitmap of each compressed block is encrypted and meanwhile two quantization levels are hidden in two share images. The secure transmission system still preserves the properties such as low complexity and acceptable reconstruction image quality of the standard block truncation coding compression. In addition, each share image is half size of the compressed version such that no extra burden is laid on available transmission resources. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our scheme.
  Cai-Hua Li , Zhe-Ming Lu and Yu-Xin Su
  Recently, more and more attention have been paid to reversible data hiding techniques for compressed images based on JPEG, JPEG2000, Vector Quantization (VQ) and Block Truncation Coding (BTC). Exiting data hiding schemes in the BTC domain modified the BTC encoding stage or BTC-compressed data according to the secret bits and their embedding capacity was not high and might reduce the image quality. This study introduced the histogram shifting technique to BTC-compressed mean tables to further improve the hiding capacity while maintaining the BTC-compressed image quality. First, the original image was encoded by the BTC technique to obtain the BTC-compressed data which could be represented by a high mean table, a low mean table and a bitplane sequence. Then, the proposed reversible data hiding scheme was performed on the BTC-compressed data. Present hiding scheme contained two main steps, one was the bitplane flipping step that hid secret bits by swapping the high mean and low mean, the other was histogram shifting of the resulting mean tables after swapping. Experimental results showed that our scheme outperformed two existing BTC-based reversible data hiding works, in terms of capacity and efficiency.
  Chong Li , Shi-Ze Guo , Zhe-Ming Lu and Yu-Long Qiao
  Complex network is a young and booming research area, which makes people know more about the characteristic of complex systems and get deeper acquaintanceship about nature. As randomness is a common characteristic of many real-life complex systems, people take a long time to research it and constructed many stochastic models. However, these models still cannot make people clear how the complex network is formed vividly step by step. Therefore, deterministic models have attracted considerable interests for their topological features can be analytically obtained. Swirl is a common natural phenomenon, which has attracted much attention in recent years. In this study, inspired by the swirl phenomenon, a deterministic model is first constructed to describe swirl-shaped networks and then both analytical solutions and experimental results are presented for the topological characteristics of the proposed model. The results demonstrate that the proposed model is a constant-degree centrosymmetric network with a high clustering coefficient.
  Zheng-Liang Huang , Shi-Ze Guo and Zhe-Ming Lu
  This study presents to construct special networks from images and then apply their topological properties to image retrieval. Each input color image is divided into three separate gray-level images in the RGB space. For each gray-level image, we view the 256 gray-levels as nodes and construct the Horizontal Gray-level Co-occurrence Network (HGCN) and Vertical Gray-level Co-occurrence Network (VGCN) by counting the number of horizontal and vertical occurrences for each possible gray-level pair. Based on the obtained six directed weighted networks HGCN_R/G/B and VGCN_R/G/B, we extract their topological features including in-degrees, out-degrees, in-strengths and out-strengths for image retrieval. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of our features to some existing features in terms of P-R curve.
  Long-Hua Ma , Yu Zhang , Zhe-Ming Lu and Hui Li
  Particle degradation, as a main limitation of particle filter, can be resolved by making use of common re-sampling method, but it always bring about the problem of sample dilution. The Immune Particle Swarm Optimization (IMPSO) was introduced into particle filter and a new kind of particle filter named IMPSO-based particle filter was proposed. In the IMPSO-based particle filter algorithm, particles are driven to the area with a higher posterior probability density and maintain big particle diversity at the same time. Simulation results show that IMPSO-based particle filter can eliminates the degeneracy phenomenon, avoid the sample dilution problem and guarantee the effectiveness.
  Xin-Feng Li , Shi-Ze Guo , Yu-Xin Su and Zhe-Ming Lu
  Recently, researchers have presented several deterministic small-world networks (DSWNs) which can be generated in a special iteration process without randomness. However, to the best of our knowledge, no one has studied the synchronizability of DSWNs up to now. In this study, we focus on the synchronizability of the edge iteration based deterministic small world network (EIB-DSWN) that was presented in 2006. Our testing results show that the EIB-DSWN has very poor synchronizability. To improve the synchronizability, we propose using the Modified Simulated Annealing (MSA) algorithm to optimize the EIB-DSWN. After MSA-based optimization, to check if the optimized network is still a kind of small-world network, we calculate its three main characteristics. It turns out that the MSA algorithm can significantly optimize the synchronizability of the EIB-DSWN under the premise of ensuring small world characteristics.
  Wei Chen , Hao Luo , Min Zhou , Zhe-Ming Lu , Yong-Heng Shang and Fa-Xin Yu
  In this study a level converter based on GaAs pHEMT technology for a MFC (Multifunctional Chip) is designed, simulated and tested for the application of T/R (Transmit/Receive) module for an X band phase array radar system. It has the advantages of smaller chip size, lower power consumption, higher efficiency, lower cost and high stability. The circuit design is based on a feedback and feed-forward network which compensates the chip process variations during the wafer fabrication and operation temperature changing. It results the designed chip has a high stability. Its supply voltage is -5 v with a shared bias generator, this allows reducing the power consumption compared with the other design at -7.5 v in the literature. The testing results have shown that the proposed novel design has met all the specifications given in this project.
  Dian-Hui Chu , Zhong-Jie Wang , Xiao-Fei Xu and Zhe-Ming Lu
  In service industries, a dominant morphology of service applications is a bi-lateral Resource Integration Service Pattern (called BIRIS), in which the broker is responsible for aggregating distributed service resources into a whole and providing it to customers. The innovation of such a service was based on the innovation of its Service Value Network (SVN) which determined the effectiveness and efficiency of value co-production and delivery to service participants to a large extent. This study presented a progressive service value network design scheme for bi-lateral service scenarios. It consisted of four steps. The first step was the initial SVN identification. The second step was the Virtualized Service Resource (VSR) identification and its lifecycle design. The third step was the importation of enablers and the final step was the selection of brokers. Detailed process for each step was elaborately described and analyzed.
  Long-Hua Ma , Ming Xu , Meng Shao and Zhe-Ming Lu
  Randomness and parameter selection in the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm had great influence on its performance. This study presented a formal convergence and spectral radius analysis of the standard PSO algorithm model, where some of the parameters were stochastic. Based on the analysis of the relationship of {ω, c1, c2}, a sufficient condition was given to guarantee that the PSO algorithm was mean-square convergent, using the stochastic process theory. Then, the mean spectral radius was constructed. According to the relationship between the spectral radius and the convergent speed, it was shown that, a small spectral radius lead to a faster convergent speed than a big one. By optimizing the mean spectral radius of the PSO algorithm in the mean-square convergent region, a minimum spectral radius and corresponding parameter selection guidelines were derived to guarantee that the PSO algorithm was mean-square convergent and had a fast convergent speed in the stochastic sense. Finally, one parameter selection {c1 = c2 = 2, ω = 0.4222} was proposed. with the parameter, the study gave examples whose performance on benchmark functions were superior to previously published results.
  Meng Shao , Zheng-Liang Huang , Long-Hua Ma , Zhe-Ming Lu and Xiao-Long Shi
  Security issues are increasingly obvious. An automated real-time online alarm system to ensure the safety of property and personality while considering numerous smart Terminal Equipments (TE) becomes a major challenge. At the same time, this is representative of novel and emerging alarm system for assisted living in the daily life. Two problems of current alarm system are identified. A smart Cyber-Physical Alarm System (CPAS) based approach is proposed to address these problems. A prototype system installed in a house to assist living has been running stably and shows quite promising performance.
  Hao-Xian Wang , Zhe-Ming Lu , Yong Zhang and Zhuo-Zhi Diao
  Super-resolution image reconstruction is an important digital image processing technique, which can improve the visual effects of images or serve as a pre-processing technique. Because of its impressive reconstruction results, sparse representation based super-resolution image reconstruction has become the focus of recent research. In order to alleviate the high computational complexity of the traditional sparse representation schemes, this study presents a fast sub-dictionary-based super-resolution reconstruction method. For each small input image block, a sub-dictionary is adaptively selected and thus the high-dimensional redundant dictionary-based sparse representation vector is replaced by a low-dimensional sub-dictionary based representation vector, the computational complexity is therefore reduced. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can enhance the visual effects of images with a significantly low computational complexity.
  Zheng-Liang Huang , Zhe-Ming Lu , Fa-Xin Yu and Yong Zhang
  Fast face detection is very essential for many applications such as video surveillance and human computer interface. This study presents a fast face detection method using the HSV-based skin color model under non-constrained scene conditions. First, a skin color model that combines the HSV color space with K-L transform-based skin color filter is designed. Then, skin regions in the input image are detected and face candidates based on the spatial arrangement of these skin patches are generated. Finally, the mouths in all of the candidate human face regions are verified by a mouth detector. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme is not only fast and efficient, but also robust to head rotation.
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